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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Robert Loo and Pamela Loewen

Several studies have reported on psychometric and factor‐analytic work related to the team climate inventory (TCI), including its four scales and 13 subscales. This…

Abstract

Several studies have reported on psychometric and factor‐analytic work related to the team climate inventory (TCI), including its four scales and 13 subscales. This exploratory study reports on the first research to examine team typologies based on team climate scores. The TCI was administered twice to 84 and 63 self‐managed teams of management undergraduates completing graded term projects. Following each TCI administration, a two‐stage clustering procedure (Ward’s and K‐means) was used to determine the number and team composition of clusters. Clusters were then plotted on the multidimensional space (INDSCAL) and a discriminant analysis performed to determine how well cluster membership was predicted using scores from the 13 TCI subscales. At the first TCI administration, three weeks into the term projects, the study obtained three team clusters on a two‐dimensional space. Near the end of the term projects, the study found two team clusters on a two‐dimensional space. Implications are presented for team building, interventions to improve team climate and management training.

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Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Robert Loo and Karran Thorpe

This paper describes the successful application of reflective learning journals to promote critical self‐awareness and improve both individual and team performance among…

Abstract

This paper describes the successful application of reflective learning journals to promote critical self‐awareness and improve both individual and team performance among members in 11 management undergraduate teams conducting management research projects. Qualitative analyses of the journals revealed several major themes; for example, management skills development, leadership, team communications, stresses of team work, and individual versus team work. Analyses of the journaling evaluation data showed that participants found journaling a useful learning tool. Recommendations are presented for those interested in using reflective learning journals to improve individual and team performance.

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Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Robert Loo

The occupational stress of policing is receiving greater attention from police forces and researchers. The present study assessed burnout, as measured by the Maslach…

Abstract

The occupational stress of policing is receiving greater attention from police forces and researchers. The present study assessed burnout, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), in a heterogeneous sample of 135 Canadian police managers. Results show that few of these police managers could be classified as burned out because only 3.7% of the sample fell into phase VIII of Golembiewski and Munzen‐rider's phase model of burnout. Comparisons of these results to the MBI norms and other police samples also show that this sample is relatively healthy with respect to burnout. Findings from this study and others in the police stress field lead to four major recommendations for future action. First, there is a need to evaluate the effects of stress interventions by organizations on the stress reactions and experienced burnout of police officers. Secondly, there is also a need for longitudinal research to examine changes in burnout phases with changes in type of duty, rank, and years of service. Thirdly, as more women and minorities enter policing, there is a need to examine group differences in burnout Finally, the phase model of burnout deserves greater attention in the police field in order to better describe and explain the nature of police stress.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Robert Loo

This paper presents a multi‐level causal model for best practices in project management based upon the literature, especially empirical studies of competencies and project…

Abstract

This paper presents a multi‐level causal model for best practices in project management based upon the literature, especially empirical studies of competencies and project management. The model emphasizes the roles of technical project management skills and interpersonal or people skills as inputs to the model. Next, the model stresses the important roles of organizational facilitators and inhibitors, that is, moderator variables (e.g. project management systems and supportive senior management) in influencing project outcomes. The model addresses the outcome variables of technical competencies (e.g. planning and controlling) and people competencies (e.g. interpersonal communication and conflict management skills). Finally, the model recognizes the important role of feedback for corrective actions and reinforcing best practices, that is, organizational learning.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Robert Loo

This exploratory study used a two‐stage cluster analysis procedure and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to identify burnout types in a sample of 135 male Canadian…

Abstract

This exploratory study used a two‐stage cluster analysis procedure and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to identify burnout types in a sample of 135 male Canadian police managers in the Sergeant/Staff Sergeant ranks. Three clusters were identified: Laissez‐Faire managers (n=15), well‐adjusted managers (n=74), and distressed managers (n=46). A discriminant analysis of the three clusters using the 22 MBI items yielded two significant functions; one function reflected emotional exhaustion and depersonalization items and the other function personal accomplishment items. The functions correctly classified 94.1 percent of the managers. Implications for organizational policies and programs were presented for tackling police manager burnout as well as recommendations for further research on burnout types.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Robert Loo

Notes that the project management approach has enjoyed growing acceptance by a wide variety of businesses and organizations over the past 20 years or so. Emphasizes the…

Abstract

Notes that the project management approach has enjoyed growing acceptance by a wide variety of businesses and organizations over the past 20 years or so. Emphasizes the usefulness of training in the basics of project management to management training and team development. Following a brief description of project management, discusses implementation factors to facilitate the successful implementation of this approach in the workplace and the expected benefits. Describes a sample of basic management techniques and tools for the planning and controlling of projects. Concludes that managers and trainers can readily see that adopting project management can be done with minimal disruption to the workplace and that the costs of adopting project management are relatively small compared with the potential benefits in terms of improved individual and team efficiency and productivity, high standards of work quality, and reduced employee stress and conflict in teamworking among other benefits.

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Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Robert Loo

The Delphi method can be a powerful tool to help police organizations forecast the future for the purposes of strategic management, and policy and program development…

Abstract

The Delphi method can be a powerful tool to help police organizations forecast the future for the purposes of strategic management, and policy and program development among other potential applications for police management. The paper describes the characteristics of the method, including criticisms of the method, and steps in conducting a Delphi study as well as pitfalls to avoid.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Robert Loo

Re‐analyses of data from Canadian samples of management undergraduates in three independent studies of ethical dilemmas, as presented in vignettes, were conducted to test…

Abstract

Re‐analyses of data from Canadian samples of management undergraduates in three independent studies of ethical dilemmas, as presented in vignettes, were conducted to test the hypothesis that women are more ethical than men. Several statistically significant gender differences were found when t‐tests for mean differences were used; however, the effect sizes were all small as measured by Cohen’s d. Three existing frameworks were used to explain these gender differences: gender socialization, underlying ethical frameworks, and situational specificity. When the Bonferroni adjustment was applied to control for Type I error rate, only three of the 76 t‐tests for gender differences across the three studies were significant. It is suggested that these findings of very few gender differences in ethical beliefs, when conservative statistical tests are used, reflect the effects of changing gender socialization and sex roles in contemporary Canadian society among other factors that de‐emphasize gender differences

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Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Robert Loo

Single‐item measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged…

Abstract

Single‐item measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged. Using the classical formula for the correction for attenuation and job satisfaction data, they demonstrated that meaningful reliability estimates can be calculated for single‐item measures. This study examined this approach using “belief in a just world” data from two instruments. The findings provide qualified support for single‐item measures when the underlying constructs are homogeneous, but these findings are not strong enough to challenge the view that multiple‐item measures are needed to measure relatively complex constructs reliably. Practitioners and researchers should be wary of single‐item measures.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Pamela Loewen and Robert Loo

This study used the team climate inventory (TCI) to create awareness of the multidimensional nature of team climate, to diagnose the climate of teams, and to present…

Abstract

This study used the team climate inventory (TCI) to create awareness of the multidimensional nature of team climate, to diagnose the climate of teams, and to present specific actions to improve team climate. Management undergraduates from 81, four‐person teams completed the TCI and an open‐ended question at week 3 and week 12 of their team projects. Quantitative results showed positive team climates at both administrations; however, only four of 13 sub‐scales showed small, significant improvements at week 12. Qualitative data analysis revealed 11 themes that enrich our understanding of factors contributing to positive team climate development. The study showed that the TCI is a useful tool in assessing team climate, sensitizing team members to the nature of team climate, and identifying actions to improve team climate in the context of the learning organization.

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The Learning Organization, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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