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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

James Poon Teng Fatt

States that psychological testing can be classified into several major categories and that the tremendous variance in psychological measurements makes evaluating the…

Abstract

States that psychological testing can be classified into several major categories and that the tremendous variance in psychological measurements makes evaluating the usefulness or value of these tools complex. Reviews and assesses the literature in this field to determine whether, if responsibily used, psychological tests are valuable tools for evaluation. Concludes that they are of use, but the user should have some knowledge of the limitations of the tools.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Adrian Furnham and Chris J. Jackson

This study seeks to investigate human resource practitioners' attitudes and beliefs about work related psychological tests. The purpose was to look at the structure and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate human resource practitioners' attitudes and beliefs about work related psychological tests. The purpose was to look at the structure and correlates of those beliefs.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 255 practitioners from human resource and related disciplines completed a 64‐item questionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, work‐related psychological tests.

Findings

Overall, the participants were positive about the validity and hence usefulness of tests. Factor analysis suggested that attitudes to tests fell into four easily identifiable factors (Test complexity, Practical application, Bias, and Usefulness of psychological tests). It was found that all four factors were predicted by age or educational qualifications or both.

Research limitations/implications

The study had a restricted sample of test users. It would be interesting to test a bigger and more representative sample of those in HR, training and coaching and get more specific details on which tests they used, why those particular tests and how they used the data they provide.

Originality/value

The aim of this study is to investigate whether practitioners generally find psychological tests in general useful, what aspects of psychological tests are most valued and what aspects are least liked. It also set out to determine whether the perceived scepticism toward, or enthusiasm for, psychological tests could be predicted by test user experience, and test user academic qualifications. Whist some survey studies have been interested in expert opinion, this study looked at practitioners from HR and related disciplines.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Carlos Almeida, Mara Madaleno and Margarita Robaina

This article aims to verify if there are detectable barriers in price levels that are understood to be psychologically important (psychological barriers) in a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to verify if there are detectable barriers in price levels that are understood to be psychologically important (psychological barriers) in a set of hourly electricity prices. These barriers manifest themselves when the market struggles with a difficulty in crossing the barrier to a different level. Psychological barriers focus on directional price movements around regions of the barrier, thus the importance of understanding investor behavior. The authors intend to contribute empirically to the scarce literature on psychological influences in individuals trading in the energy market, hereby enhancing the knowledge concerning the behavior of investors in this market.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work aims to test psychological barriers in the Nord Pool electricity market. Through a sample of hourly data on the Elspot day-ahead market, from 2013 to 2017, three groups of tests were made, following the M-values methodology: (1) uniformity tests, which clearly rejected the uniformity in hourly prices; (2) barrier tests, which included the barrier proximity and barrier hump tests, evidencing psychological barriers and (3) conditional effects tests, which allowed us to conclude in favor of effects of positive returns after approaching a barrier on an upward movement, i.e. the barrier breaches due to the fact that increasing prices tend to lead to further price increases, on average.

Findings

Uniformity tests, rejected the uniformity in hourly prices; barrier tests, included the barrier proximity and barrier hump tests, evidencing psychological barriers and conditional effects tests, allowed us to conclude in favor of effects of positive returns after approaching a barrier on an upward movement, i.e. the barrier breaches due to the fact that increasing prices tend to lead to further price increases, on average. Another relevant conclusion is that the period from midnight to 9 a.m. is very sensitive, since there is evidence of return and variance effects simultaneously. The implications of these results are potentially relevant, since changes on the variance are usually perceived as a proxy for risk, with changes on the return. It was also concluded that with the increase of the time span from 5 to 10 days on the conditional effects difference tests, there were significant changes on the results, the variance effect is stronger, while the return effect weakens.

Research limitations/implications

However, this research presents some limitations that result in representing opportunities for future research. The fact that there are reduced data available for other markets end up limiting the study of the global electricity market. Although Nord Pool is Europe's leading energy market and is seen as one of the most successful energy markets in the world, it would be interesting to do a study with more than one electricity market to make comparative considerations. Although the spot market is the main arena for energy trade, while the intraday market works as a compliment, it would be equally interesting to do a similar study for the intraday market and then compare conclusions. Moreover, in the present study, it was used standard methods in the literature on psychological barriers, but other methods could have been used–for example, those that assume that prices follow the Benford's distribution (Lu and Giles, 2010), which also present a path for future research and opportunity for confirming the robustness of the present results.

Practical implications

When the presence of psychological barriers is detected it means that the risk-return relationship becomes weaker around the psychological barrier (round numbers, meaning that electricity traders anchor). Identification of psychological barriers supports the claim that technical analysis strategies based on price support and resistance can be profitable. Therefore, more profitable strategies can be built by traders, but no reconciliation with the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) (provided that in inefficient markets prices should not exhibit any particular pattern). The finding of significant psychological barriers in specific hourly time intervals implies the need to address its practical implications in electricity markets, being so specific, namely, the possibility to earn extraordinarily profits exploiting this anomaly and who wins.

Originality/value

The electricity sector is a determinant sector in economic growth and a factor of development. Herein lies the importance of studying this market, which until now has not occurred in this subject, as far as it was possible to gauge. Are there barriers in the electricity market and should such a presence be taken into account? Investigating the existence of psychological barriers in the electric market becomes relevant, because knowing that investors are psychologically affected by a psychological barrier, can become a useful tool in negotiation, as it can function as another variable in the “equation” which is to trade in a complex market like this. Proving the potential presence of a psychological barrier may lead investors to believe in the idea of levels of resistance or levels of support, affecting their decision-making and price dynamics.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Riccardo Sartori, Arianna Costantini and Andrea Ceschi

Psychological assessment refers to the process whereby different methods and techniques are used to test hypotheses about people and their psychological characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychological assessment refers to the process whereby different methods and techniques are used to test hypotheses about people and their psychological characteristics. Understanding employees' psychological makeup is key to allow effective human resource management, from hiring to retirement. However, the gap between scientific evidence and organizational practices dealing with psychological assessment is still great.

Design/methodology/approach

General review along with case study

Findings

This paper shows the differences between research and practice, i.e. between what scientific evidence suggests to assess people from a psychological point of view reliably and what practitioners do when they want to reach the same goal.

Originality/value

At the end of the article, two examples of integration between research and practice are presented. We discuss how methods and techniques of psychological assessment can be developed to both respect scientific criteria and meet specific organizational needs.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

Sally P. Caird

Reviews and describes the results of some psychological tests whichhave been used with entrepreneurs. The tests have been mainly employedeither to explore the nature of…

Abstract

Reviews and describes the results of some psychological tests which have been used with entrepreneurs. The tests have been mainly employed either to explore the nature of the entrepreneur or to assess so‐called significant entrepreneurial characteristics. Key problems in the psychological testing of entrepreneurs relate to varying definitions of the entrepreneur, numerous entrepreneurial characteristics, uncertainty about the significance of entrepreneurial characteristics, and lack of rigour in test development. The results of well validated tests highlight many personality characteristics which could be correlated with characteristics of small firms and business owner‐managers. However, there have been specific measures of entrepreneurial characteristics developed in a search for a sensitive discriminating measure. Unfortunately, many of these tests have been poorly validated and this fails to supply useful information about the nature of entrepreneurs. Gives examples to illustrate some problems in psychological testing and discusses the importance of new approaches.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Leyla Ziyal

The thesis of this article is that the single psychological test ortest system is a wholly inadequate decision‐aid to address the strategicproblem‐objectives of the people…

Abstract

The thesis of this article is that the single psychological test or test system is a wholly inadequate decision‐aid to address the strategic problem‐objectives of the people aspect of business. After reviewing the current uses of the single test the article outlines the properties and tasks of psychological measurement. It proposes that only the joint use of several tests relevant to a specific problem objective can improve the accuracy of management decisions on people in the varied contexts of business.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Jyotsna Bhatnagar and Pranati Aggarwal

In this paper, the authors propose and empirically test an integrated model which investigates the relationship between POS-E (perceived organizational support for the…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors propose and empirically test an integrated model which investigates the relationship between POS-E (perceived organizational support for the environment) and employee outcomes, which are employee eco-initiatives (the first category of OCBE), employee psychological capital and alienation. Meaningful work as a mediator between POS-E and employee outcomes was also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized a survey method to empirically test the hypothesized relationships on a sample of 303 respondents. For testing, Confirmatory factor analysis for the proposed and alternative models, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on software AMOS, version 20.0 was used. This was to ensure validity and construct distinctiveness among the variables in the study and to evaluate the fit of the hypothesized measurement model in comparison to several alternate models. To estimate the effects of meaningful work (as a mediator) on the association between POS-E and eco-initiatives, psychological capital and alienation, the authors administered Sobel test.

Findings

The present research augments the contemporary research on environmental sustainability and employee outcomes by further developing the emerging constructs of perceived organizational support of the environment (POS-E) and organized citizenship behavior toward the environment (OCBE), which is measured by eco-initiatives. The results imply that POS-E is positively associated with eco-initiatives and employee psychological capital and is negatively associated with alienation. The findings further suggest that meaningful work mediates the association between POS-E and all the outcome variables which are: employee-eco-initiatives, psychological capital and alienation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings confirm the desired direction of research and accomplished the research objective of the study. As the consequences of POS-E imply immense value for all stakeholders, decision-makers must also reflect on the means of enhancing employees' understanding. Further, it is imperative, that the organization supports their environmental goals and values, and their green engagement.

Practical implications

Results of the present study exhibit wide practical inferences for the managers. HR managers need to organize the passion for green behavior and work on intrinsic drivers of employee green engagement to let it sustain over a period of time. As society gradually expects increased organizational contributions towards environmental sustainability, this paper indicates that those employees who get an opportunity to act in coordination with environmental objectives will engage in eco-initiatives, exhibit higher psychological capital, and be less likely to feel alienated. The results imply that leaders should examine a diversity of probable interventions to enhance POS-E in order to gain from the initial rise in perceived meaningful work, employee eco-initiatives, increased psychological capital and reduced alienation. These interventions may lead to higher passion for sustainability and green behavior.

Social implications

Further, this work supports the work of Toffel and Schendler (2013), whose study states that organizations should market their environment and climate initiatives, climate activism, such that customers and suppliers appreciate their leadership, and understands what matters. This work supports the work of Turaga et al. (2010), whose study states that for pro-environment behavior, environment passion is an intrinsic behavior which is needed (see Afsar et al., 2016). The current study enhances the need to trigger employee's sense of pro-environment passion at work place for significant results.

Originality/value

This is a pioneer study, in India which confirms and extends the construct of POS-E using Social Exchange theory as an underpinning theory. We found that POS-E was linked with previously untested employee consequences, like employee eco-initiatives and psychological capital and that it was negatively associated with alienation. Our study confirmed mediator variable to be meaningful work in the relationship between POS-E and psychological capital, alienation and eco-initiatives

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Susan Voge

Requests for tests and measuring instruments for use in class assignments and faculty and student research are both familiar and frustrating to most academic librarians…

Abstract

Requests for tests and measuring instruments for use in class assignments and faculty and student research are both familiar and frustrating to most academic librarians. In typical scenarios, an education student wants to measure aggression in children or a nursing student needs a test for patient mobility. Even the faculty member who may know the name of a scale may not know its author or how to obtain a copy. All are looking for a measure applicable to a specific situation and each has come to the library in hopes of walking away with a copy of the measure that day. Those familiar with measurement literature know that accessing measures can be time consuming, circuitous, and sometimes impossible. The standard test reference books, such as the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print (both of which are published by the Buros Institute, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska), are of limited use. These books typically do not include actual instruments or noncommercial tests from the journal and report literature. While these standard reference books are essential to a test literature collection, sole use of them would mean bypassing large numbers of instruments developed and published only in articles, reports, papers, and dissertations. Sources are available to locate additional measurements, tests, and instruments, but they are widely dispersed in the print and electronic literature.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Yan Kou and Samart Powpaka

In the advertising strategy called pseudo-ownership advertising appeal, ownership-implying language (e.g. my, our or your) is used to induce consumers’ “ownership” of a…

Abstract

Purpose

In the advertising strategy called pseudo-ownership advertising appeal, ownership-implying language (e.g. my, our or your) is used to induce consumers’ “ownership” of a brand. This study aims to investigate the influence of pseudo-ownership advertising appeal on brand psychological ownership and consequent brand attitude, purchase intention and choice. This study also assessed the relative effectiveness of different types of possessive pronouns in different customer segments.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments, involving both students and non-students, were conducted to test the hypotheses. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the effects of the first-person singular and plural possessive pronouns (“my” and “our”) on psychological ownership and on brand attitude, purchase intention and choice. Experiment 3 investigated the interacting effects of self-construal (independent vs interdependent) and possessive pronoun (singular vs plural) on psychological ownership and brand attitudes. Experiment 4 investigated the interacting effects of customer type (potential vs current) and possessive pronoun (first-person vs second-person) on psychological ownership and brand attitudes.

Findings

Pseudo-ownership advertising appeal resulted in the development of brand psychological ownership, as well as inducing favorable attitudes, purchase intentions and brand choice. Furthermore, consumers with interdependent self-construal developed stronger psychological ownership when pseudo-ownership advertising appeal incorporated plural possessive pronouns, and consumers with independent self-construal developed stronger psychological ownership when pseudo-ownership advertising appeal incorporated singular possessive pronouns. Potential consumers developed stronger psychological ownership when pseudo-ownership advertising appeal incorporated second- vs first-person possessive pronouns, and current consumers developed the same psychological ownership for first- and second-person possessive pronouns.

Originality/value

Possessive pronouns used in advertising can enhance brand psychological ownership. Conditions that moderate the relative effectiveness of first- vs second-person and singular vs plural possessive pronouns on brand psychological ownership and consequential consumer responses can be identified. These findings extend research focusing solely on the self-referencing effects of second-pronoun use (“you”) in advertising on consumer attitudes and behaviors by paying attention to the “ownership” effects of possessive pronouns.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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