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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2020

Ying-Feng Kuo, Cheng-Han Lin and Jian-Ren Hou

Crowdfunding allows enterprises or individuals to collect funds from numerous other individuals. This study applies the anchoring effect and range theory in reward-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Crowdfunding allows enterprises or individuals to collect funds from numerous other individuals. This study applies the anchoring effect and range theory in reward-based crowdfunding to explore how different pledge option designs affect the backers' final pledge amount. Moreover, this study examines whether showing the current average amount pledged in the fundraising process has an anchoring effect on the subsequent backers' pledge amount.

Design/methodology/approach

Online experiments were conducted, and data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman rank correlation analysis.

Findings

Results show that among the three pledge option designs, employing the “bolstering range offer” has the highest backing amount. However, presenting the current average amount pledged in the fundraising process has a reversed anchoring effect on subsequent backers' pledge amount only in the case of a crowdfunding project in the physical goods category with a “point offer.”

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, no reward-based crowdfunding platform has yet provided the pledge option design of a “bolstering range offer.” This study reveals that the “bolstering range offer” can significantly increase the amount pledged. This study extends the crowdfunding research area to crowdfunding success and suggests a novel way to set up pledges.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Gordon Wills, Sherril H. Kennedy, John Cheese and Angela Rushton

To achieve a full understanding of the role ofmarketing from plan to profit requires a knowledgeof the basic building blocks. This textbookintroduces the key concepts in…

Abstract

To achieve a full understanding of the role of marketing from plan to profit requires a knowledge of the basic building blocks. This textbook introduces the key concepts in the art or science of marketing to practising managers. Understanding your customers and consumers, the 4 Ps (Product, Place, Price and Promotion) provides the basic tools for effective marketing. Deploying your resources and informing your managerial decision making is dealt with in Unit VII introducing marketing intelligence, competition, budgeting and organisational issues. The logical conclusion of this effort is achieving sales and the particular techniques involved are explored in the final section.

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Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Philipp Kiiver and Jakub Kodym

This article presents a simple and objective formula to determine a tender's price-quality ratio, for the purpose of value-for-money awards, which is literally quality…

Abstract

This article presents a simple and objective formula to determine a tender's price-quality ratio, for the purpose of value-for-money awards, which is literally quality divided by price (Q/P). Most formulas used in public procurement today first translate prices into points, in a process which has several flaws, and in the end they do not produce any actual ratios, a fact which makes them less objective. To adjust the proposed Q/P formula to the relative weight of the price criterion from the buyer's point of view, all tenders start out with a fixed quality score to compress or expand quality differences between them. Tenders then compete for the remaining range of quality points up to the maximum, and in the end have their quality score divided by the price that they offer.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Elizabeth Thach and Steven Cuellar

Spanish wine sales have grown quite rapidly in the US market during the past few years. The purpose of this paper is to examine this trend, discuss potential reasons, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Spanish wine sales have grown quite rapidly in the US market during the past few years. The purpose of this paper is to examine this trend, discuss potential reasons, and identify opportunities for maintaining and increasing Spanish wine sales in the US market.

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives are achieved by analyzing ACNielsen scan data from 2002 to 2005 and other secondary data on US wine consumers and trends.

Findings

The results indicate that Americans perceive red Spanish wine quite positively and are moving up in price point expenditures. However, sales of Spanish white wines remain rather fixed at specific price points. In addition, Spanish wine is losing market share to other imported wines, except for certain price points, but is performing well against US wines.

Practical implications

This paper suggests ten opportunities for maintaining and/or increasing Spanish wine sales in the US market. Many of these suggestions are also useful for other countries desiring to export wine to the US.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first of its kind to provide an in‐depth analysis of ACNielsen Scan data on Spanish wines sales in the USA. In addition, it provides extensive information on the US wine market, trends, and new market segments such as the Millennial and Hispanic markets.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Abstract

“Economics is a Serious Subject.” Edwin Cannan.

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Wisconsin, Labor, Income, and Institutions: Contributions from Commons and Bronfenbrenner
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-010-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Young Han Lee and Joon-Ho Kang

This study emphasises the need for professional teams to have sophisticated methods for devising ticket pricing strategies. The research was designed to supply team…

Abstract

This study emphasises the need for professional teams to have sophisticated methods for devising ticket pricing strategies. The research was designed to supply team managers with meaningful information from which to construct ticket prices that fit the needs of their fans. Three different fan segments were identified (general adults, college students and middle and high school students) and four attributes for determining ticket prices in a given circumstance were selected (Player, Coupon, Point and Price). Conjoint analysis technique was used to conduct the research and analyse findings.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Riccardo Vecchio, Alessandra Rinaldi and Luigi Moio

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate whether consumer preferences differ for wines with diverse price points and second, to analyze the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate whether consumer preferences differ for wines with diverse price points and second, to analyze the effect of denominations of origin information on preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

In, total 150 regular wine buyers expressed their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for 12 red wines of 3 denominations (Chianti Classico DOCG, Morellino di Scansano DOCG and Toscana IGT) with three price points (basic=€5, medium=€10 and high=€20) in an incentive-compatible experiment, involving two consecutive rounds: a blind tasting and an informed tasting.

Findings

The findings reveal that price points are not statistically related to consumer preferences measured in the blind round, while information on the denomination of origin leads to a statistically significant increase in WTP for wines of all price points for all denominations.

Originality/value

This paper investigates whether Sangiovese-based wines at varying levels of price points (basic, medium and high) receive different WTP by consumers in non-hypothetical experimental auctions. Furthermore, the effect of denominations of origin information on preferences is explored, comparing evaluations without and with this specific information.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

F. Javier Rondan-Cataluña, Bernabe Escobar-Perez and Manuel A. Moreno-Prada

This research enables the authors to highlight the importance of proper pricing for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of demand-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This research enables the authors to highlight the importance of proper pricing for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of demand-based pricing, providing empirical results that reveal the validity of this pricing philosophy in the sport retailing industry. In particular, this study has identified the limits of acceptable prices for the products studied, selected the most appropriate method for pricing products suffering from high competition and compared the impact produced on price perceptions according to different retail environments to be able to relate changes in the acceptable prices ranges according to the geographical location of each point of sale, differentiating between rural or urban environment and type of client.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have carried out surveys of 350 customers in each of the three points of sale analysed. Therefore, there are a total of 1,050 interviewees, for the three products analysed. The direct method of acceptable prices setting is developed. In addition, ANOVA and t-test have been carried out to find differences between the three shops.

Findings

One main finding is that the acceptable price range is not unique. Each point of sale has one that is distinct because it depends on many factors: the competition, the economic capacity of the closest residents, the location of the point of sale or the ability to attract customers.

Originality/value

The foremost contribution of this paper is to demonstrate empirically how considering the local demand at setting prices would generate larger earnings, even for a small retail chain. The direct method of setting acceptable prices enables us to set the prices according to the demand. The best option is if these prices are above the costs. It can be noted that the prices should be set according to each shop, and a different price used in each point of sale to maximise profits and to adapt to what the typical customer of each shop is willing to pay, despite the products being the same and the points of sale belonging to the same retail chain.

Objetivos

Esta investigación nos permite resaltar la importancia de una fijación de precios adecuada para los minoristas. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es demostrar la importancia de la fijación de precios basada en la demanda, proporcionando resultados empíricos que revelan la validez de esta filosofía de fijación de precios en el sector minorista de productos deportivos. En particular, en este estudio se han identificado los intervalos de precios aceptables para los productos estudiados; se ha seleccionado el método más apropiado para la fijación de precios de productos que sufren alta competencia; y se ha comparado el impacto en las percepciones de precios según el entorno detallista y se han encontrado cambios en los intervalos aceptables de precios en función de la localización geográfica del punto de venta, diferenciando entre entorno rural y urbano, y el tipo de cliente.

Metodología

Los autores han realizado encuestas a 350 clientes en cada uno de los 3 puntos de venta analizados. Por lo tanto, hay un total de 1050 entrevistados, para los 3 productos analizados. Se desarrolla el método directo de fijación de precios aceptables. Además, se han realizado pruebas ANOVAs y T para encontrar diferencias entre las 3 tiendas.

Resultados

Un hallazgo principal es que el intervalo de precios aceptable no es único. Cada punto de venta tiene uno distinto porque depende de muchos factores: la competencia, la capacidad económica de los residentes más cercanos, la ubicación del punto de venta o la capacidad de atraer clientes.

Originalidad/valor

La principal contribución de este artículo es demostrar empíricamente cómo considerar la demanda local al establecer precios generaría mayores ganancias, incluso para una pequeña cadena minorista. El método directo de establecer precios aceptables nos permite establecer los precios de acuerdo con la demanda. La mejor opción es si estos precios están por encima de los costos. Se puede observar que los precios deben establecerse de acuerdo con cada tienda, y se debe usar un precio diferente en cada punto de venta para maximizar los beneficios y adaptarse a lo que el cliente típico de cada tienda está dispuesto a pagar. A pesar de que los productos son los mismos y los puntos de venta pertenecientes a la misma cadena minorista.

Details

Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Lukasz Prorokowski

The current paper aims to expand an empirical assessment of correlations of the stock exchange in Poland with other stock markets and foreign economies. The paper attempts…

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper aims to expand an empirical assessment of correlations of the stock exchange in Poland with other stock markets and foreign economies. The paper attempts to explore international spillover effects during the current financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study builds upon questionnaires and interviews with practitioners associated with the Polish stock market. The interviewees represent both the advanced and emerging European economies. At this point, analyzing the notions of a cross‐section of experts from different geographical regions increases the value of the findings. The interviewees were asked to comment on a wide range of examples mirroring the reaction of the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) to economic and financial information derived from foreign markets in times of the current financial crisis. An empirical model evaluating the cross‐border implications for the Polish stock market was specified. The model encompassed a wide range of variables and events influencing the performance of the Polish stock market and investors' uncertainty during the nascent financial crisis. Semi‐structured interviews complemented the quantitatively obtained findings and allowed for a gap between theory and practice to be bridged. The qualitative approach injected a dose of realism into the empirical model utilized in the paper and contributed to the value of general findings.

Findings

The current paper reports initial responses of the WIG20 indexed equity prices to 41 economic and financial information sets, originating from systemically significant markets. The influence of these sets is ranked in accordance with their influential powers. The ranking indicates which information events are more likely to be prioritized by investors associated with the WSE and which news are ignored in times of the current financial crisis. Henceforth, the findings outline the crisis‐induced changes in the uncertainty of equity investors and the implications for investment decision making processes. Comparing the responses to economic and financial information sets among different stock markets and industries delivers insight into the profitability of the international portfolio diversification based on either the country or industry specific factors.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on the Polish stock market, which is relatively under‐researched by the existing body of literate. However, Poland's stock market became a leading central European bourse during the current financial crisis. Reporting a number of useful and important implications for the practitioners associated with the WSE constitutes the core value of the paper.

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