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1 – 10 of 517
Article
Publication date: 29 February 2024

Svitlana Magalhães de Sousa Ostapenko, Ana Paula Africano and Raquel Meneses

This study aims to further develop the CLC stage/path’s identification model that distinguishes between path’s emergence (emergence stage), path’s development (growth stage)…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to further develop the CLC stage/path’s identification model that distinguishes between path’s emergence (emergence stage), path’s development (growth stage), path’s sustainment (maturity stage), path’s decline (decline stage) and path’s transformation (renewal stage), and by applying it, define the current stage/path of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) cluster. The Port wine industry, which is the dominant industry of the DDR cluster, is at the maturity/decline stage – is the same for the cluster itself?

Design/methodology/approach

It is a case study with a longitudinal perspective based on the analysis of the dynamics of the parameters of cluster evolution using available secondary sources (cluster identity/brand; number of firms; number of employees; network; innovation; policies and regulations; and external markets – exports), especially addressing the past decade, that represent the stage of maturity/decline of the cluster’s dominant Port wine industry.

Findings

The conclusion is that since the 1990s the Demarcated Douro Region has gone through a “path transformation” where during the following 20 years new “anchors” for the cluster were gradually introduced, such as Doc Douro Wines, new forms of consumption of Port wine, tourism and olive oil. Since 2010 the cluster has entered a growth stage/(new) path’s development, where these “anchors” are in steady growth. The Douro brand is becoming more internationally recognized and established, the number of firms and employees is increasing, the network is restructuring with the creation of cluster-specific official institutions, innovation is especially reflected with increasing heterogeneity through diversification of the clusters into new activities and regulations and policies are supportive for expansion – all these parameters are indicating the rise of the new cycle for the cluster. Thus, the DDR cluster represents an attractive business environment and requires attention from regional policymakers to support the cluster’s development. Especially institutions have been highlighted as internal factors driving clusters growth, European integration as an external factor and firms’ strategies of diversification and internationalization as an appropriate de-locking mechanism for new path’s development.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the CLC theory by further developing and applying a CLC stage/path identification model. It provides a better understanding of the dynamics of the DDR cluster that diverge from its dominant industry life cycle, which is relevant for regional policies and firms’ strategies. This study has its limitations. It provides an exploratory application of the theoretical framework proposed, and consequently, no general conclusions are possible yet. More empirical studies with different clusters in different stages are necessary to test the framework.

Practical implications

These findings are useful to policymakers when designing their policies for cluster development but also for clusters’ entities and actors when making their strategic decisions as it allows based on the verification of the established parameter of CLC to identify its current stage/path of development.

Originality/value

The paper presents a theoretically grounded model for CLC identification and for the first time to the best of the authors’ knowledge applies it to a cluster case – the DDR cluster. This case applies the proposed model and illustrates its usefulness. The model provides the tools for a better understanding of cluster dynamics.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Jesús M. Valdaliso, Aitziber Elola and Susana Franco

This paper aims to examine whether in old industrial regions, the trajectory of clusters follows that of their corresponding industry or deviates from it and which are the factors…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether in old industrial regions, the trajectory of clusters follows that of their corresponding industry or deviates from it and which are the factors that account for cluster evolution. This paper deals with the issue of how established clusters either renew or transform themselves in such regions and how they adapt to changes in their corresponding international industries.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper draws from in-depth case studies on six industrial clusters, takes a longitudinal perspective and uses a multi-level and qualitative analysis. Based on existing literature, the paper suggests and exploratory analytical framework with four alternative scenarios for cluster evolution and three broad factors: cluster knowledge base, social capital at cluster and region-level and public policies.

Findings

Clusters do not always follow the life cycle of its dominant industry. The paper clearly shows a diversity of cluster evolution across clusters and even within clusters (at subcluster level). This study suggests that cluster knowledge diversity and heterogeneity allow to broaden the scope of evolutionary trajectories available; the same goes for social capital at cluster and region levels.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this paper lies in its qualitative approach that makes its conclusions more suggestive than conclusive. In any case, further research on other Basque clusters may corroborate or question its findings.

Originality/value

The paper offers an empirical and longitudinal study on cluster evolution, very much needed to the ongoing theoretical discussion on this issue. So far, there are very few empirical studies on cluster evolution with this perspective. At the same time, it presents a theoretical framework to analyse diversity of cluster evolution in old industrial regions that builds on Menzel and Fornah’s (2010) model.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Louise Lovelady

In considering the alternative strategies for change in Part I of this article, and the strategy of OD in particular, the definitions of OD suggested that the consultant played an…

Abstract

In considering the alternative strategies for change in Part I of this article, and the strategy of OD in particular, the definitions of OD suggested that the consultant played an essential role in facilitating change. Despite this, there is no widely accepted definition of the role of consultant. Indeed, it may be argued that several roles are currently subsumed under the title, for example the role of “change generator” and “change implementor” as defined by Ottaway and Cooper. There is also some evidence that internal and external consultants, apart from working from different bases, are capable or equipped to perform different tasks. External consultants are able to create and sustain a belief that change is possible, whilst internal consultants are the disseminators and implementors of change.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Svitlana Ostapenko, Ana Paula Africano and Raquel Meneses

This study aims to systematise the links between firms’ strategies (corporate and business) and the cluster dynamics (through the cluster life cycle [CLC] perspective) and propose…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to systematise the links between firms’ strategies (corporate and business) and the cluster dynamics (through the cluster life cycle [CLC] perspective) and propose an integrative framework bridging firms’ strategic behaviour and cluster dynamics (CLC).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used is an integrative literature review, which provides a distinctive form of research.

Findings

The study identifies several links between firms’ strategies (corporate and business) and the cluster dynamics (CLC), namely: (1) firms’ strategies as a triggering factor of cluster evolution; (2) firms’ strategies and path's decline; (3) firms’ strategies and cluster’s renewal; (4) resilience strategies and the cluster life cycle; and (5) cluster’s features and firms’ strategies.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to developing strategic management theory and cluster theory by bridging firms' strategies and cluster dynamics (CLC). It proposes a new conceptualisation of the impact of cluster dynamics on firms' strategic choices – firstly, it proposes a specific approach to identify the CLC; and secondly, it develops an integrative framework model that relates firms' strategies and each stage of the CLC. These are theoretical tools relevant for further advancements in this area of research, as they can be applied in studies of different clusters for validation, something that was not done.

Practical implications

The integrative framework is expected to be helpful to company managers, allowing them to design better strategies that account for dynamic cluster environments.

Originality/value

This study aims to fill this gap in the literature by systematising the links between firms' strategies (corporate and business) and the cluster dynamics (CLC).

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

R. Menzel

For the drilling of polyimide multilayers with acrylic adhesives, more care must be taken than for epoxy glass material. Due to the different mechanical properties in the…

Abstract

For the drilling of polyimide multilayers with acrylic adhesives, more care must be taken than for epoxy glass material. Due to the different mechanical properties in the multilayer ‘sandwich’ of the polyimide and the acrylic adhesive layers, the drilling parameters require a higher level of control. To avoid defects in the hole, such as nail heading of the polyimide or an uncontrolled ‘rip‐out’ of the acrylic adhesive, the relation between the cutting speed of the drill and the feed needs to be adjusted for each drill diameter. The following guidelines are valid: Wider drill diameters require a lower rotational speed and a lower feed to avoid deformation of the polyimide in the hole. Smaller drill diameters need high rotational speeds and a higher feed to minimise smear. In general, the drilling performance of wider drills is better than that of smaller drills. In all cases, it was impossible to prevent smear of the acrylic adhesive in the multilayer holes. The only reliable method for removing acrylic smear is by plasma etching. The minimum etch‐back required for acrylic adhesive was found to be ≥6 µm, which would be equivalent to an etch‐back of only 2 µm of the polyimide film. To achieve the etch‐back rate, the time in the plasma chamber should be between 20 and 30 minutes at 90–110°C. After the etch‐back, a high pressure water rinse is needed to remove some residues in the hole prior to through‐plating.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Richard Foss

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a viable system, the honey bee swarm, gathers meaningful information about potential new nest sites in its problematic environment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a viable system, the honey bee swarm, gathers meaningful information about potential new nest sites in its problematic environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation uses a cybernetic model of a self-organising information network to analyse the findings from the last 60 years published research on swarm behaviour.

Findings

Nest site scouts used a modified foraging network to carry out a very thorough survey of the swarm’s problematic environment, providing the swarm with a considerable diversity of potential nest sites for consideration. The swarm utilised a number of randomly recruited groups of scouts to obtain numerous independent opinions about potential nest sites, each privately evaluated, publicly reported and repeatedly tested by new recruits. Independent evaluation of site quality was balanced by interdependent reporting of site location. Noise was reduced by integration over a large number of individual scouts and over a period of time. The swarm was therefore able to reduce potential sources of bias, distortion and noise, providing it with comparatively reliable information for decision making.

Originality/value

Information gathering by a honey bee swarm has not previously been modelled as a self-organising information network. The findings may be of value to human decision-making groups.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

J.H. Lau, S.J. Erasmus and D.W. Rice

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is…

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Abstract

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is presented. Emphasis is placed on a new understanding of the key elements (for example, tapes, bumps, inner lead bonding, testing and burn‐in on tape‐with‐chip, encapsulation, outer lead bonding, thermal management, reliability and rework) of this rapidly moving technology.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Arantza Zubiaurre, Eduardo Sisti and Jabier Retegi

This paper aims to analyze how integration into global value chains has impacted the evolution of the Basque machine tool cluster from the 1990s to the present day.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze how integration into global value chains has impacted the evolution of the Basque machine tool cluster from the 1990s to the present day.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out in three steps. First, a comparative analysis was made of the renewal process of the 1990s and the current situation. Next, a quantitative analysis was undertaken to test whether the cluster has entered a new maturity period, and finally, qualitative data was gathered about the past and present challenges facing the companies in the cluster.

Findings

The empirical evidence of the present study shows that integration into global value chains has led to a hierarchization of the strategic trajectories and performances of the companies in the cluster. Additionally, evidence of a sustained period of new maturity and decline has been observed. The period of maturity and foreseeable challenges of the coming years were mentioned repeatedly during the interviews.

Research limitations/implications

Although the participants in the interviews were relevant individuals with a broad view of the cluster’s situation, their limited number and the lack of representation of companies that closed down during the renewal process, despite the efforts made by the authors, could be considered a limitation.

Practical implications

This paper sheds some light on the renewal/transformation period facing the cluster. Several of the main challenges and two extreme, hypothetical scenarios are discussed. The companies in the cluster will have to establish a position somewhere between those two scenarios.

Social implications

This paper presents two possible cluster transformation scenarios. The authors offer suggestions as to how to go about transforming the cluster with a view to secure a better position for dealing with future challenges.

Originality/value

Using quantitative and qualitative data, the paper reflects on the hierarchization and decline of the Basque machine tool cluster and provides new insight into the transformation and renewal needs of the cluster in a globally competitive environment.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 December 2019

Lokesh Kulhari, Achu Chandran, Kanad Ray and P.K. Khanna

Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology-based micro-hotplates are of immense interest owing to their ruggedness, high temperature stability and reliability. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology-based micro-hotplates are of immense interest owing to their ruggedness, high temperature stability and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to study the role of thermal mass of LTCC-based micro-hotplates on the power consumption and temperature for gas-sensing applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The LTCC micro-hotplates with different thicknesses are designed and fabricated. The role of thermal mass on power consumption and temperature of these hotplates are simulated and experimentally studied. Also, a comparison study on the performance of LTCC and alumina-based hotplates of equivalent thickness is done. A thick film-sensing layer of tin oxide is coated on LTCC micro-hotplate and demonstrated for the sensing of commercial liquefied petroleum gas.

Findings

It is found from both simulation and experimental studies that the power consumption of LTCC hotplates was decreasing with the decrease in thermal mass to attain the same temperature. Also, the LTCC hotplates are less power-consuming than alumina-based one, owing to their superior thermal characteristics (low thermal conductivity, 3.3 W/ [m-K]).

Originality/value

This study will be beneficial for designing hotplates based on LTCC technology with low power consumption and better stability for gas-sensing applications.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Paula Brügger

From an interdisciplinary position, I discuss the historical and epistemological roots of the objectification and commodification of nature, which emerged from the hegemony of…

Abstract

From an interdisciplinary position, I discuss the historical and epistemological roots of the objectification and commodification of nature, which emerged from the hegemony of instrumental rationality. This rationality—synthetically, a technological, political, social, ethical, and esthetical universe of thought and action—has created both wealth and environmental destruction due to the progressive domination of nature through science and technology. The objectification of nature and nonhuman animals is associated with the legacy of René Descartes based on some excerpts of his famous Discourse on the Method in which the idea of animals as machines established a powerful and pervasive metaphor that remains today. Speciesism, which involves forms of discrimination practiced by humans against other animal species, also dominates Western perspectives. However, studies reveal that nonhuman animal sentience and conscience is a scientific fact. While there is no ethical or scientific ground to support speciesism, the colossal number of animals commodified in a myriad of contexts, especially in animal agriculture, proves that our society is very far from overcoming this issue. A possible path to change is education. Nevertheless, profound transformations are mandatory as formal education—even “environmental education”—carries in its philosophical foundations the Cartesian, instrumental paradigm that favors the objectification and commodification of nature. I present how the concept of instrumental rationality, especially as proposed by Herbert Marcuse, establishes as a unifying and solid ground to address the roots of the objectification and commodification of nature (including nonhuman animals), as well as to confront the epistemological bedrock of our speciesist nonenvironmental, traditional education.

1 – 10 of 517