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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2014

Sainath Suryanarayanan and Daniel Lee Kleinman

This paper utilizes controversies over the role of a set of insecticides in mass honey bee die-offs in two different national contexts – France and the United States – in…

Abstract

This paper utilizes controversies over the role of a set of insecticides in mass honey bee die-offs in two different national contexts – France and the United States – in order to understand the science-state nexus in a comparative manner. On the one hand, the French government in 1999 and 2004 suspended the commercial use of the insecticidal products that beekeepers suspected of causing the honey bee declines. On the other hand, the US government has to date refused to heed beekeepers’ calls to limit the usage of the very same set of insecticides. We examine why the governments of France and the United States came to contrasting conclusions regarding broadly similar technoscientific issues. The divergent outcomes, we argue, are not simply the result of predetermined differences in the two states’ regulatory paradigms (with France being “precautionary,” and the United States adhering to a “sound science” approach), but are underpinned by divergent forms of beekeepers’ resistance. The paper further sheds light on non-state actors’ use of science and state to contest state (in)action by analyzing how historically influenced differences in state structures, the relational dynamics of beekeepers’ and farmers’ organizations, and the epistemic cultures of honey bee knowledge production, shaped different forms of resistance and influence in France and the United States.

Details

Fields of Knowledge: Science, Politics and Publics in the Neoliberal Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-668-2

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 December 2019

Xiaoni Wang, Zhiwen Pan, Zhouxia Li, Wen Ji and Feng Yang

This paper aims to optimize and evaluating the performance of the crowd networks through analyzing their information sharing patterns. That is, in a crowd network, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to optimize and evaluating the performance of the crowd networks through analyzing their information sharing patterns. That is, in a crowd network, the qualities of accomplishing tasks are highly dependent on the effective information sharing among intelligent subjects within the networks. Hence, proposing an adaptive information-sharing approach can help improve the performance of crowd networks on accomplishing tasks that are assigned to them.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first introduces the factors that affect effectiveness of information-sharing pattern: the network topology, the resources owned by intelligent subjects and the degree of information demand. By analyzing the correlation between these factors and the performance of crowd networks, an Adaptive Information Sharing Approach for Crowd Networks (AISCN approach) is proposed. By referring to information needed for accomplishing the historical tasks that are assigned to a crowd network, the AISCN approach can explore the optimized information-sharing pattern based on the predefined composite objective function. The authors implement their approach on two crowd networks including bee colony and supply chain, to prove the effectiveness of the approach.

Findings

The shared information among intelligent subjects affects the efficiency of task completion in the crowd network. The factors that can be used to describe the effectiveness of information-sharing patterns include the network topology, the resources owned by intelligent subjects and the degree of information demand. The AISCN approach used heuristic algorithm to solve a composite objective function which takes all these factors into consideration, so that the optimized information-sharing pattern can be obtained.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a set of factors that can be used to describe the correlation between information-sharing pattern and performance of crowd network. By quantifying such correlation based on these factors, this paper proposes an adaptive information-sharing approach which can explore the optimized information-sharing pattern for a variety of crowd networks. As the approach is a data-driven approach that explores the information-sharing pattern based on the network’s performance on historical tasks and network’s characteristics, it is adaptive to the dynamic change (change of incoming tasks, change of network characteristics) of the target crowd network. To ensure the commonality of the information-sharing approach, the proposed approach is not designed for a specific optimization algorithm. In this way, during the implementation of the proposed approach, heuristic algorithms can be chosen according to the complexity of the target crowd network.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Rasha Al‐Qassemi and R.K. Robinson

Apart from highlighting the overall nutritional value of honey, this review draws attention to the potential importance of the oligosaccharide content of honey. The…

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Abstract

Apart from highlighting the overall nutritional value of honey, this review draws attention to the potential importance of the oligosaccharide content of honey. The possible role of these compounds as prebiotics is emphasised, for a number of them have been found to stimulate species of Bifidobacterium that inhabit the human colon. It is suggested that the therapeutic properties of the anti‐oxidants in honey could be equally relevant, and the desirability of the growing practice of adding royal jelly to retail products is discussed briefly.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

S. Sarkar and S. Chandra

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental nutrients. Yoghurt being most popular fermented milk product due to its healthy image can be an excellent carrier for probiotics. Functional properties of yoghurt can be enhanced with the inclusion of functional ingredients such as probiotics and its conjugate application with prebiotics may be advantageous as it favors probiotic growth. Nutritional and medicinal value of honey coupled with presence of oligosaccharides has projected honey as a functional additive in yoghurt.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, honey, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with the inclusion of probiotic cultures and honey. Honey can be safely used in association with different probiotic cultures during yoghurt manufacture for augmenting functional properties of yoghurt to extend health benefits. Honey may not be equally a suitable matrix for all yoghurt cultures or probiotic cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that limited research on animal or human feeding trials with honey containing yoghurt has been done. Clinical trials with honey containing yoghurt are emerging prior to its marketing as functional food.

Originality/value

Application of honey as a functional additive during the manufacture of probiotic yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2021

Meena Thakur, Neha Gupta, Harish Kumar Sharma and Sunita Devi

The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of honey from different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh in terms of physicochemical characteristics and mineral status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of honey from different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh in terms of physicochemical characteristics and mineral status.

Design/methodology/approach

Three honey-producing locations were selected within each agro-climatic zone, honey sampled from four separate apiaries within each location and analyzed for physicochemical characteristics and mineral status using standard methodologies. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with one-way classification, after appropriate transformation through online OP-STAT software and MS Excel. The correlation coefficient (r) was also calculated. Principal component analysis was done using XL-STAT software.

Findings

The honey of Zone 4 had highest fructose (36.62%), F:G ratio (1.55), acidity (46.07 meq/kg), vitamin C (25.04 mg/100 g) and diastase (19.22 DN), whereas the pollen density (76,666.67 pollen grains per 10 g), pH (5.94), sucrose (6.94%), hydroxy methyl furfuraldehyde (70.20 mg/kg), amino acid (103.83 mg/100 g), phenols (77.39 mg/100 g), Ca (81.04 mg/kg) and K (354.17 mg/kg) were highest for Zone 2. Highest electrical conductivity (0.24 mS/cm), moisture (16.50 %), glucose (34.20%) and P content (62.93 mg/kg) were recorded for Zone 1. Correlation studies indicated a significant positive correlation between pH and EC; EC and moisture; colour and pollen density. Examining the graphical distribution of the honey samples, a natural separation between honeys of four different agro-climatic zones was obtained.

Originality/value

The impact of geographical/agro-climatic variations in physicochemical characteristics of honey has not been worked out under the present scenario in Himachal Pradesh.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Lienite Litavniece, Inese Silicka, Zanete Garanti, Galina Berjozkina and Stathis Kolongou

The paper aims to identify the success factors that guide the sustainable development of rural tourism destinations in Cyprus.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to identify the success factors that guide the sustainable development of rural tourism destinations in Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of this study, two rural villages in the Larnaca and Limassol districts of Cyprus were selected as a sample. Interviews, field visits, interactions with practitioners, the local community and leaders in these villages then followed. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the factors guiding the sustainable development of these villages.

Findings

Nine success factors were identified: finding the theme and engaging with it, allowing locals to guide the development, training and education, economic benefits, developing new products and services, community involvement, the role of younger people, strong leadership and island-wide efforts to rebrand Cyprus as a destination. These factors seem to be critical to the success of sustainable rural destinations and to rebranding Cyprus as a destination that offers authentic experiences.

Originality/value

The nine success factors identified by studying two villages in Cyprus can guide other rural destinations in finding their path to sustainable development through themes and authentic experiences.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1949

It is estimated that in this country alone no less than 2,000,000 tons of food annually is destroyed by reason of the depredations of rats and mice. Neither powers nor…

Abstract

It is estimated that in this country alone no less than 2,000,000 tons of food annually is destroyed by reason of the depredations of rats and mice. Neither powers nor organisations existed at the outbreak of war. which were adequate for the purpose of preventing wastage, which, under war conditions, became intolerable. That there was on the Statute Book the Rats and Mice (Destruction) Act, 1919, cannot be denied, but no authority existed for the control of destructive insects and mites in foodstuffs. The powers and duties vested in local authorities under the Rats and Mice (Destruction) Act were of little avail and it was allowed to fall into disuse without alternative provision being made. The control of these several groups of pests has for some years past been dependent on the powers derived from the Defence Regulations and continued under the Supplies and Services (Transitional Powers) Act. The profession of the rat catcher is an old and universal one. In 17th century Italy the “ professional ” was recognised by his long pole bearing a square flag on which were representations of cats and mice; the Chinese equivalent bore a sign depicting a cat in a bag. An accepted method of destruction quoted in The Book of Days is one attributed to the Irish, who believed that they could rhyme any beast to death, and in particular the rat. Another prevalent notion was that rats had a presentiment of coming evil and always deserted in time a ship about to be wrecked, or a house about to be flooded or burned. In 1854 it was seriously reported in a Scottish provincial newspaper that the night before a town mill was destroyed by fire the rats belonging to the establishment were met migrating in a body to a neighbouring field. A more scientific approach is now being made to the problem. In August, 1947, a meeting was held in London to discuss the world‐wide problem of losses as a result of damage by insects, fungi and rodents, and to consider the steps to be taken to reduce such losses. Embracing a general consideration of the problem of infestation control, the meeting, convened by Dr. L. E. Kirk, head of the Plant Industry Research Branch, Agriculture Division, F.A.O., covered many phases of the subject, ranging from the economics of the problem to the toxicity of new synthetic insecticides. Accepting the principle that efficient prevention and control of food infestation was essential to the conservation of the world's food supply, the meeting recommended that:—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jordanna Hinton, Cooper Schouten, Kerrie Stimpson and David Lloyd

This paper analyses financial support services (loans and grants) from the perspective of beekeepers in Fiji's Northern Division.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses financial support services (loans and grants) from the perspective of beekeepers in Fiji's Northern Division.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method, case study approach was used with key informant interviews, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and questionnaires.

Findings

Financial support was found to be an appropriate intervention. While beekeepers have access to loans, matching grants or small business grants to assist the establishment and growth of their activities, the appropriateness of these services varies based on the experience and skill of beekeepers. Capacity building was an important shortcoming in all financial services. It is recommended beekeeping clients undertake outcome-based, practical and/or mentorship-styled training to ensure beekeepers have the appropriate skills to maintain a viable enterprise.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited by a small sample size. Further research is needed to understand long-term impacts of financial support services and the availability and appropriateness of these within and between regions.

Social implications

Recommendations are provided to encourage effective financial support for beekeepers to improve the productivity, profitability and sustainability of their activities. This can impact beekeepers' livelihoods by increasing household income and income security.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of literature on the effectiveness of financial interventions to support beekeeping enterprises. This is the first study to compare financial support services from the perspective of beekeepers in the Pacific region.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Ömer Erturk, Sefine Kalın and Melek Çol Ayvaz

The purpose of this paper is to characterize monofloral and heterofloral honey samples (chestnut, lavandula, acacia and sunflower) from different regions of Turkey…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize monofloral and heterofloral honey samples (chestnut, lavandula, acacia and sunflower) from different regions of Turkey according to their physicochemical (moisture content, acidity, ash, sucrose, reducing sugar and hydroxymethylfurfural content) and biochemical properties to compare regional and species differences that are thought to contain different types of plant sources.

Design/methodology/approach

Physicochemical investigations were performed according to AOAC methods. Mineral analysis and volatile analysis were performed by using atomic absorption spectrometry and GC–MS, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of honey samples were evaluated based on disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values. The assays followed to determine total phenolic content and antioxidative and activities are spectrophotometric methods.

Findings

The obtained values of physicochemical parameters are among the values that can be accepted according to legal regulations. The most abundant mineral was potassium, which made up 81 per cent of the total mineral content, ranging between 165.7 and 301.6 mg/kg. A total of 87 different volatile components, some of which are highlighted in the literature to have antimicrobial and antioxidant effects, were detected. The maximum phenolic content, antioxidant activity against DPPH radical and ferric reducing ability were detected in the chestnut honeys. All tested honeys showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values between 6.25 and 50 µg/mL.

Originality/value

The present study has the feature of being a large study in terms of the region from where honey samples were selected and choice of analysis. The values obtained from physicochemical parameters reveal that the honeys from related region can be consumed with confidence. The biological properties found in honeys make them products of high added value and excellent quality.

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Ghazali Musa, Izzah Mohammad, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi, Sedigheh Moghavvemi and Azilah Kasim

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of visitors using the strategic experiential modules (SEMs).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of visitors using the strategic experiential modules (SEMs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors analysed a total of 37 essays written by University of Malaya students who visited the attraction on 23 November 2013. The aim is to explore what constitutes the elements within the SEMs, pertaining to the students’ visit. The results are potentially useful for future Zoo Negara marketing communication initiatives, as well as for the management to remedy the shortfalls which have hindered Zoo Negara from operating as a self-sustaining attraction.

Findings

The results confirmed the applicability of all five dimensions of the modules, which include both positive and negative elements. Of the five dimensions, THINK and SENSE were the most frequently expressed.

Originality/value

Though this study offers no theoretical contribution, it does demonstrate the applicability of the Schmitt theory on SEMs and the usefulness of such an application from the managerial perspective.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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