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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2023

Julia Solnier, Roland Gahler and Simon Wood

Background/Objectives: Protein-based meal replacements (MR) with viscous soluble fibre are known aids for weight loss. This study aims to compare the effects of new whey and vegan…

Abstract

Purpose

Background/Objectives: Protein-based meal replacements (MR) with viscous soluble fibre are known aids for weight loss. This study aims to compare the effects of new whey and vegan MR containing different amounts of PGX (PolyGlycopleX) on weight loss over 12 weeks, along with a calorie-restricted diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects/Methods: Sixty-eight healthy adults of both sexes (53 women; 15 men; average age 47.1 years; BMI 31 ± 7.1 kg/m2 and weight 85.05 ± 23.3 kg) were recruited. Participants consumed a whey or vegan MR twice/d (5–10 g/day PGX) with a low-energy diet (1,200 kcal/day), over 12 weeks. Weight, height, waist and hip circumference were recorded (four time periods).

Findings

Results: Forty-four participants completed the study. Results showed significant reductions in average body weight and at week 12, whey group was [−7.7 kg ± 0.9 (8.3%), p < 0.001] and vegan group was [−4.5 kg ± 0.8 (6.2%), p < 0.001)]. All participants (n = 44; BMI 27 to 33 kg/m2) achieved significant reductions in body measurements from baseline to week 12; p < 0.001. Conclusions: Supplementation of protein-based MR with PGX and a balanced, low-energy diet, appears to be an effective approach for short-term weight loss.

Research limitations/implications

As the authors were evaluating if the MR as a whole (i.e. with PGX) caused weight loss from baseline over the 12 weeks, no comparators, i.e. just the MR without PGX, were used. Formulation of these new MRs resulted in a whey product with 5 g PGX and a vegan product with 2.5 g PGX. Only 2.5 g PGX could be formulated with the vegan protein due to taste and viscosity limitations. Study participants were not randomized and no control groups (e.g. no MR or MR without PGX but with energy restricted diet) were used. Furthermore, it is not clear whether the sort of protein alone or the combination with a higher amount of PGX (whey with 5 g PGX/serving vs vegan with 2.5 g PGX/serving) has contributed to these significant greater weight-loss effects. This was something the authors were testing, i.e. could only 2.5 g PGX/serving have an effect on weight loss for a vegan MR. These limitations would be somethings to evaluate in a subsequent randomized controlled study. Hence, the results of this study may serve as a good starting point for further sophisticated randomized controlled trials that can demonstrate causality – which the authors acknowledge as one of the fundamental limitations of an observational study design. Participants tracked their calories but adherence and compliance were self-assessed and they were encouraged to keep their exercise routine consistent throughout the study. Hence, these are further limitations. No control group was used in this study to observe the effect of the dietary intervention and/or physical activity on weight loss alone. However, a goal of the authors was to keep this study as close to a real-life situation as possible, where people would not be doing any of these measurements, to see if with minimal supervision or intervention, people can still lose weight and alter their body composition. Furthermore, differences in gender and the corresponding weight loss effects in response to MR-protein-based treatments could be evaluated in follow-up studies.

Practical implications

This study indicates that the consumption of protein-based (animal, whey or plant, pea protein) MR incorporating the highly soluble viscous PGX is beneficial for weight loss when combined with a healthy-balanced, calorie-restricted diet. MRs at either 2.5 g or 5 g per serving (RealEasyTM with PGX) proved to be a highly effective as a short-term solution for weight loss. The observed results are encouraging, however, further long-term studies (i.e. randomized clinical trials RCT) are needed to confirm the clinical relevance. RCTs should focus on the individual effects of PGX and/or the different protein sources used in MRs, on weight loss and the maintenance of the reduced body weight, and should measure detailed blood parameters (lipid profiles, glucose etc.) as well as collect detailed exercise and food consumption diaries.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study comparing a whey versus vegan, (as pea) protein-based MR that is supplemented with fibre PGX; thus, this work adds information to the already existing literature on fibre (such as PGX) and MRs regarding their combined weight loss effects. The purpose of this study was to observe if the novel protein-based (either whey or vegan versions) MR RealEasyTM with PGX at 2.5 or 5 g in addition to a calorie-restricted diet (total of 1,200 kcal/day) would aid in weight loss in individuals over a 12-weeks period. Adding increasing amounts of whey protein and soluble fibre can help reduce subsequent ad libitum energy intake which could help adherence to energy restricted diets, but whether similar effects are seen with vegan protein is unclear – this study does aim to address this.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Kristine M. Kuhn, Jeroen Meijerink and Anne Keegan

This work examines the intersection between traditional human resource management and the novel employment arrangements of the expanding gig economy. While there is a substantial…

Abstract

This work examines the intersection between traditional human resource management and the novel employment arrangements of the expanding gig economy. While there is a substantial multidisciplinary literature on the digital platform labor phenomenon, it has been largely centered on the experiences of gig workers. As digital labor platforms continue to grow and specialize, more managers, executives, and human resource practitioners will need to make decisions about whether and how to utilize gig workers. Here the authors explore and interrogate the unique features of human resource management (HRM) activities in the context of digital labor platforms. The authors discuss challenges and opportunities regarding (1) HRM in organizations that outsource labor needs to external labor platforms, (2) HRM functions within digital labor platform firms, and (3) HRM policies and practices for organizations that develop their own spin-off digital labor platform. To foster a more nuanced understanding of work in the gig economy, the authors identify common themes across these contexts, highlight knowledge gaps, offer recommendations for future research, and outline pathways for collecting empirical data on HRM in the gig economy.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-430-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Barrie Green and Simon Wood

In contemporary forensic mental health and learning disability services effective care and risk management, which is safe for individuals and the public, can only be delivered by…

Abstract

In contemporary forensic mental health and learning disability services effective care and risk management, which is safe for individuals and the public, can only be delivered by drawing upon differing perspectives and interventions. In practice uni‐disciplinary training abounds, but the authors found a lack of formal training inherently constructed to be multidisciplinary. Therefore, a course was developed, in conjunction with a university partner, to meet this need. This modular course is flexible in nature, but is normally delivered over one semester leading to certification. In addition, there is the option of either essay or portfolio submission providing access to credits toward other academic awards. This programme of study, ‘Professional Practice in Secure Environments’ was recently cited as an example of good practice in From Values to Action, the CNO review of mental health nursing (NIMHE, 2006). Modules begin from a foundation of theory and relate it intimately to practice; students develop an understanding of multidisciplinary working by both training together and training in each others' conceptual frameworks. Participants to date include those from health, criminal justice, and social care arenas, and those with no previous higher study have submitted essays. Evaluations are positive and are used to refine delivery and content. The authors conclude that the course demystifies practice and academia, and provides access to both. This is an integral part of the training strategy, which is directed to meeting current and future service needs.Current and future developments and expansion of forensic mental health provision into new types of service will be less effective without a move away from traditional educational approaches. Services to meet the specific needs of groups such as secure long‐stay and personality disorders cannot be sustained effectively without a parallel development of new types of training.The strategic thinking behind this course, practical obstacles encountered, and solutions developed are described in this paper.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Games in Everyday Life: For Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-937-8

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2022

Efrida Basri, Resa Martha, Ratih Damayanti, Istie Rahayu, Wayan Darmawan and Philippe Gérardin

The surface characteristics of thermally and chemically modified wood, such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability, are important properties that…

74

Abstract

Purpose

The surface characteristics of thermally and chemically modified wood, such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability, are important properties that influence further manufacturing processes such as gluing and coating. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of the surface roughness of thermally and chemically modified teak wood on their SFE, wettability and bonding quality for water-based acrylic and solvent-based alkyd varnishes. In addition, durability against subterranean termites in the field of these modified teak woods was also investigated to give a valuable information for their further application.

Design/methodology/approach

The woods tested in this study were fast-growing teak woods that were prepared in untreated and treated with furfuryl alcohol (FA), glycerol maleic anhydride (GMA) and thermal. SFE values were calculated using the Rabel method. The wettability values were measured based on the contact angle between varnish liquids and wood surfaces using the sessile drop method, and the Shi and Gardner model model was used to evaluate the wettability of the varnishes on the wood surface. The bonding quality of the varnishes was measured using a cross-cut test based on ASTM 3359-17 standard. In addition, durability against subterranean termites in the field of these modified teak woods was also investigated according to ASTM D 1758-06.

Findings

The results showed that furfurylated and GMA-thermal 220°C improved the durability of teak wood against termites. The furfurylated teak wood had the roughest surface with an arithmetic average roughness (Ra) value of 15.65 µm before aging and 27.11 µm after aging. The GMA-thermal 220°C treated teak wood was the smoothest surface with Ra value of 6.44 µm before aging and 13.75 µm after aging. Untreated teak wood had the highest SFE value of 46.90 and 57.37 mJ/m2 before and after aging, respectively. The K values of untreated and treated teak wood increased owing to the aging treatment. The K values for the water-based acrylic varnish were lower than that of the solvent-based alkyd varnish. The untreated teak wood with the highest SFE produced the highest bonding quality (grades 4–5) for both acrylic and alkyd varnishes. The solvent-based alkyd varnish was more wettable and generated better bonding quality than the water-based acrylic varnish.

Originality/value

The originality of this research work is that it provides evaluation values of the durability and SFE. The SFE value can be used to quantitatively determine the wettability of paint liquids on the surface of wood and its varnish bonding quality.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Wayan Darmawan, Monica Br. Ginting, Asih Gayatri, Rumanintya L. Putri, Dumasari Lumongga and Aulia Hasanusi

The surface characteristics of wood such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability are important properties influencing further manufacturing processes such…

Abstract

Purpose

The surface characteristics of wood such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability are important properties influencing further manufacturing processes such as gluing and coating. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of surface roughness of ten tropical woods on their SFE, wettability and bonding quality for water-based acrylic and solvent-based alkyd varnishes.

Design/methodology/approach

The woods tested in this study were fast-growing teak, afrika, sungkai, mindi, merbau, durian, lamtoro, pulai, acacia and kempas. Wood surfaces were prepared in unsanded and sanded using an abrasive paper of 120 grits. SFE values were calculated based on the Rabel method. Wettability values were measured based on the contact angle between varnish liquids and wood surfaces using the sessile drop method, and the S/G model was used to evaluate the wettability of the varnishes on the woods surface. The bonding quality of the varnishes was measured using a cross-cut test based on the ASTM 3359-02 standard.

Findings

The results show that unsanded kempas wood had the roughest surface with a Ra value of 16.24 µm, whereas sanded lamtoro wood has the smoothest surface with a Ra value of 6.86 µm. The unsanded afrika wood had the highest SFE value of 53.61 mJ/m2, whereas sanded fast-growing teak had the lowest SFE value of 36.17 mJ/m2. Sanded merbau woods had the lowest K value of 0.022 for the water-based acrylic varnish, whereas unsanded afrika wood had the highest K value of 9.253 for the alkyd varnish. Afrika wood with the highest K values (highest wettability) for both acrylic and alkyd varnishes produced the highest bonding quality (grade 4-5). Compared to the water-based acrylic varnish, the solvent-based alkyd varnish was more wettable and generated better bonding quality.

Research limitations/implications

Improving the quality of fast-growing wood from plantation by painting could be considered to increase their use for higher value wood products.

Practical implications

Compared to water-based acrylic varnish, solvent-based alkyd varnish was more wettable and generated better bonding quality.

Originality/value

The originality of this research is to evaluate the values of surface free energy. SFE could be used to quantitatively determined the wettability of paints liquid in the surface of wood

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

K.C. Harrison

45

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2015

Eldar Maksymov

I synthesize the extant experimental literature examining auditor evaluation of others’ credibility published in six top accounting journals over the last three-and-a-half…

Abstract

I synthesize the extant experimental literature examining auditor evaluation of others’ credibility published in six top accounting journals over the last three-and-a-half decades. I adapt the original definition of credibility by Hovland, Janis, and Kelley (1953): the extent of perceiving someone as competent and trustworthy. Audit guidance requires auditors to consider credibility of management, internal auditors, and staff, yet the research literature on auditor evaluation of others’ credibility is fragmented and scarce, limiting our understanding of determinants and consequences of auditor evaluations. I develop a framework for analysis of research on auditor evaluation of others’ credibility and review extant literature by types of examined effects (determinants of credibility vs. consequences of credibility) and by examined credibility components (competence, trustworthiness, or both). Throughout the literature review I suggest areas for future research.

Details

Journal of Accounting Literature, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-4607

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Yuedong Li, Anna M. Rose, Jacob M. Rose and Fengchun Tang

This study examines the effects of incentive compensation and guanxi, a type of informal personal relationship between people, on the objectivity of Chinese internal auditors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effects of incentive compensation and guanxi, a type of informal personal relationship between people, on the objectivity of Chinese internal auditors. Given that the objectivity of internal auditors is essential for promoting financial reporting quality, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of internal audit functions, especially in emerging markets where the corporate governance mechanisms designed to promote objectivity are less mature.

Methodology/Approach

The research employs a 2 × 2 between participants experiment with 116 graduate accounting student participants.

Findings

After controlling for internal auditors’ ethicality, we find that close-guanxi between management and internal auditors and incentive compensation in the form of bonuses based upon meeting earnings targets both have the capacity to impair the objectivity of Chinese internal auditors. Participants were more tolerant of management’s attempts to manage earnings when there was close guanxi or bonus compensation. Further, compensation structure only influenced internal auditors’ support of management when guanxi was distant, but when there was close guanxi between internal auditors and management, internal auditors were unlikely to challenge management regardless of the compensation structure.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-635-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Elaine Yerby and Rebecca Page-Tickell

This chapter draws together the main themes and conclusions from the book to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of the impacts of the gig economy. The effectiveness of the…

Abstract

This chapter draws together the main themes and conclusions from the book to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of the impacts of the gig economy. The effectiveness of the dynamic structural model of the gig economy for structuring and understanding of this heterogenous and somewhat hidden economy is also addressed. This chapter identifies the primary locations in which boundaries are shifting and suggests the onward impact of this, as well as ways in which organisations may be able to ameliorate the effects. It focusses in particular on the implications for the human resource management community and key stakeholders in the wider economy, in relation to future of work debates. Reflections on the utility, benefits and opportunities for interdisciplinary research within the current constrain of journal rankings and higher education performance regimes are also explored. Finally, a number of potential avenues for further research to advance our understanding of, and engagement with this form of commerce, are identified.

Details

Conflict and Shifting Boundaries in the Gig Economy: An Interdisciplinary Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-604-9

Keywords

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