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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Andrew P. Tarko

Purpose – This chapter overviews surrogate measures of safety to help better understand the related challenges and opportunities. The chapter is meant to serve as a primer…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter overviews surrogate measures of safety to help better understand the related challenges and opportunities. The chapter is meant to serve as a primer for practitioners looking for alternative methods of evaluating safety where crashes are lacking or are insufficient.

Approach – The historical perspective and the current state-of-the-art thinking are presented in an organised manner with a focus on fundamental concepts, traffic measurement techniques and estimation of the relationships between surrogate events and collisions.

Findings – An analysis of the published research and its findings indicates that traffic conflicts are the most promising surrogates. They enable evaluation of the safety implications of a wide range of road and traffic conditions. The required ecological consistency between conflicts and collisions can be ensured by sufficient nearness of conflicts to collisions. Several methods of estimating the relationship between conflicts and crashes are discussed. Behavioural measures of safety are also discussed. Although easier to measure than conflicts, behavioural measures should be used with caution. Research on surrogate measures of safety may provide a basis for improving microsimulation models as tools of safety evaluation.

Practical implications – Current changes in vehicle and road instrumentation affect safety at a rate that exceeds the efficiency of the traditional crash-based methods of safety analysis. Accurate and quick measurement of safety with surrogate measures offers a viable solution. They are also a necessary condition of gaining a better understanding of safety and finding more effective solutions for safety problems.

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Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Fredrick Simpeh and Solomon Adisa

The purpose of this paper is to develop a guide for managing the provision of on-campus student housing facilities (SHFs) security and safety measures.

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191

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a guide for managing the provision of on-campus student housing facilities (SHFs) security and safety measures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a mixed-method approach; the questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect quantitative data, whereas the interview was used to collect qualitative data. Descriptive and inferential statistics and importance-performance analysis models were used to analyse the quantitative data, whereas content analysis was used for the qualitative data.

Findings

This study found that students rated the satisfaction of all the SHFs safety and security measures below the level of importance. Three categories of performance level (i.e. poor, average and good) were determined. It also became evident that most of the measures were performing averagely, quite a number were poorly performing and few were performing well.

Research limitations/implications

Data was collected from only one university; therefore, the findings of the research may not be generalised. A study that expands the number of participating universities is recommended.

Practical implications

The guide developed can be used by the facility and/or hostel managers to ensure appropriate management of SHFs security and safety measures. The guide can also assist to ensure that all the essential safety measures are provided when designing, constructing or upgrading SHFs. It would also aid in the development of policy frameworks for SHFs security and safety.

Originality/value

Although several studies have been conducted on SHFs, studies that mainly focussed on prioritising SHFs security and safety measures are lacking. With this paper, the authors also demonstrate the practicality of the use of the IPA model to aid the process of developing improvement priorities.

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Facilities , vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Kathryn Mearns and Jon Ivar Håvold

Since its introduction in 1992, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has rapidly gained in importance throughout the world. Harvard Business Review even selected it as one of the…

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Abstract

Since its introduction in 1992, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has rapidly gained in importance throughout the world. Harvard Business Review even selected it as one of the most important management tools of the past 75 years. This paper takes the performance indicators used in an offshore health‐and‐safety benchmarking study carried out by Aberdeen University on 13 offshore installations operating on the UK Continental Shelf and relates them to the BSC framework. The results from the benchmarking study are discussed from the perspective of suggesting which indicators should populate each perspective of the BSC: financial, customer, internal business and learning and growth. In addition the paper includes the results of interviews conducted with senior managers in the UK and Norwegian oil and gas sector, about use of the BSC in general and with regard to health and safety performance indicators in particular. Reasons for including occupational health and safety in the BSC and reports/papers covering occupational health and safety indicators and the BSC are discussed.

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The TQM Magazine, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Helen Lingard, Ron Wakefield and Patrick Cashin

This paper seeks to examine a hierarchical measurement model for occupational health and safety (OHS) performance developed for use in the Australian construction industry…

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3206

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine a hierarchical measurement model for occupational health and safety (OHS) performance developed for use in the Australian construction industry and tested over the life of one case study construction project. The model was intended to provide a more sensitive and informative measure of project OHS performance than traditional injury frequency rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Two measurement tools were tested. The tools, a monthly weighted safety index and a quarterly safety climate survey, were used to measure OHS performance and performance data are presented.

Findings

The data suggest convergent validity, indicated by consistent results between the two measures. Results also indicated that a combination of measurement techniques provides more comprehensive data pertaining to project OHS performance and enables the diagnosis of OHS issues that would be undetected with reliance exclusively on traditional measures, such as lost time injury frequency rates.

Research limitations/implications

The implications for future research lie in the demonstrated need to carefully evaluate the validity of the safety index and safety climate survey in future construction projects, and in the broader construction context. The results were limited to an evaluation of the measurement model in a single case study construction project and future testing is needed to determine the generalisability of the model.

Practical implications

The implications for practice are that multiple measures of OHS performance, including leading indicators and surveys of workers' attitudes and perceptions of project OHS, provide a more useful basis for the development of targeted OHS improvement strategies.

Originality/value

The paper develops a theoretical framework for the measurement of OHS using positive performance indicators and safety climate surveys. The evidence for convergent validity suggests that, in combination with traditional lost time injury rates, these measures provide a more robust method for the early detection and rectification of OHS issues in construction projects.

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Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Henk Visscher, Shahid Suddle and Frits Meijer

The aim of this paper is to provide insight into how to deal with safety issues during construction projects at multi‐functional urban locations.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to provide insight into how to deal with safety issues during construction projects at multi‐functional urban locations.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study comprising several construction projects for high‐rise buildings over a motorway in The Hague provided insight into the complexity of the safety management. A process model was designed of moments of influence of safety measures. This was combined with quantitative risk analyses of some alternative safety measures using failure mode and effect analysis and Bayesian networks.

Findings

It is essential to put safety management on the agenda at a very early stage in the planning process for construction projects at multi‐functional urban locations. The erection of heavy structural elements when building activities are being carried out above a motorway is an important risk factor. Structural measures appear to be more cost‐effective than closing off the road.

Research limitations/implications

The methods used to develop insight into the cost‐effectiveness of different safety measures can also be applied to construction processes at multi‐functional urban locations. This might lead to different conclusions on which measures are preferable.

Originality/value

There is very little literature or general knowledge on how to deal with these safety issues. This paper provides a method that can be applied in the development of safety protocols at multi‐functional urban locations.

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Construction Innovation, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Abstract

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Rune Elvik, Alena Høye, Truls Vaa and Michael Sørensen

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, Katelyn K. Jetelina and Wesley G. Jennings

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of school safety measures, including SROs and safety personnel, on school-related delinquency and perceived safety.

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1567

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of school safety measures, including SROs and safety personnel, on school-related delinquency and perceived safety.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, a comprehensive search of the literature was performed to identify studies published between January 1, 1998 and July 1, 2016 that focussed on structural school safety measures such as metal detectors, cameras, closed circuit television systems, and access control measures and/or school resource officers in primary and secondary schools. Only studies that relied on randomized controlled trials and pre-test/post-test designs evaluating the impact of at least one school safety measure in reference to a control condition were eligible for inclusion.

Findings

The results of this exhaustive search revealed 32 unique study samples that met the inclusion criteria. Results from the studies suggest that implementation of more security measures may not be an effective policy. More safety measures often result in a decline of student-perceived safety. Study limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

Originality/value

Results from this meta-review can provide educational administrators, superintendents, and school safety policymakers with a synthesis of only the most rigorous and valid studies that evaluate the impact of school safety measures on both actual and perceived school-related delinquency and safety. This information will provide school safety decision makers with a state-of-the-art synthesis of how school safety measures impact school-related delinquency problems and safety, and which measures appear to be most effective for informing the allocation of scarce resources.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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