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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Jonas Gabrielsson, Diamanto Politis and Åsa Lindholm Dahlstrand

There has been a significant rise in the number of patents originating from academic environments. However, current conceptualizations of academic patents provide a…

Abstract

There has been a significant rise in the number of patents originating from academic environments. However, current conceptualizations of academic patents provide a largely homogenous approach to define this entrepreneurial form of technology transfer. In this study we develop a novel categorization framework that identifies three subsets of academic patents which are conceptually distinct from each other. By applying the categorization framework on a unique database of Swedish patents we furthermore find support for its usefulness in detecting underlying differences in technology, opportunity, and commercialization characteristics among the three subsets of academic patents.

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Academic Entrepreneurship: Creating an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-984-3

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Nicolas van Zeebroeck, Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie and Dominique Guellec

The purpose of this paper is to look at the sharp increase in academic patenting over the past 20 years and to raise important issues regarding the generation and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the sharp increase in academic patenting over the past 20 years and to raise important issues regarding the generation and diffusion of academic knowledge. Three key questions may be raised in this respect: What is behind the surge in academic patenting? Does patenting affect the quality and quantity of universities' scientific output? Does the patent system limit the freedom to perform academic research? The present paper seeks to summarize the existing literature on these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper's approach is a review of the recent literature on academic patenting and research use of patented inventions, complemented with critical viewpoints and new data on academic patenting in Europe.

Findings

The evidence suggests that academic patenting has only limited effects on the direction, pace and quality of research. A virtuous cycle seems to characterise the patent‐publication relationship. Secondly, scientific anti‐commons show very little effects on academic researchers so far, limited to a few countries with weak or no research exemption regulations. In summary, the evidence leads the authors to conclude that the benefits of academic patenting on research exceed their potential negative effects.

Originality/value

The paper offers a critical overview of the available evidence on the links between patents and academic research, which may be useful both for individuals unfamiliar with this issue or for those experienced in the field who are looking for a state of the art discussion on recent debates.

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Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Kelyane Silva, Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos, Josealdo Tonholo and Manuel Mira Godinho

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the patenting activity of the Brazilian academic sector vis-à-vis the domestic business sector, taking into account the recent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the patenting activity of the Brazilian academic sector vis-à-vis the domestic business sector, taking into account the recent evolution of Brazil’s industrial policies. The paper differentiates between “university academic patents”, which are owned by the universities, and “non-university academic patents”, which despite being invented by academic staff are not owned by the universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ cross-checked information regarding the names of all inventors with Brazilian addresses in PCT patent applications in the Espacenet database with the names of researchers in the CVs available on the Lattes Platform of CNPq. The analysis specifically focussed on patent applications published in the PCT with Brazilian priority for the 2002-2012 period.

Findings

It was found that the Brazilian academic patents concentrate on science-based technology areas, especially in the Pharma Biotechnology domain. For a total of 466 patent applications with Brazilian priority in this field, 233 have academic inventors. Of those 233 academic applications, 66.1 per cent have universities as their owners, while the remaining 33.9 per cent are not owned by universities. Further, it was found that there are more Brazilian academic patents in the biotechnology sub-domain than those filed by the business sector.

Research limitations/implications

This research was based on the intersection of patent databases and the content available on the official curriculum base of Brazil (Lattes Platform, CNPq). Once the curricula information are voluntary, there are risks inherent reliability of this information.

Practical implications

This study allows us to identify more accurately which is the effective role of the Brazilian Academy in patents generation, revealing that a significant unaccounted deposits with personal inventors or companies’ ownership really have a academic contribution.

Originality/value

This paper shows that the academic sector plays a key role in Brazil’s international patenting activity, particularly in science-intensive technology domains, and it highlights the specific contribution of academic patents not owned by universities.

Objetivo

Este trabalho apresenta a análise da atividade de patenteamento do setor acadêmico brasileiro considerando a recente evolução das políticas de promoção da inovação no Brasil. O artigo tem como base a diferenciação necessária entre “patentes acadêmicas universitárias”, que são patentes/depósitos cujos requerentes são as universidades, e as “patentes acadêmicas não-universitárias” que, apesar de ser inventadas por docentes da academia, não têm as universidades como requerentes dos depósitos.

Metodologia

Foram cruzadas informações de todos os inventores constantes nos pedidos de patentes de origem brasileira realizados pela via PCT, com os nomes dos pesquisadores com currículos disponíveis na Plataforma Lattes do CNPq. A análise incidiu sobre pedidos de patentes publicado na via do PCT com prioridade brasileira para o período 2002-2012 contidos no banco de dados do Espacenet.

Resultados

Verificou-se que as patentes acadêmicas brasileiras se concentram em áreas mais tecnológicas, especialmente no domínio de Farmácia-Biotecnologia. Para um total de 466 pedidos de patentes com prioridade brasileiros neste setor, 233 tinham inventores acadêmicos. Destes 233 pedidos acadêmicos, 66.1% têm suas universidades como titulares ou co-titulares, enquanto os restantes 33.9% não são de propriedade das universidades. Verificou-se ainda que existem mais patentes no sub-domínio de biotecnologia depositadas pelo setor acadêmico brasileiro do que aquelas requeridas pelo setor empresarial privado.

Originalidade

Neste artigo, demonstrou que a academia desempenha um papel ainda mais expressivo na atividade de patenteamento internacional do Brasil, particularmente em domínios de tecnologia intensivos em ciência, e destaca a contribuição específica das “patentes acadêmicas não-universitárias”, que possuem origem lastreada pelos pesquisadores da academia.

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Salvatore Ferri, Raffaele Fiorentino, Adele Parmentola and Alessandro Sapio

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of patenting on the performance of academic spin-off firms (ASOs) in the post-creation stage. Specifically, our study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of patenting on the performance of academic spin-off firms (ASOs) in the post-creation stage. Specifically, our study analyses how the combination of knowledge transfer mechanisms by ASOs and patents can foster ASOs’ early growth performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explored the relations between patenting processes and spin-off performance through econometric methods applied to a broad sample of Italian ASOs. The research adopts a deductive approach, and the hypotheses are tested using panel data models by considering the sales growth rate as the dependent variable regressed over measures of patenting activity and quality and assuming that firm-specific unobservable drivers of growth are captured by random effects.

Findings

The empirical analysis shows that the incorporation of knowledge transferred by the parent university and academic founders through patents affects the performance of ASOs. Specifically, the authors find that the number of patents is a positive driver of ASOs’ performance, whilst patent age does not have a significant impact on growth. Moreover, spin-offs with a larger endowment of patents obtained before foundation, surprisingly, grow less on average.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for ASO founders by suggesting that patenting processes reap benefits. However, in the trade-off of external knowledge access vs internal knowledge protection, it may be better to begin patenting after the foundation of ASOs.

Originality/value

The authors enrich the on-going debate about the connections between knowledge transfer and organizational performance. This paper combines the concepts of patents and ASOs by providing evidence on the role of patenting processes as a transfer mechanism of explicit knowledge in ASOs. Furthermore, the authors contribute to the literature on costs and benefits of patents by hinting at unexpected findings.

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Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2013

María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez and José García-Quevedo

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influeunce the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influeunce the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a model estimated. This model has three components: the institutional characteristics of the universities, the presence of a technology transfer office, and the socioeconomic environment.

Findings

The results from the econometric analysis show the positive effects that universities' size and scientific quality, the existence of a technology transfer office, and the socioeconomic environment have on the applications for patents. These results show the complexity of academic patents as a channel for transferring knowledge and suggest the convenience of some degree of specialization and differentiation between universities.

Originality/value

The existing analyses for the USA and some European countries show that the institutional framework and the individual characteristics of the universities are relevant factors in the production of academic patents. The quantitative analysis carried out in this paper for a Latin-American country, with different characteristics from the USA and Europe, allows a better understanding of academic patenting and has implications for the design of innovation policies.

Objetivo

El objetivo de este artículo es examinar los factores que influyen en la capacidad de las universidades públicas mexicanas para generar patentes. Las patentes académicas están recibiendo una atención creciente como vía de transferencia de conocimientos desde las universidades a las empresas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

A partir de la revisión de la literatura internacional sobre los principales factores que explican la producción de patentes se ha construido una base de datos para 80 universidades mexicanas y se ha estimado un modelo con tres componentes: a) características institucionales de las universidades, b) presencia de una oficina de transferencia de tecnología y c) nivel socioeconómico del entorno.

Hallazgos

Los resultados del análisis econométrico muestran los efectos positivos que el tamaño y calidad científica de la universidad, la existencia de una oficina de transferencia de tecnología y el nivel socioeconómico del entorno tienen sobre la solicitud de patentes. Estos resultados muestran la complejidad del uso de las patentes académicas como vía de transferencia de conocimientos y sugieren la conveniencia de cierta especialización y diferenciación en las instituciones universitarias.

Originalidad/valor

Los estudios existentes para Estados Unidos y algunos países europeos muestran que el marco institucional y las características individuales de las universidades son relevantes en la producción de patentes académicas. El análisis cuantitativo realizado en este artículo para un país latinoamericano, con características diferentes a Estados Unidos y Europa, permite ampliar el conocimiento sobre las patentes académicas y tiene implicaciones para el diseño de las políticas de innovación.

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Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

Shu-Hao Chang

The application of laser and optical technologies in the industry is wide and extensive; the development and application of laser and optical technologies have become a…

Abstract

Purpose

The application of laser and optical technologies in the industry is wide and extensive; the development and application of laser and optical technologies have become a promising research domain. However, most existing studies have focused on the technical aspects or the application aspects; these studies have not highlighted the technology distribution and application development of laser and optical technologies from the big picture. Additionally, the manner in which the research and development (R&D) results of universities correspond to the needs of enterprises and industry has become a topic of concern for the public. Therefore, this study aims to adopt the academic patents as the basis for analysis and to construct a laser and optical technology network.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, in the current study, the researchers have analyzed relevant academic patent technology networks, using academic patents of laser and optical technologies as a basis of analysis.

Findings

The study results indicated that the key technologies mainly lie in nanostructures, metal-working, material analysis and semiconductor devices. Additionally, these technologies are mainly applied in industries, such as optics, medical technology, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and organic fine chemistry; this indicated that a large proportion of academia’s R&D outcomes are applied in these industries.

Originality/value

In this study, the researchers have constructed a technology network model to explore the technical development direction of laser and optical technologies; the results of the current study could serve as a reference for universities and industry for allocation of R&D resources.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Sharon A. Simmons and Jeffrey S. Hornsby

We conjecture that there are five stages to academic entrepreneurship: motivation, governance, selection, competition, and performance. The process of academic

Abstract

We conjecture that there are five stages to academic entrepreneurship: motivation, governance, selection, competition, and performance. The process of academic entrepreneurship originates with the motivation of faculty, universities, industry, and government to commercialize knowledge that originates within the university setting. The model conceptualizes that the governance and competitiveness of the commercialized knowledge moderate the mode selection and ultimately the performance of academic entrepreneurship. The conceptual and empirical support for the model are derived from a theory-driven synthesis of articles related to academic entrepreneurship.

Details

Academic Entrepreneurship: Creating an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-984-3

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Amalya L. Oliver and Noam Frank

Israel, characterized by various knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial firms, provides an interesting case study for examining sector-based differences and “small country”…

Abstract

Israel, characterized by various knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial firms, provides an interesting case study for examining sector-based differences and “small country” regional patterns. This chapter has a dual goal of exploring sector and regional differences of knowledge-intensive firms in Israel. The first goal is to depict similarities and differences between firms in three knowledge-intensive sectors: Life Sciences, information technology, and Cleantech. The second goal questions whether the geographical distribution of these firms across regions is associated with different levels of knowledge concentration and organizational homogeneity. Regional and sector-based differences were measured by firm-level network structures, funding patterns, and innovation proxies. One way analysis of variance tests were conducted for attaining these research goals. The main findings show that while most regions exhibit similar patterns of firm and network characteristics, many differences exist on the sector level that are associated with sector-specific attributes. These findings support the notion of a “small country inter-regional homogeneity effect.”

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Understanding the Relationship Between Networks and Technology, Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-489-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Sara Neves and Carlos Brito

The objective of this research is to have an up-to-date and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge regarding the variables that encourage the individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research is to have an up-to-date and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge regarding the variables that encourage the individuals, within the academic community, to get involved in knowledge exploitation activities. It is influenced by the observation that there is a need for more systematic scrutiny of micro-level processes to deepen our understanding of academic entrepreneurship (Balven et al., 2018; Wright and Phan, 2018). The study proposes to answer to ‘What are the drivers of academic entrepreneurial intentions?’ and ‘What are the emerging topics for future research?’

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows a Systematic Literature Review process (Tranfield et al., 2003) and adopts a four-step process format from previous literature reviews within the entrepreneurship context (Miller et al., 2018). From the results within Scopus and Web of Science databases, this research selected, evaluated, summarised and synthesised 66 relevant papers.

Findings

This study provides a factor-listed representation of the individual, organisational and institutional variables that should be considered in the strategies defined by the university. Moreover, the study concludes that the push factors behind the intentions are multiple, context-dependent, hierarchy-dependent, heterogeneous and, at the same time, dependent on each other and against each other. Lastly, the study contributes to academic entrepreneurship literature, especially entrepreneurial intention literature, which has recently received more researchers' attention.

Originality/value

The study corroborates that the individual factors, directly and indirectly via Theory of Planned Behaviour, strongly impact the academics' intentions. While the focus of the papers under review was an in-depth analysis of a selected group of factors, this SLR sought to compile the factors that were identified and provide a broader picture of all those factors to be considered by the university management. It contributes to the identification and clustering of the drivers that encourage academics to engage in knowledge valorisation activities, differentiating them by activity. For the practitioners, this list can be used by university managers, TTOs and department managers, and policymakers to guide questionnaires or interviews to analyse their academics' intentions and adequately support its academic engagement strategy. Lastly, this study also suggests worthwhile avenues for future research.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Jan Bröchner

In the context of university-industry interaction, little is known about construction patents. The purpose of this paper is to explore this aspect of construction…

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550

Abstract

Purpose

In the context of university-industry interaction, little is known about construction patents. The purpose of this paper is to explore this aspect of construction innovation systems.

Design/methodology/approach

After a review of studies of academic interaction with the construction sector, applications for construction patents in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden for 2006-2010 were analysed. References to academic publications in US patent applications in three relevant classes were identified.

Findings

References to university interaction occur in construction patents, but only seldom and not for mechanical devices. Country differences in patent legislation, such as legal protection for utility models and concerning university ownership of patents, have little effect on construction patenting.

Research limitations/implications

Further analyses of construction-specific relations between types of university-industry interaction are needed, as well as empirical studies of other regions.

Practical implications

Patterns found here should offer useful insights for firms designing their intellectual property strategies.

Social implications

The findings suggest that government innovation strategies and internal university policies should recognise the wide variety of interactions with construction sector firms. Policies reflecting innovation systems in industries that depend highly on intellectual property rights should be reconsidered.

Originality/value

This analysis has exploited recent advances in searchable patent databases in several countries.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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