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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Sarah DeArmond, Benjamin I. Bass, Konstantin P. Cigularov, Peter Chen and J. Taylor Moore

The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety goal commitment as a potential mediator of the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and safety…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety goal commitment as a potential mediator of the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and safety performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study was conducted in a sample of municipal utilities workers. All workers were asked to take a survey during work time.

Findings

The results suggest that safety-specific transformational leadership is positively related to safety performance and safety goal commitment, safety goal commitment is positively related to safety performance, and goal commitment is a significant mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and safety performance.

Practical implications

Goal-setting theory and subsequent research has suggested a variety of strategies that can be employed to enhance the goal commitment of employees, and this study suggests that some of these strategies could be explored in the occupational safety realm. Future research could explore what transformational behaviors might be taught which would aid in setting safety goals with employees and motivating them to commit to those goals.

Originality/value

These findings add to existing research which supports connections between transformational leadership and job behaviors. Furthermore, they add to the limited research which has explored possible explanatory mechanisms and underscores the importance of safety goal commitment as the focus of future research and/or organizational interventions.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Karen Landay and Sarah DeArmond

The purpose of this study is to understand how applicant gender may interact with recruiter and organizational characteristics to affect organization attraction. Interpreting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand how applicant gender may interact with recruiter and organizational characteristics to affect organization attraction. Interpreting characteristics of individuals (e.g., recruiters) and organizations requires some degree of interpersonal sensitivity. Evidence shows that women are generally more skilled in this area than men, but women’s skills are not stronger when evaluating characteristics that are male relevant (e.g., dominance, status).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experimental between-subjects design in one sample of undergraduate students and one sample of working adults to explore the interaction of applicant gender with two known predictors of organization attraction: recruiter competence and hiring firm reputation.

Findings

As hypothesized, there was a significant interaction between recruiter competence and applicant gender on organization attraction in both samples. Contrary to the hypothesis, there was a significant interaction between hiring firm reputation and applicant gender in the sample of working adults, but not the sample of undergraduate students.

Practical implications

Results suggest that firms wishing to increase the number of women in their workforces should be particularly mindful of how they select and train recruiters as well as how positively their reputation is perceived by potential job applicants.

Originality/value

These results suggest that there may be gender differences in how applicants perceive and react to a variety of factors during the recruitment process that previous research has not considered.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2023

Abstract

Details

Stress and Well-being at the Strategic Level
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83797-359-0

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2023

A. Erin Bass, Ivana Milosevic and Sarah DeArmond

A growing body of literature suggests that unpredictable, resource-depleting shocks – ranging from natural disasters to public health crises and beyond – require the firm to…

Abstract

A growing body of literature suggests that unpredictable, resource-depleting shocks – ranging from natural disasters to public health crises and beyond – require the firm to respond adaptively. However, how firms do so remains largely undertheorized. To contribute to this line of literature, the authors borrow from the conservation of resources (COR) theory of stress and the dynamic capabilities perspective to introduce the concept of firm stress – a state of reduced and irregular readiness firms enter into following unpredictable, resource-depleting shocks. Our theoretical model illustrates that firms must punctuate the stress state to adapt by first deploying a retrenchment response, thereby conserving resources and allowing the firm to consider how to best redeploy its dynamic capabilities to adapt. Subsequently, the firm can redeploy its capabilities and adaptively respond in one of three ways: exiting (reconfiguring resources for alternative use), persevering (reconfiguring resources for better use), or innovating (developing new resources). Overall, the authors offer a process model of firm stress and adaptive responses following an unpredictable, resource-depleting shock that paves the way for future research on stress in the strategy literature.

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2019

Sarah Gundlach and Andre Sammartino

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of individual traits and attributes on the entrepreneurial and internationalization actions of Australian businesswomen…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of individual traits and attributes on the entrepreneurial and internationalization actions of Australian businesswomen, many of whom run small businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is exploratory and quantitative, based on a questionnaire survey of 323 Australian businesswomen. Drawing upon the extant literature on internationalization, gender and entrepreneurship, the study explores two micro-foundational relationships of interest – personality and capability assessment differences between female business owners and their employed counterparts, and the impact of such traits and assessments on their internationalization. A further question is explored in terms of any differentials in perceptions of barriers in internationalization.

Findings

The findings show key personality dimensions do not differ dramatically between Australian businesswomen working in their own businesses (i.e. entrepreneurs) or as employees in organizations, while there are surprisingly few differences between women who are engaged internationally and those yet to do so. When comparing the female entrepreneurs and employees, in particular, the findings around tolerance for ambiguity and management efficacy are notably counterintuitive. This leads to the development of testable propositions to refine the causal claims in this domain.

Practical implications

The study calls into question the distinctiveness of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial endeavors, at least for female businesswomen.

Originality/value

By including entrepreneurs and employees, women who have engaged internationally and those that are yet to do so, the study avoids some of the potential self-selection and confirmation biases inherent in studies of only entrepreneurs or small business owners. The investigation of individual traits, attributes and experiences as micro-foundations for internationalization motivations challenges existing theories of small business expansion.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Valerie Hill-Jackson

Bringing renewed attention to the anemic representation of Black women within the teaching profession, this chapter begins by chronicling the history of Black women in teacher…

Abstract

Bringing renewed attention to the anemic representation of Black women within the teaching profession, this chapter begins by chronicling the history of Black women in teacher education – from the Reconstruction Era to the 21st century – in an effort to highlight the causes of their conspicuous demographic decline. Next, it is argued that increasing the number of Black women in the teaching profession is a worthwhile endeavor although the rationales for such targeted efforts may not be obvious or appreciated by the casual observer. It is, therefore, important to illuminate the multiple justifications as to why it is essential to improve the underrepresentation of Black women in America’s classrooms. Lastly, it is asserted that serious attention is required to reverse the dramatic exodus of Black women from the teaching profession. In conveying this issue, the author shares special emphasis recruiting tactics, for the national, programmatic, and local school district levels, as promising proposals to enlist and retain more Black women in the teaching profession.

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Enrica N. Ruggs, Michelle R. Hebl, Sarah Singletary Walker and Naomi Fa-Kaji

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive effects of gender and age on evaluations of job applicants. Given the double jeopardy hypothesis, the authors might…

1871

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive effects of gender and age on evaluations of job applicants. Given the double jeopardy hypothesis, the authors might anticipate that older women would be denigrated most in hiring evaluations. However, given expectations of normative gender behavior, the authors might anticipate that older men would be penalized most for not already having stable employment. This study aims to examine which hypothesis best describes selection biases based on age and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Stimuli depicting male and female job applicants at the various ages were developed. The stimuli were standardized by collecting facial photos of older White men and women at ages 20, 40, and 60, and morphing these faces onto standardized bodies using Adobe Photoshop. Participants viewed six stimuli, one from each age by gender combination, and made evaluations across job relevant dimensions.

Findings

Results showed an interaction between age and gender, such that older male applicants were evaluated more negatively than older female and younger male applicants. These findings support for the violation of gender normative behavior hypothesis.

Practical implications

This study has implications for organizational leaders who can use this information to provide training for selection officers concerning biases against older workers and how to avoid them.

Originality/value

Original, novel stimuli are used in an experimental design to examine the effects of age in employment in a standardized manner which controls for extraneous variables such as attractiveness across age.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

David A. Hales

Despite widespread interest in the resources and people of Alaska, few libraries outside of the state maintain extensive collections on these subjects. In this article, David A…

Abstract

Despite widespread interest in the resources and people of Alaska, few libraries outside of the state maintain extensive collections on these subjects. In this article, David A. Hales reviews a multifarious sample of informative materials.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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