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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Tor W. Andreassen and Even J. Lanseng

Service‐dominant logic of marketing claims that employees' knowledge and skills are the firm's only sustainable advantage. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

Service‐dominant logic of marketing claims that employees' knowledge and skills are the firm's only sustainable advantage. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the importance of branding in attracting the right employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs the image congruency hypothesis and social norms from consumer behavior. To test the hypotheses empirically, it uses a scenario‐based survey of respondents recruited from job‐seeking graduate students.

Findings

Based on data sampled and analyzed, it finds that both image congruency between prospective employee and preferred employer and social norm weigh in when job seekers decide on the preferred employer.

Research limitations/implications

The paper tests the model only on first‐time job seekers. This group may have greater desire to find a job than employed job seekers do. However, it believes that image congruency and social norm will impact the latter group's attitudes regarding employer.

Practical implications

For managers who need to differentiate their market offering the findings illuminate the importance of branding and brand building not only in the consumer market but also in the labor market. It is all about attracting the right customers and moreover, the right employees to serve them.

Originality/value

To the knowledge, this is the first study in the field of employer branding that uses the image congruency hypothesis to study branding in the labor market, thereby linking branding to organizational behavior.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Berk Ataman and Burç Ülengin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the sales volume of a firm and its brand image. Consumers’ self‐perception and perception of brand…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the sales volume of a firm and its brand image. Consumers’ self‐perception and perception of brand image, with respect to congruency models, have a strong influence on their behavior in the marketplace. Therefore it is expected that the fluctuations (the authors use fluctuation and variation interchangeably) in image attributes will explain the fluctuations in sales figures. In order to test this hypothesis, consecutive surveys were carried out, on a monthly basis to collect image data. Factor analysis was performed on the image attributes over time and three main image factors were attained. To determine the net effect of image attributes on sales, multiple regression analysis was performed, using the time series data, and all three image factors were found to be significant in the model.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Aron O’Cass and Kenny Lim

This study examines consumer brand associations, focusing on the differences between association held for western brands and eastern brands by young Singaporeans under the…

Abstract

This study examines consumer brand associations, focusing on the differences between association held for western brands and eastern brands by young Singaporeans under the country‐of‐origin umbrella. The study also examines consumer ethnocentric tendencies (CET), finding very low levels of ethnocentrism among respondents, and results indicate CET had no effect on brand preference or purchase intention.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Ahmad Jamal and Mark M.H. Goode

Previous research indicates that the self‐image product image congruity (commonly known as self‐image congruence) can affect consumers’ product preferences and their…

Abstract

Previous research indicates that the self‐image product image congruity (commonly known as self‐image congruence) can affect consumers’ product preferences and their purchase intentions. Self‐image congruence can also facilitate positive behaviour and attitudes toward products. This paper reports findings from a research study which was conducted to determine the effect of self‐image congruity on brand preference and satisfaction in the precious jewellery market in the UK. A questionnaire was sent to 500 consumers of precious jewellery in five major cities of the UK. Results indicate that self‐image congruity was a very strong predictor of consumers’ brand preferences and a good predictor of consumer satisfaction. Respondents with higher levels of self‐image congruity were more likely to prefer the brand and enjoy higher levels of satisfaction with the brand as compared to those with lower levels of self‐image congruity. The paper discusses the implications for brand managers so that they can position their brands in an effective way.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Sarah Leonard, Fiona Spotswood and Alan Tapp

The image of cyclists has been increasingly recognised as an important factor in social marketing programmes aimed at increasing cycling. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The image of cyclists has been increasingly recognised as an important factor in social marketing programmes aimed at increasing cycling. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a multi‐stage research project exploring image incongruencies between cyclists and non‐cyclists in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework of self‐image congruency was used to explore a possible “image gap” between the current image(s) of cyclists and the self concept of the GB population. The first stage of the research was a quantitative nationally representative survey of 3,855 British adults. The second phase involved a qualitative study involving ten in‐depth interviews and nine focus groups (n=60) exploring the image of cyclists with groups of non‐cyclists, lapsed cyclists, occasional cyclists, sports cyclists and utility cyclists.

Findings

Quantitative findings indicated that a gap exists between the perceived image of cyclists by GB adults and their collective self concept. Qualitative findings suggested that cyclists images were frequently viewed as negative or sometimes “out of reach” for non‐cyclists.

Research limitations/implications

Social marketers have a role to play in overcoming self‐image incongruencies of this type. The authors' intention was to enable social marketers to encourage non‐cyclists to view cycling in a more positive light by encouraging a perceptual shift in their image of cyclists in the UK. The implication is that this would form a bridging mechanism that narrows the gap between non‐cyclists' current image of cyclists and their image of themselves.

Originality/value

This work prompts reflections on the nature of self‐image congruency within the social marketing field. Initial observations are made as to the contribution that self‐image congruency may play in behaviour change.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Aron O’Cass and Hmily Frost

In seeking to expand our understanding of brands and their impact on consumer behaviour, assesses the relationship between brand associations, which contribute to…

Abstract

In seeking to expand our understanding of brands and their impact on consumer behaviour, assesses the relationship between brand associations, which contribute to consumption behaviour. A self‐administered questionnaire was developed and administered to a non‐probabilistic convenience sample of 315 young consumers. The findings of this research indicate that the status‐conscious market is more likely to be affected by the symbolic characteristics of a brand; feelings aroused by the brand; and by the degree of congruency between the brand‐user’s self‐image and the brand’s image itself. Results also indicate that the higher the symbolic characteristics, the stronger the positive feelings, and the greater the congruency between the consumer and brand image, the greater the likelihood of the brand being perceived as possessing high status elements. The suspicion that status‐laden brands would be chosen for status consumption and conspicuous consumption was also confirmed. These findings broaden our understanding of status‐conscious consumers and their behaviour towards brands.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Jeremy I. Abel, Cheryl L. Buff and John C. O’Neill

The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which actual and ideal self‐congruities (image) are associated with health club patronage, a conspicuous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which actual and ideal self‐congruities (image) are associated with health club patronage, a conspicuous consumption situation. Previous studies which have examined the applicability of the image congruence hypothesis to consumer behavior have scarcely examined its effect in the services industry. An integrative model of self‐concept, self‐congruity and health club image provides the foundation for hypotheses development.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey‐based methodology was employed in the current investigation, as paper‐and‐pencil surveys were administered on‐site at several local health clubs and an on‐line version of the questionnaire was made available to college students.

Findings

Consumers’ actual self‐image, rather than ideal self‐image, was more strongly associated with their perception of their health club's brand image and, thus, served as a stronger indicator of health club patronage.

Practical implications

Health club members exhibited a greater tendency to match the image they currently held of themselves with the brand image of their patronized health club. Health clubs would do well to develop and promote a brand image that is aligned more closely with members’ actual self‐images rather than attempting to develop a brand image that correlates more strongly to members’ idealized self‐images.

Originality/value

The current investigation evidences the applicability of the image congruence hypothesis to a particular service product that has not been examined in prior image congruence studies.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Miralem Helmefalk

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss how sensory cues are preferred in relation to products, service and store image in a retail context and why retailers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss how sensory cues are preferred in relation to products, service and store image in a retail context and why retailers should consider the importance of congruence in a retail setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Four qualitative focus group discussions were conducted, following a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 24 participants discussed how and why a lighting department in an IKEA store in Sweden could be regarded as more appealing than the traditional layout.

Findings

The findings indicate that congruency works as a mediator between a retail setting, sensory cues, products, service and store image. Consumers prefer, compare and categorize sensory cues in relation to the specific product in the department, the service offered by the firm and the store image.

Originality/value

A model is developed that conceptualizes congruency as a mediator in a retail setting, which provides an opportunity to further explore external influences on congruency in retail settings, both conceptually and empirically.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Jongeun Rhee and Kim K.P. Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to examine how adolescents' self‐concept and brand image congruency are related to their level of liking for an apparel brand. It also aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how adolescents' self‐concept and brand image congruency are related to their level of liking for an apparel brand. It also aims to examine whether this relationship varies depending on adolescents' gender and identity development.

Design/methodology/approach

Self‐image congruency theory was used to investigate whether adolescents' liking for an apparel brand was related to perceived congruency between aspects of self‐concept and apparel brand. Male and female adolescents (n=140) between 14 and 18 years of age participated.

Findings

Adolescent consumers liked apparel brands that they linked to their ideal social self‐concept. This connection was particularly strong for male adolescents with less established identities.

Research limitations/implications

Adolescents liked an apparel brand when they reported a link between the brand and ideal social self‐concept. These adolescents may have used apparel brands to shape the views others formed of them.

Originality/value

Many questions concerning the basis for adolescents' apparel brand preferences have not been answered. Our research documents how male and female adolescents use branded apparel products in relation to their identity development status.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Sarah Giovannini, Yingjiao Xu and Jane Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Generation Y consumers’ luxury fashion consumption. Generation Y is becoming a very important segment for the luxury market in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Generation Y consumers’ luxury fashion consumption. Generation Y is becoming a very important segment for the luxury market in the USA. Specifically, this study is designed to investigate Generation Y consumers’ consumption of luxury fashion products from the following perspectives: the influence of self-related personality traits on their brand consciousness; and the influence of brand consciousness on consumption behaviours in terms of consumption motivations, purchase intention, and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed to represent the proposed relationships among the related variables. An online survey was conducted and 305 valid surveys were collected. The proposed hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses.

Findings

From the perspective of self-concept, this research shed some light on the luxury fashion consumption behaviour of Generation Y consumers. Public self-consciousness and self-esteem were both found having significant influence on Generation Y consumers’ brand consciousness and in turn their luxury consumption motivations and brand loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations for this study mainly come from the representativeness of the sample, which was recruited from a panel of a third party research group. Implications for luxury fashion brand managers and retailers focus on strategies that influence the social and self-motivation for luxury consumption and level of brand consciousness.

Originality/value

This research is unique because it focuses on luxury fashion consumption of Generation Y consumers, an emerging segment in the luxury market. Generation Y consumers’ behaviour towards luxury fashion was examined in terms of their self-related personality traits, brand consciousness, motivation, and brand loyalty.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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