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Book part
Publication date: 11 January 2012

Allan Okech and Crystal Renée Chambers

Gender differences in self-actualization among a sample of Black university students was assessed using the Short Index of Self-Actualization. The eta square index…

Abstract

Gender differences in self-actualization among a sample of Black university students was assessed using the Short Index of Self-Actualization. The eta square index indicated that a medium amount of the variance of the self-actualization variable in Black university students was accounted for by gender. Specifically, Black female university students reported more self-actualization than Black males. However, greater relative self-actualization achievement to their same-raced male peers does not address relative achievement to other peers or abolish the need for challenges and concerns of Black women college students to be considered.

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Black Female Undergraduates on Campus: Successes and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-503-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

Ron L. Cacioppe and Philip Mock

The predominant psychological type among senior police officers is the extraverted‐sensing‐thinking‐judgement type, pragmatic and practical and thus ideally suited to many…

Abstract

The predominant psychological type among senior police officers is the extraverted‐sensing‐thinking‐judgement type, pragmatic and practical and thus ideally suited to many aspects of police work, according to data presented to 119 Australian senior police officers. The high proportion of extraverted‐thinking‐sensing‐judgement types may explain the common macho‐image of policemen. Low levels of selfactualisation among police officers may limit honesty, openness, flexibility and concern for the good of the police force and society, as well as contributing to stress, so this aspect must be dealt with.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Huanhuan Cao, Jinhu Jiang, Lih‐Bin Oh, Hao Li, Xiuwu Liao and Zhiwu Chen

The purpose of this paper is to apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to extend the expectation‐confirmation model of information systems continuance (ECM‐IS) to analyze…

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19169

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to extend the expectation‐confirmation model of information systems continuance (ECM‐IS) to analyze users' continuance intention of social networking services (SNSs).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey is conducted on 202 users of social networking services in China.

Findings

Fulfillment of selfactualization needs has a significant impact on continuance intention; however, the direct impact of fulfillment of social needs on continuance intention is not significant but fully mediated by satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation is that the participants in the sample are undergraduates. Second, this study has used cross‐sectional survey data to empirically test the model. Third, the survey is conducted in a single country.

Practical implications

The results of this paper provide several marketing implications to better manage SNSs. First, SNS managers should enhance instant communication functions, develop a platform that is convenient for users to express themselves and provide more entertainment functions. Second, SNS managers should focus on users' expectations and experiences about website functions and adjust or update website functions accordingly.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the research on continuance intention of social networking services from the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy of needs to capture motivations of continuance intention. The authors believe their conceptualizations of fulfillment of selfactualization needs and fulfillment of social needs, as well as their substantial findings, would be useful to researchers and practitioners alike to better study and manage continuance intention of socially‐oriented online services.

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Journal of Service Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Susan H.C. Tai

As the market of Greater China is becoming increasingly important for multinationals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the personal…

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4078

Abstract

Purpose

As the market of Greater China is becoming increasingly important for multinationals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the personal values and shopping orientation of working adults in Shanghai, Taipei, and Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The total sample of 454 included adult working Chinese from Shanghai, Taipei, and Hong Kong. Factor analysis was performed to identify separately the shopping orientations and dimensions of the personal values of the subjects. ANOVA analysis was then used to examine the differences among the subjects in terms of their shopping orientation and personal values. Lastly, correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between dimensions of personal values and shopping orientations.

Findings

As expected, the results showed that Chinese consumers in Greater China shared similar personal values, but differences were found in their shopping orientation. Significant relationships were found between dimensions of personal values and the eight shopping orientations. Among the dimensions of personal values, selfactualization played a major role in six of the eight shopping orientations, with shopping gender roles and economic shopping being the exceptions. Personalized shopping, advertised specials, and shopping for self‐satisfaction were found to be the three major shopping orientations that were closely related to personal values. Shopping gender roles and economic shopping were found to be unrelated to any personal values as they reflect individual short‐term goals rather than long‐term values.

Research limitations/implications

The Shanghai data were collected using judgment sampling as there are regulations that restrict the distribution of questionnaires in public streets in mainland China, whereas the Taipei and Hong Kong data were collected using random sampling. Different collection methods in the sampling process may have led to a problem regarding the representativeness of the sample.

Practical implications

Among the dimensions of personal values, selfactualization played a major role in shopping orientation. The selfactualization needs of consumers could be achieved through smart shopping and bargain hunting, but also through personalized shopping and shopping satisfaction. Because consumer shopping satisfaction is generally not high in Greater China, improvements could be made to enhance shopping satisfaction by providing a shopping environment that enables consumers to demonstrate their intellectual thinking and that meets their selfactualization needs. Personalized shopping is also important for Chinese consumers who prefer closer personal relationships with salespersons.

Originality/value

Various studies have focused on the classification of the shopping orientations of consumers from different perspectives, but few studies have investigated the influence of personal values on shopping orientation, especially in the Greater China market.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

A.R.S. Ibn Ali and Wirawan Dony Dahana

This paper aims to address how the status consumption tendency of consumers in emerging markets is negatively influenced by five individual traits: self-control, self

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address how the status consumption tendency of consumers in emerging markets is negatively influenced by five individual traits: self-control, self-actualization, religiosity, future orientation and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A conjoint experiment measured the importance of certain smartphone product attributes. A latent class regression analysis was then employed to estimate segment-level part-worths using conjoint data collected from 500 Bangladeshi consumers.

Findings

The results revealed three segments with members that differ in how they evaluate smartphone product attributes. Those susceptible to a product's brand name (i.e. status seekers) appear to have low self-control, are less religious and are more myopic.

Research limitations/implications

An issue may exist with generalizability, as the analysis was conducted based on data collected in one country and for one product category. However, this study's framework provides direction for future researchers to better understand status consumption in emerging countries.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for marketers selling status products to improve market segmentation and target their offerings more efficiently.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is twofold. First, it investigates the influencing factors of status consumption that have not been addressed in the extant literature. Second, it is the first to use experimental data to measure segment-level status consumption accurately.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

David B. Wolfe and Rajendra Sisodia

Companies increasingly complain about a new band of “mysterious” consumers whose behavior is challenging the very foundation of modern consumer economies: materialistic…

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6136

Abstract

Companies increasingly complain about a new band of “mysterious” consumers whose behavior is challenging the very foundation of modern consumer economies: materialistic aspirations. There is less interest in “things”. Designer labels are not the turn‐on like they were a few years ago. Despite significant means, many shoppers are passing up Lord & Taylor for Wal‐Mart. An especially valuable resource for these and other changes in consumer behavior that are altering the rules for successful marketplace engagement is the annals of adult development psychology. Epochal changes taking place in leading consumer behaviors owe much to the common midlife shift toward to selfactualization.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Lewis D. Solomon

I. Introduction For over forty years, a model for Third World development has gained widespread acceptance. Three key premises underpin the traditional development model…

Abstract

I. Introduction For over forty years, a model for Third World development has gained widespread acceptance. Three key premises underpin the traditional development model: (1) the identification of “development” with the maximization of the rate of national economic growth; (2) the quest to achieve Western living standards and levels of industrialization which require the transfer of labor from the agricultural to the industrial sector as well as increased consumerism; and (3) the integration into the interdependence of Third World nations in the global economy and the global marketplace. Increasing the demand for a Third World nation's exports (in other words, export‐led growth) is viewed as leading to the maximization of a nation's Gross National Product (GNP).

Details

Humanomics, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Nirit Toshav-Eichner and Liad Bareket-Bojmel

This study sought to examine the attitudes of blue-collar workers toward job automation. The study examined the relations between job automation, fear of job loss and self

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to examine the attitudes of blue-collar workers toward job automation. The study examined the relations between job automation, fear of job loss and self-actualization.

Design/methodology/approach

Using mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative analysis) with 539 participants overall, we examined employees' attitudes toward job automation through two separate studies conducted in a large public organization that employs blue-, white- and pink-collar employees. The blue-collar workers who participated consisted of waste collectors, gardeners and parking supervisors whose work is at risk of job automation.

Findings

We found that 74% of the blue-collar employees described technology as a “replacer” that simplifies and reduces human work activities, while only 3% perceived it as an “enabler” that could enrich their jobs and expand human potential. Fifty-three percent of the employees in the white-collar professions described technology as a “replacer,” and 36% perceived it as an “enabler.” Among pink-collar workers, 51% perceived technology as an “enabler,” while only 14% perceived it as a “replacer.” A positive relationship between job automation and self-actualization was evident for pink- and white-collar workers, but not for blue-collar workers.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on how employees in different types of jobs perceive technological advancements at work. A classification of the perception of technology as an “enabler” vs a “replacer” is presented. The relationships between job automation and self-actualization in different job types are explored.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Carolin Siepmann, Lisa Carola Holthoff and Pascal Kowalczuk

As luxury goods are losing their importance for demonstrating status, wealth or power to others, individuals are searching for alternative status symbols. Recently…

Abstract

Purpose

As luxury goods are losing their importance for demonstrating status, wealth or power to others, individuals are searching for alternative status symbols. Recently, individuals have increasingly used conspicuous consumption and displays of experiences on social media to obtain affirmation. This study aims to analyze the effects of luxury and nonluxury experiences, as well as traditional luxury goods on status- and nonstatus-related dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

After presenting the theoretical foundation, the authors conduct a study with 599 participants to compare status perceptions elicited by the conspicuous consumption of luxury goods, luxury experiences and nonluxury experiences. The authors investigate whether experiences that are visibly consumed on Instagram are replacing traditional luxury goods as the most important status symbols. Furthermore, the authors examine the effects of the content shown on nonstatus-related dimensions and analyze whether status perceptions differ between female and male social media communicators. Finally, the authors analyze how personal characteristics (self-esteem, self-actualization and materialism) influence the status perceptions of others on social media.

Findings

The results show that luxury goods are still the most important means of displaying status. However, especially for women, luxury experiences are also associated with a high level of social status. Thus, the results imply important gender differences in the perceptions of status- and nonstatus-related dimensions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that, in particular, the individual characteristics of self-actualization and materialism affect status perceptions depending on the posted content.

Originality/value

While the research has already considered some alternative forms of conspicuous consumption, little attention has been given to experiences as status symbols. However, with their growing importance as substitutes for luxury goods and the rise of social media, the desire to conspicuously consume experiences is increasing. The authors address this gap in the literature by focusing on the conspicuous display of luxury and nonluxury experiences on social media.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Bibi Alajmi and Hessah Alasousi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of motivation and needs satisfaction of academic library employees, adopting Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to examine…

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2375

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of motivation and needs satisfaction of academic library employees, adopting Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to examine individuals’ motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collects and analyzes quantitative survey data. The research population comprises 108 employees working across eight college libraries at Kuwait University.

Findings

While participants generally agreed that their needs were being satisfied at each of the five levels of Maslow’s hierarchy, they reported higher levels of satisfaction of their self-actualization and social needs. Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow’s motivation theory representing the quest for reaching one’s full potential as a person.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is the relatively small sample size due to Kuwait having only one public university. Future research could overcome this limitation by investigating both private and public universities.

Practical implications

This research contributes significantly and in various ways to understanding motivation in a library setting. It elucidates many aspects of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory criticized in previous literature. Overall, the study’s results should be useful to scholars in the library field interested in motivation, to academic librarians and to managers in academia.

Originality/value

Though many prior studies have focused on motivation in a library setting, Maslow’s theory has been little considered in the context of academic libraries. This study uses a theoretical framework based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to understand and explain the levels of motivation and needs satisfaction of academic library employees.

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