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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Alan J. Drury, Matt DeLisi and Michael Elbert

Sex offender registration and notification act (SORNA) offenders are a source of scholarly study across the social, behavioral, forensic and legal sciences with the bulk…

Abstract

Purpose

Sex offender registration and notification act (SORNA) offenders are a source of scholarly study across the social, behavioral, forensic and legal sciences with the bulk of literature focusing on the legal standing and deterrent value of sexual offender registries. Less research focuses on the offending careers of current SORNA offenders relative to other types of sexual offenders whose current offense is not SORNA. The purpose of the current study is to examine this issue empirically.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data from a census of male federal offenders who ever perpetrated a sexual offense from the central USA between 2016 and 2020, the current study used t-tests, logistic regression and negative binomial regression to compare current SORNA offenders to other federal correctional clients in terms of their lifetime offending history, sexual violence and compliance on federal supervision.

Findings

Current SORNA offenders are significantly more severe and versatile in their sexual offending, have more extensive criminal careers and criminal justice system involvement, and exhibit significantly increased odds of revocation on supervised release despite controls for age, race and ethnicity. However, sensitivity models that specified the federal Post-Conviction Risk Assessment reduced the effects of SORNA status to non-significance in all models.

Originality/value

SORNA offenders are potentially a significant offender group with evidence of both and given their versatile and specialized lifetime offending and noncompliance on federal supervision. However, current SORNA status is rendered spurious once a risk assessment is controlled suggesting more research is needed to evaluate whether sex offender registries posit greater crime control benefit.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2011

Ryanne Colbert

Sex offenders and the laws concerning them represent a highly controversial and emotionally charged issue. Current efforts of legislation in the United States to manage…

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Abstract

Sex offenders and the laws concerning them represent a highly controversial and emotionally charged issue. Current efforts of legislation in the United States to manage the increasing number of sex offenders being arrested and eventually released back into communities are inadequate to manage such a large population of offenders, and the effects of registration and notification laws are more detrimental than beneficial to the communities they intend to protect. This paper discusses the notion that a significant cause of the problem relates to the overly broad standards that are used to define who is to be charged as a sex offender. The term “sex offender” needs to be reserved for those individuals who best represent the meaning of the term, and the resources available for this issue should be directed towards the effective management of those offenders instead of being spread so thin amongst so many offenders who do not pose a serious threat to society that none of them are sufficiently supervised after release from incarceration. Furthermore, laws and federal guidelines regarding sex offender legislation needs to be based on empirical research findings instead of uniformed public pressure.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Rajasekar Velswamy, Sorna Chandra Devadass, Karunakaran Velswamy and Jeyakrishnan Venugopal

The purpose of this paper is to classify the given image as indoor or outdoor with higher success rate by mixing various features like brightness, number of straight…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to classify the given image as indoor or outdoor with higher success rate by mixing various features like brightness, number of straight lines, number of Euclidean shapes and recursive shapes.

Design/methodology/approach

For annotating an image, it is very easy, if the image is categorized as indoor or outdoor. Many methods are proposed to classify the given image in these criteria but still the rate of uncategorized images occupies considerable area. This proposed work is the extension of the existing works already proposed by experts in this field. Some of the parameters mainly focused to classify are color histogram, orientation of edges, straightness of edges, discrete cosine transform coefficients, etc. In addition to that, this work includes finding of Euclidean shapes i.e. closed contours and recursive shapes in the given image. When the Euclidean shaped object dominates the recursive shapes then it is classified as indoor object and if the recursive shapes dominates, it is categorized as outdoor object.

Findings

This work is carried out on the standard image data sets. The data sets are Microsoft Research Cambridge (MRC) object recognition image database 1.0. and Kodak and Coral image data set. Totally 540 images are taken into account and the images are classified 95.4 percent correctly.

Originality/value

Many methods are proposed to classify the given image in these criteria but still the rate of uncategorized images occupies considerable area. This proposed work is the extension of the existing works already proposed by experts in this field. Some of the parameters mainly focused to classify are color histogram, orientation of edges, straightness of edges, discrete cosine transform coefficients, etc. In addition to that, this work includes finding of Euclidean shapes i.e. closed contours and recursive shapes in the given image. When the Euclidean shaped object dominates the recursive shapes then it is classified as indoor object and if the recursive shapes dominates, it is categorized as outdoor object. This work is carried out on the standard image data sets. The data sets are MRC object recognition image database 1.0. and Kodak and Coral image data set. Totally 540 images are taken into account and the images are classified 95.4 percent correctly.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Matt DeLisi, Daniel E. Caropreso, Alan J. Drury, Michael J. Elbert, Jerry L. Evans, Timothy Heinrichs and Katherine M. Tahja

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dark figure of crime among federal sex offenders from the USA to quantify crime victims and sex crime events among those with…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dark figure of crime among federal sex offenders from the USA to quantify crime victims and sex crime events among those with no official criminal record.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data on 119 offenders selected from a five-year census of sex offenders selected from a federal probation jurisdiction in the Midwestern United States, descriptive, partial correlations, and ROC-AUC models were conducted.

Findings

In total, 69 percent of offenders self-reported a contact sexual offense during polygraph examination. In total, 34 offenders had zero official record of sexual abuse but non-zero self-reported history of sexual abuse. These 34 clients offended against 148 victims that potentially denoted a minimum number of 148 sex crime events, a median number of 1,480 sex crime events, a mean number of 32,101 sex crime events, and a maximum number of 827,552 sex crime events. Total paraphilias were not predictive of self-reported sexual offending but were strongly associated with prolific self-reported sexual offending.

Originality/value

The dark figure of sexual offending is enormous and the revelation of this information is facilitated by polygraph examination of federal sex offenders. Ostensibly non-contact sex offenders such as those convicted of possession of child pornography are very likely to have a history of contact sexual offending. Consistent with the containment model, polygraph examinations of the sexual history of offenders convicted of sexual offenses should be required to facilitate public safety.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Abstract

Details

A History of the Assessment of Sex Offenders: 1830–2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-360-9

Abstract

Details

A History of the Assessment of Sex Offenders: 1830–2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-360-9

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 14 February 2020

D. Richard Laws

Abstract

Details

A History of the Assessment of Sex Offenders: 1830–2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-360-9

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

John C. Navarro

To explain the persistent abhorrent perspective society holds of sex offenders, the concept of sex offenders, the evolution of salient sex offender legislation, and the…

Abstract

To explain the persistent abhorrent perspective society holds of sex offenders, the concept of sex offenders, the evolution of salient sex offender legislation, and the relationships between sex offenders and social control with a focus on the current and emerging socio-legal issues are discussed. As one of the most vilified criminal offenders, sex offenders are inextricably related to social control as demonstrated by the disproportionately imposed legal restrictions they have experienced compared to offenders without a history of sex crimes. Public support of excessive punishments toward sex offenders has been bolstered by societal depictions that have induced perceptions of sex offenders as monstrous beings.

Aversions toward sex offenders unfold when it is perceived that the solidarity of society is dissolute and volatile. During these periods of perceived social disintegration, mass media emerges as a source that can contextualize the depraved actions of sex offenders, though the media have arguably perverted their role as an educator and contributed to misinformation. Education and revised evaluative assessments of sexual recidivism are suggested as approaches to redefine how sex offenders should be portrayed, as a heterogeneous group of individuals that vary in their amenability to rehabilitative treatment.

Details

Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Matt DeLisi, Alan Drury, Michael Elbert, Katherine Tahja, Daniel Caropreso and Timothy Heinrichs

Sexual sadism is a well-known risk factor for severe forms of sexual violence including sexual homicide and serial sexual homicide. The research is decidedly mixed about…

Abstract

Purpose

Sexual sadism is a well-known risk factor for severe forms of sexual violence including sexual homicide and serial sexual homicide. The research is decidedly mixed about the association between sexual sadism and other, nonsexual forms of criminal conduct. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on data from a census of 225 federal sex offenders from a jurisdiction in the Midwestern USA, the current study examined whether sexual sadism had a spillover effect into nonsexual crimes using correlation, ANOVA, and negative binomial regression models.

Findings

Sexual sadism was strongly associated with diverse forms of nonsexual criminal behavior, and sexual sadists had more extensive and versatile criminal careers than sex offenders without a formal diagnosis.

Practical implications

Practitioners should be aware of sexual sadism as a criminogenic risk factor. Sexual sadism is associated with sexual deviance and sexual violence. Sexual sadism also has spillover effects where it is associated with nonsexual offending.

Originality/value

Sexual sadism can be a useful risk factor for other forms of crime and recidivism and has broad application in applied correctional and research settings.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Alan Drury, Tim Heinrichs, Michael Elbert, Katherine Tahja, Matt DeLisi and Daniel Caropreso

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a broad conceptual framework in the social sciences that have only recently been studied within criminology. The purpose of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a broad conceptual framework in the social sciences that have only recently been studied within criminology. The purpose of this paper is to utilize this framework by applying it to one of the most potentially dangerous forensic populations.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival data from 225 federal sex offenders was used to perform descriptive, correlational, and negative binomial regression models.

Findings

There was substantial evidence of ACEs including father abandonment/neglect (36 percent), physical abuse (nearly 28 percent), verbal/emotional abuse (more than 24 percent), and sexual abuse (approximately 27 percent). The mean age of sexual victimization was 7.6 years with the youngest age of victimization occurring at the age of 3. Offenders averaged nearly five paraphilias, the most common were pedophilia (57 percent), pornography addiction (43 percent), paraphilia not otherwise specified (35 percent), exhibitionism (26 percent), and voyeurism (21 percent). The offenders averaged 4.7 paraphilias and the range was substantial (0 to 19). Negative binomial regression models indicated that sexual sadism was positively and pornography addiction was negatively associated with serious criminal violence. Offenders with early age of arrest onset and more total arrest charges were more likely to perpetrate kidnaping, rape, and murder.

Originality/value

ACEs are common in the life history of federal sex offenders, but have differential associations with the most serious forms of crime.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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