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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Ayana Allen-Handy and Abiola Farinde-Wu

This introductory chapter frames the discussion of Black female teachers, and centers their experiences as the sole site for discussion and analysis. In addition, this…

Abstract

This introductory chapter frames the discussion of Black female teachers, and centers their experiences as the sole site for discussion and analysis. In addition, this chapter provides an overview of the three sections of the book and the corresponding chapters. Within the pages of this volume, contributing authors discuss the historical and contemporary landscapes of Black female teachers, examine the underrepresentation of Black women in the US teacher workforce, as well as discuss innovative strategies to increase the recruitment and retention of Black female teachers in PK-12 classrooms. Ultimately, this chapter provides insight into the salience of Black female teachers in the diversification of the US teacher workforce. Moreover, highlighting implications and recommendations for a variety of educational stakeholders.

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Black Female Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-462-0

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Abiola Farinde-Wu, Ayana Allen-Handy, Bettie Ray Butler and Chance W. Lewis

Prior to Brown v. Board of Education 1954, Black female educators played a significant and vital role in segregated schools. Despite Black female teachers’ historic…

Abstract

Prior to Brown v. Board of Education 1954, Black female educators played a significant and vital role in segregated schools. Despite Black female teachers’ historic presence in the field of education, presently Black female teachers are disproportionately under-represented in the US teacher workforce. Acknowledging the shortage of Black female teachers in K-12 classrooms, the purpose of this qualitative study is to explore why Black female educators teach in under-resourced, urban schools. By examining Black female educators’ initial draw to urban schools in what we conceptualized as the urban factor, we hope to reframe the implicit biases surrounding under-resourced, urban schools as less desirable workplaces and unearth reasons why those Black female teachers who enter teaching gravitate more toward urban schools. Three themes emerged about Black female teachers’ thoughts on and preference for urban schools with an unexpected finding about Black female teachers’ perceptions of student behavior. Concluding, recommendations are offered for policy and practice.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2013

Candice Crowell, Kamilah M. Woodson and Shafeeq Rashid

Black male teachers represent between two and five percent of the teaching force, yet many research studies have suggested the importance of their presence in the…

Abstract

Black male teachers represent between two and five percent of the teaching force, yet many research studies have suggested the importance of their presence in the classroom. While most research focuses on the necessity of a larger force of Black male teachers to serve as role models for Black male students, minimal research examines their importance in teaching Black female students. In addition to this lack of research, teacher-training programs, even those that tailor their programming toward Black men, do little to address issues of teaching across gender. This phenomenon has implications for Black male teacher retention, Black female student success, and improved gender dynamics in the Black community. This chapter highlights the dynamics of teaching across gender through review of the literature and a case study. It presents the Gender Dynamic Awareness Model, a conceptual framework for use in teacher training that addresses five factors for Black men to consider when teaching Black female students.

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Black Male Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-622-4

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Ayana Kee Campoli and Dyanis Conrad-Popova

The shortage of teachers of color, specifically Black female teachers, is a problem that detrimentally impacts students in US public schools. The high turnover of Black

Abstract

The shortage of teachers of color, specifically Black female teachers, is a problem that detrimentally impacts students in US public schools. The high turnover of Black teachers may be caused by the poor working conditions they experience in their schools. However, the literature lacks a broad overview that gives a national perspective on how working conditions in general, and interpersonal relationships in particular, affect the retention of Black female teachers. For this study, we analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of over 1,000 Black female teachers who participated in the 2007–2008 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). We addressed two main research questions. First, how do the working conditions in schools where Black female teachers are employed relate to their retention? Second, does the quality of the interpersonal relationships between Black female teachers and others at their schools predict career decisions? Our findings have implications for policymakers and school leaders who seek to improve teacher retention in US public schools.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Tambra O. Jackson, Ashley Ballard, Marena Drewery, Brianna Membres, Laryn Morgan and Felicia J. Nicholson

In this chapter, we present an analysis of the literature on preservice teachers of Color juxtaposed with the experiences of Ashley, Marena, Brianna, Laryn, and Felicia…

Abstract

In this chapter, we present an analysis of the literature on preservice teachers of Color juxtaposed with the experiences of Ashley, Marena, Brianna, Laryn, and Felicia that gives insight into the ways in which these women of Color describe their understandings of social justice and culturally relevant teaching and the importance it holds for their work as future teachers. Using both culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory, we describe critical incidents from their racialized experiences in their teacher education program, inclusive of how they perceived having a Black professor for a diversity course. Lastly, we conclude the chapter with suggestions they deem as beneficial to their development and growth as social justice educators for teacher education programs to consider.

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Black Female Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-462-0

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2013

Chance W. Lewis and Ivory A. Toldson

Black Male Teachers: Diversifying the United States’ Teacher Workforce, is the first book in the series, Advances in Race and Ethnicity in Education. The book represents a…

Abstract

Black Male Teachers: Diversifying the United States’ Teacher Workforce, is the first book in the series, Advances in Race and Ethnicity in Education. The book represents a collective effort between research scholars, policy experts, and in-service Black Male Teachers. Through this book, we affirm the values of teacher preparation that we introduced in our call for chapters. Black Male Teachers is a book to provide Black male teachers with the resources to advance in the profession, teacher education programs with needed training materials to accommodate Black male students, and school district administrators with information to help recruit and retain Black male teachers. Each chapter features policy and practice recommendations and a case example to spur action and increase opportunities for discussion.

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Black Male Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-622-4

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Paul G. Fitchett, Eugenia B. Hopper, Maytal Eyal, Christopher J. McCarthy and Richard G. Lambert

Research funded by the Albert Shanker Institute found African-American teachers leaving teaching at higher rates than White counterparts even though the former are…

Abstract

Research funded by the Albert Shanker Institute found African-American teachers leaving teaching at higher rates than White counterparts even though the former are recruited in proportionally higher numbers. Thus, while recruitment efforts appear somewhat successful, schools and school systems fail to retain teachers of color. This “revolving door” of African-American teachers portends dire consequences for school communities, creating instability of staffing that potentially upend students’ opportunities for academic success. African-American female (AAF) teachers, considered a backbone of non-White communities, are particularly sensitive to teacher mobility and turnover. Studies, however, indicate that AAF teachers are more satisfied working in urban school contexts than other teachers, suggesting that they prefer racially congruent schools which share sociocultural attributes similar to their own, and view working conditions more favorably in such environments.

Teachers’ perceptions of the workplace can be used to gauge risk for occupational stress. Commonly referred to as the transactional model, teachers’ risk for stress can be assessed by the appraising workplace resources vis-à-vis workplace demands. Stress-vulnerable teachers are associated with lower professional commitment and increased occupational burnout. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007–2008 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this chapter explored the intersections of risk for occupational stress, racial congruence, and professional commitment among AAF teachers. Findings from this chapter suggest interactions between racial congruence and AAF teachers’ perceptions of occupational stress and commitment to teaching. Implications for how these results might inform policy are discussed.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Desiree Carver-Thomas and Linda Darling-Hammond

This study uses the most recent national data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), 2011–2012 and Teacher Follow-up Survey…

Abstract

This study uses the most recent national data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), 2011–2012 and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS), 2012–2013 to investigate attrition trends among Black teachers, and Black female teachers in particular, to inform a qualitative analysis of proposed and adopted teacher retention policy interventions. This study asks: Why do Black teachers report leaving, and what would bring them back to the classroom? What working conditions are associated with Black teacher attrition? What policy interventions can meet the needs of Black teachers in having successful and supported teaching experiences? How have these interventions been successful, and what are the considerations for applying them more broadly? We find that Black teacher turnover rates are significantly higher than those of other teachers and that there are several substantive differences in their preparation, school characteristics, and reasons for leaving. We describe policy interventions that target these conditions, such as teacher residencies, loan forgiveness, mentoring and induction, and principal training programs. We include in that discussion the relative benefits and challenges of each implications for policymaking.

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Black Female Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-462-0

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Valerie Hill-Jackson

Bringing renewed attention to the anemic representation of Black women within the teaching profession, this chapter begins by chronicling the history of Black women in…

Abstract

Bringing renewed attention to the anemic representation of Black women within the teaching profession, this chapter begins by chronicling the history of Black women in teacher education – from the Reconstruction Era to the 21st century – in an effort to highlight the causes of their conspicuous demographic decline. Next, it is argued that increasing the number of Black women in the teaching profession is a worthwhile endeavor although the rationales for such targeted efforts may not be obvious or appreciated by the casual observer. It is, therefore, important to illuminate the multiple justifications as to why it is essential to improve the underrepresentation of Black women in America’s classrooms. Lastly, it is asserted that serious attention is required to reverse the dramatic exodus of Black women from the teaching profession. In conveying this issue, the author shares special emphasis recruiting tactics, for the national, programmatic, and local school district levels, as promising proposals to enlist and retain more Black women in the teaching profession.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2011

Monika Williams Shealey, Allyson Leggett Watson and Zhengyun Qian

Research literature examining the experiences of faculty of color, particularly women in higher education, reveals a pattern of institutional and attitudinal barriers…

Abstract

Research literature examining the experiences of faculty of color, particularly women in higher education, reveals a pattern of institutional and attitudinal barriers, which is directly linked to successful recruitment and retention of learners and faculty of color (Brayboy, B. M. (2003). The implementation of diversity in predominately White colleges and universities. Journal of Black Studies, 34(1), 72–87; Gregory, 2001; Hughes, R. L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. F. (2003). Insights: Emphasizing issues that affect African American women. In: M. F. Howard-Hamilton (Ed.), New directions for student services. Meeting the needs of African American women (104, pp. 95–104). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2009). Attitudes and advocacy: Understanding faculty views on racial/ethnic diversity. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 415–438; Project MUSE; Stanley, C. A. (Ed.) (2006). Faculty of color: Teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishers; Turner, 2002; Watson & Shealey, 2010). This chapter provides a review of the recent and relevant research on Black women in teacher education. In addition, the authors conducted a review of research specifically addressing the experiences of Black women in teacher education during the last 10 years. Findings from this summative analysis highlight recent research on the experiences of Black women faculty and shed light on the implications for future research as well as leadership and program development.

Details

Women of Color in Higher Education: Turbulent Past, Promising Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-169-5

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