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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Shu-Hao Chang

Defining key artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is especially fundamental because AI applications involve the development of multiple technical fields and have the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Defining key artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is especially fundamental because AI applications involve the development of multiple technical fields and have the potential to generate numerous business opportunities in the future. However, most related studies have examined patent grants granted by or patent applications filed to major patent offices; few studies have employed the perspective of standard-essential patents (SEPs) from a holistic technical view. In addition, because few studies have explored the status signals of countries in relation to SEPs, the present study integrated “country” into the model and determined differences among countries in terms of their technological focus.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, through patent technological network analysis in various periods, the author not only observed the focus fields of AI-related SEPs but also examined temporal trends to determine technical development trends.

Findings

This study identified technologies that have been key players in the SEP network in recent years; these technologies were centered on electric digital data processing, recognition of data and transmission of digital information. Moreover, many of these technologies have been applied in areas such as management and commerce and radio navigation. Furthermore, the USA plays a crucial role in the global development of AI technical network.

Originality/value

This study constructs a technical network model to identify key technologies and trends that can serve as a reference for national research and development resource allocation.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Shu-Hao Chang and Hsin-Yuan Chang

The development of oil shale has become a popular technique in the energy industry in recent years. Although more research attention has been paid to this topic, there are…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of oil shale has become a popular technique in the energy industry in recent years. Although more research attention has been paid to this topic, there are scanty studies on patent portfolios. This study aims to explore this current mainstream technique and the patent portfolios of oil shale developers and investigates the major assignees at present to find the technical development trend of oil shale as a reference for government, policy makers, investors and industrial strategic development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies correspondence analysis and K-means clustering analysis on data mining and probes into the competitive techniques and strategic groups of the main enterprises in the oil shale industry. In addition, by approval dates, this study analyzes technical directions and the development trends of the current main oil shale enterprises.

Findings

The findings show differences in the enterprises regarding technical positions and patent portfolio strategies.

Originality/value

Differential positioning analysis suggests the relative technical advantages of the various enterprises and evaluates the competition among oil shale enterprises.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Shu-Hao Chang, Hsin-Yuan Chang and Chin-Yuan Fan

In the current knowledge-based economy era, national innovation ability is crucial. Abundant information can be obtained through patent analysis, and such information can…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current knowledge-based economy era, national innovation ability is crucial. Abundant information can be obtained through patent analysis, and such information can help in the formulation of policies and the making of R&D decisions; numerous researchers thus continue to make patent analyses. The quality of patents possessed by a country indicates the level of innovation and technology in the country, and this study aims to assess the quality of patents possessed by various countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors determined patent quality in various countries from the perspective of the reflective measurement model and used a novel method to construct a structural model of patent quality.

Findings

This study discovered that patent family, number of claims, number of international patent classifications, forward citations, nonpatent references and maintenance time are the structural factors that affect patent quality. Forward citations and the number of claims are particularly highly explained by patent quality, which is a latent construct.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide valuable information to the government and help in the assessment of patent quality in various countries. In addition, the assessment model proposed in this study can be used in the investigation of patent quality in academic research and can predict patent quality, which will be of interest to the government and industry.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Shu-Hao Chang and Chin-Yuan Fan

Innovation plays a pivotal role in a national economy and in the research and development of science and technology. Because the elements, capability and development…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation plays a pivotal role in a national economy and in the research and development of science and technology. Because the elements, capability and development direction of innovation in various countries are dissimilar, national innovative capacity also varies by country. However, previous studies have predominantly measured national innovative capacity through empirical studies by using a single index of innovation output, ignoring that the forms of innovation are heterogeneous across countries and failing to examine the influence exerted by various innovation models on economic development. Thus, the purpose of this study is to fill this gap by using scientific driving force and technological driving force to present the influence of national innovative capacities on economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used regression models to test the influence of different national innovative capacities (i.e. scientific and technological driving forces) on economic development and stability.

Findings

Using the data of 60 countries, this study determined that both scientific and technological driving forces influenced economic development; specifically, scientific driving force affected economic development through technological driving force. Moreover, both research paper quality and patent quality positively influenced economic stability, but patent quality was the mediator.

Originality/value

This study examined scientific output from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives to determine their influence on economic growth and particularly on economic stability, which lacks dedicated studies. This study strives to bridge this gap in the literature by asserting, from the concept of economic resilience, that high-quality science and technology can strengthen the stability of a country’s economy.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

Shu-Hao Chang

The application of laser and optical technologies in the industry is wide and extensive; the development and application of laser and optical technologies have become a…

Abstract

Purpose

The application of laser and optical technologies in the industry is wide and extensive; the development and application of laser and optical technologies have become a promising research domain. However, most existing studies have focused on the technical aspects or the application aspects; these studies have not highlighted the technology distribution and application development of laser and optical technologies from the big picture. Additionally, the manner in which the research and development (R&D) results of universities correspond to the needs of enterprises and industry has become a topic of concern for the public. Therefore, this study aims to adopt the academic patents as the basis for analysis and to construct a laser and optical technology network.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, in the current study, the researchers have analyzed relevant academic patent technology networks, using academic patents of laser and optical technologies as a basis of analysis.

Findings

The study results indicated that the key technologies mainly lie in nanostructures, metal-working, material analysis and semiconductor devices. Additionally, these technologies are mainly applied in industries, such as optics, medical technology, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and organic fine chemistry; this indicated that a large proportion of academia’s R&D outcomes are applied in these industries.

Originality/value

In this study, the researchers have constructed a technology network model to explore the technical development direction of laser and optical technologies; the results of the current study could serve as a reference for universities and industry for allocation of R&D resources.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Shu-Hao Chang

As the university–industry collaboration (UIC) gradually attracts the attention of various national governments, the number of studies on UIC has increased substantially…

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207

Abstract

Purpose

As the university–industry collaboration (UIC) gradually attracts the attention of various national governments, the number of studies on UIC has increased substantially. Past UIC studies have mostly focused on investigating the incentives and the motivation for UIC, forms of UIC and performance output of UIC. However, they have not actively identified the key technologies and technology distribution that are conductive to the commercialization of UIC outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to adopt the licensed UIC patents as the basis for analysis and to construct a patent licensing technology network.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focused on licensed patents because past studies have indicated that such patents usually have higher value. Moreover, patent licensing can be seen as the final step for the commercialization of UIC outcomes. Finally, past studies have rarely explored patent examiners’ views on key technologies. However, during the substantive examination of patents, patent examiners often use their background knowledge regarding the technology to include citations to other patented technologies that they consider valuable or indispensable. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the patents recognized and cited by patent examiners and conducted key technology identification.

Findings

The results indicated that past key technologies in UIC focused on surveying, medicine, biochemistry and electric digital data processing; these fields are crucial to the commercialization of key UIC technologies. Finally, the USA, Japan, Sweden and Germany play critical roles in the network of global university–industry cooperation and technology licensing.

Originality/value

Patent examiners’ perspectives were adopted to establish a patent licensing technology network, through which the key technologies that could promote UIC patent licensing were mined. This study can also serve as a reference for resource allocation in university research and development and for governments to promote new technologies.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Yee Ming Chen and Shu Hao Chang

The purpose of this paper is to present a model developed for emergent formation of multi‐unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into functional teams that cooperatively complete…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a model developed for emergent formation of multi‐unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into functional teams that cooperatively complete a mission in which they search for specific mobile targets and escape obstacles.

Design/methodology/approach

The design and development of distributed UAVs simulator use agent‐based platform employing a decentralized control which follows the flocking behavior‐based design philosophy.

Findings

The results of the simulation indicate that the emergent behavior‐based search procedure for UAVs is autonomous, effective and robust. It is especially well suited for emergent teams to quickly solve dynamic teaming and task allocation.

Practical implications

The development of a UAV is expensive, and a small error in automatic control results in a crash. Therefore, the platform is useful to develop and verify the coordination behavior of UAVs through software simulation prior to real testing.

Originality/value

The proposed emergent behavior simulated environment is working on an agent‐based UAV simulated platform, and hence, it naturally adapts to the behavior of a distributed and concurrent situation. The authors' can easily improvise the execution environment without changing the UAV simulator.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2015

Shu-Hao Chang and Carey Ming-Li Chen

The open innovation paradigm is an important topic of management thought in national innovation systems. Previous studies of open national innovation systems have almost…

Abstract

The open innovation paradigm is an important topic of management thought in national innovation systems. Previous studies of open national innovation systems have almost always focused on concepts or theoretical exploration. There is a great lack of integrated frameworks for the process and mechanism of open national innovation systems. Therefore, the research adopts a structural approach and provides an open national innovation model to verify the influence of different mechanisms on open innovation outputs. As well, we argue that open national innovation systems will change over time, as the mechanisms are dynamic, linking, and coexistent. The study adopts a latent growth curve model to verify the growth tendency and progressive change. The policymaker’s perspective of exploring open national innovation systems is important. Building open national innovation capabilities is based on cumulativeness conditions, diffusion capabilities, and international linkages. The results show that cumulativeness conditions and international linkages will positively affect the growth rate of open innovation outputs. Consequently, this study adopts a dynamic experimental map to validate the relationship of the dimensions to provide government with some practical suggestions for making effective policy.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Shu-Hao Chang, Wen-Hai Chih, Dah-Kwei Liou and Yu-Ting Yang

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, flow, cognitive attitudes, perceived satisfaction, and purchase…

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5704

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, flow, cognitive attitudes, perceived satisfaction, and purchase intention of consumers’ online shopping from a cognitive attitudes perspective. This study collected data from consumers having bought goods on the e-shopping platform.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted online questionnaire through my3q (www.my3q.com) for data collection. This research collected and analyzed 866 samples by using the structural equation modeling for validation of the proposed model.

Findings

The results indicated that hedonic value, utilitarian value, security, and privacy significantly affected cognitive attitudes (i.e. cognitive trust and perceived risk). Cognitive attitudes significantly affected perceived satisfaction and purchase intention, respectively. Flow significantly and positively influenced cognitive trust and purchase intentions, respectively. Cognitive trust is the mediators between motivations/flow and perceived satisfaction/purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

Both of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation can reflect the cognitive and conscious plan of an individual for a particular task. The cognitive trust and perceived risk are partial mediator and full mediator in the model, respectively. Hedonic value, utilitarian value, security, privacy, and flow all affect the individual’s perceived satisfaction and purchase intention through cognitive trust and perceived risk in the context of online shopping. Cognitive trust is a full mediator of the effects of privacy on purchase intention. It indicates that consumers must fully trust the website to ensure that the information provided by consumers in the transaction will not spread out for the protection of personal privacy.

Practical implications

This study aimed to assist the marketing personnel of the EC industry to examine the key influential factors of consumers’ purchase satisfactions and purchase intentions. The results of this study indicated that cognitive trust is the foundation for gaining and retaining customers. The classification of consumer motivations facilitates the understanding of consumers’ demands and accurate interpretation of consumers’ needs. The main influential factor of cognitive trust is utilitarian value. Therefore, this study states that the primary intrinsic motivation of online shopping for most consumers is utilitarian value (e.g. saving time, the cost of searching for the appropriate products, and increasing purchasing efficiency).

Social implications

Websites should strengthen the quality and quantity of product information. In addition, websites should provide a dynamic presentation of the product by presenting in various forms (multimedia and text description) about product-related information in order to increase consumers’ hedonic value. For the aspects of security and privacy, websites should provide consumers with reliable safety features, such as secure socket layer or digital signature, smooth communication channel (specific phone services and e-mail address), and consumer’s privacy statements. Finally, web design should meet with the consumer experience model in order to make the website easy to use and order the purchase from the website directly. Websites should also increase the fluency and positive experience of consumers and improve the interaction of a website. Meanwhile, websites need to feedback the consumer problem instantly and provide customized information in order to increase the chance of interaction between the consumers and the website.

Originality/value

Relevant studies have explored online shopping from various perspectives, but few studies have examined consumers’ cognitive attitudes toward websites from the consumer motivation perspective. Thus, this study focussed on the influences of consumers’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (e.g. hedonic value, utilitarian value, security, and privacy) on their cognitive attitudes toward websites. In addition, with the rapid development of the internet in recent years, internet users’ online flow experiences have gained increased attention. The creation of attractive consumption conditions is vital for website managers to provide consumers with flow experiences. Therefore, this study included consumers’ flow in the proposed model.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Shu‐Hao Chuang and Zuu‐Chang Hong

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on aturbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, arepresented. The calculated results…

Abstract

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on a turbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, are presented. The calculated results of probability density function (PDF) of various chemical species in velocity space, and mass fraction concentration distributions of various reactants and products in the flow field, are revealed and discussed in this analysis. The transport phenomena of different pumping rate, collisional deactivation rate, and radiative deactivation rate in the interaction between the twin plane jets HF chemical laser show that the properties of species mass fraction concentrations, collisional reaction rate, and radiative incident intensity are the dominant factors. The present study provides the fundamentals for theoretical understanding of twin plane jets HF chemical laser and further application to multiple‐jet HF chemical laser analysis.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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