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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Tara Warden

Ethnographers, as tools of data collection, are uniquely positioned in a paradoxical relationship between intense immersion and objective distance from research and…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethnographers, as tools of data collection, are uniquely positioned in a paradoxical relationship between intense immersion and objective distance from research and participants. This relationship can be particularly intense when researching hidden or marginalized communities in violent contexts. Yet, the emotional consequences of research on the researcher are rarely discussed and little literature exists. When emotions in research are revealed, researchers can be confronted with stigma surrounding issues of subjectivity, “going native” and implications of failed research. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on research from Lee, Hume, and Nordstrom and Robben, this article presents a reflexive analysis of the author's ethnographic PhD experience. It examines the transformation undertaken to adapt and cope with in‐depth research with vulnerable groups in dangerous environments. It also explores the post‐fieldwork transition and consequences of post‐traumatic stress syndrome which were viewed as the author's feet of clay, or possible weakness which could derail or even invalidate the research.

Findings

This article delineates the risks of emotional trauma in ethnographic research, and outlines the symptoms of post‐traumatic stress syndrome and secondary trauma in order to facilitate their identification in future researchers.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this paper are to raise awareness about the emotional consequences of research and revealing how essential it is that awareness be included in the training of future researchers.

Originality/value

The paper aims to raise awareness about the acute emotional consequences of conducting research with marginalized populations in violent contexts. It specifically looks at the insider/outsider position, highlighting those isolating affects which can lead to post‐traumatic stress syndrome. It aims to reveal the attitudes within academia which tend to hide emotional struggles in research.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Sherrise Truesdale-Moore

Drawing on the slavery history of the United States, the theoretical framework of the post-traumatic slave syndrome is used to understand the influences and challenges of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the slavery history of the United States, the theoretical framework of the post-traumatic slave syndrome is used to understand the influences and challenges of contemporary assessment and counseling issues of African American offenders.

Methodology/approach

Through a qualitative review of the literature, supporting evidence is given from an investigation of slavery’s historical laws, practices, experiences, and beliefs’ and its influences on contemporary assessment and counseling issues concerning African American offenders and the challenges met by counselors.

Findings

The laws, the practices, the experiences, and the beliefs during slavery have had a profound influence on contemporary issues of assessment and counseling African American offenders. The transgenerational adaptations associated with previous traumas during and after slavery influenced counselors’ ability to effectively assess and counsel African American offenders. Moreover, transgenerational adaptations are equally present among white counselors, which have contributed to challenges with assessments and counseling of African American offenders.

Originality/value

Understanding history that is theoretically framed out of the post-traumatic slave syndrome builds knowledge in understanding present challenges and barriers to effective counseling of African American offenders in three ways: (1) it makes the connection between slavery and contemporary issues concerning assessment and counseling of African American offenders; (2) it explains how race might complicate counseling and assessment process; and (3) it sheds light on significant counseling concepts related to rehabilitation or sanctions of African American offenders.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Clare S. Allely and Bob Allely

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have also found that there is an association between PTSD and higher rates of re-offending. Studies have also found that a significant number of cases of trauma and PTSD go undetected and therefore untreated in individuals who are incarcerated.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out exploring studies that have investigated PTSD in incarcerated populations to identify current clinical considerations and recommendations.

Findings

This paper explores the key findings from the literature and highlights the important clinical implications and recommendations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper focusing specifically on how the findings from the literature can inform clinical practice and also what factors need to be given greater consideration, going beyond the current systematic and literature reviews in the field.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Dorthe Varning Poulsen

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive argument for nature-based therapy (NBT) for veterans with post-traumatic stress syndrome. It is the aim to generate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive argument for nature-based therapy (NBT) for veterans with post-traumatic stress syndrome. It is the aim to generate an overview of the evidence for NBT to the target group. A review of available scientific literature within the field, has been comprehensively conducted. This work is the foundation for the recommendations to decision makers and politicians.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a conceptual analyses and a general review of the literature. Following steps have been conducted. Based on the research question, relevant work (scientific papers) have been identified using search terms in English within the three areas the target group (veterans), the diagnosis (post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD) and treatment (NBT). Study-quality and evidence level have been assessed and discussed.

Findings

The findings show a wide variation according to the interventions the nature setting, the length and frequency of the NBT session as well as the health outcome measures. The studies demonstrated a positive impact on the PTSD symptoms, quality of life and hope. None of the studies found negative impact of the interventions. Being in a group of other veterans facing the same problems was highlighted as well. Some studies measured the ability to return to workforce for the veterans and found NBT beneficial in that process.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the research due to the methods of identifying studies. The purpose of this was to give an overview of existing literature, and there can be studies, that are not found in this process. Including qualitative and quantitative methods are useful in a process of understanding the impact of NBT for veterans with PTSD. The quantitative studies, which unfortunately are few, can give information of the extent to which the treatment affects the symptoms of PTSD. Seen in the perspective of the burden for the veterans suffering from PTSD and the economic burden for society, the process of synthesizing the research in the field in order to generate a fundament seems necessary.

Practical implications

This policy papers are useful in order to make recommendations for politicians and decision makers as well as practitioners.

Social implications

The burden of suffering from PTSD is heavy for the veterans and their family. The society must drive forward the development of new and better evidence-based treatment programs for veterans with PTSD. NBT might be a step in the right direction of this.

Originality/value

It is well-known that there are an increase in the number of veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Generally the drop-out rate of the veterans is high in conventional treatment and it is found that veterans experience some side effects from medical treatment. NBT is, in existing research, found to have a positive impact on the veterans, and therefore, it should be part of future treatment programs for veterans with PTSD.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Erica S Breslau

The sequence of stress, distress and somatization has occupied much of the late twentieth-century psychological research. The anatomy of stress can be viewed from…

Abstract

The sequence of stress, distress and somatization has occupied much of the late twentieth-century psychological research. The anatomy of stress can be viewed from interactional and hybrid theories that suggest that the individual relates with the surroundings by buffering the harmful effects of stressors. These acts or reactions are called coping strategies and are designed as protection from the stressors and adaptation to them. Failure to successfully adapt to stressors results in psychological distress. In some individuals, elevated levels of distress and failed coping are expressed in physical symptoms, rather than through feelings, words, or actions. Such “somatization” defends against the awareness of the psychological distress, as demonstrated in the psychosocial literature. The progression of behavior resulting from somatic distress moves from a private domain into the public arena, involving an elaborate medicalization process, is however less clear in sociological discourse. The invocation of a medical diagnosis to communicate physical discomfort by way of repeated use of health care services poses a major medical, social and economic problem. The goal of this paper is to clarify this connection by investigating the relevant literature in the area of women with breast cancer. This manuscript focuses on the relationship of psychological stress, the stress response of distress, and the preoccupation with one’s body, and proposes a new theoretical construct.

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

David M. Penetar and Karl E. Friedl

Understanding how health status and physiological factors affect performance is a daunting task. This chapter will discuss physiological, behavioral, and psychological…

Abstract

Understanding how health status and physiological factors affect performance is a daunting task. This chapter will discuss physiological, behavioral, and psychological factors that influence or determine the capacity to fight, and will consider metrics that can be used to measure their status. The premise of this discussion is that there is a set of physiological and psychological factors that intimately affect performance and that the relative contribution of these variables is individually unique. These factors can be identified and assessed, and are amenable to modification. A fuller understanding of these variables can lead the effort to maintain and improve performance in the adverse and challenging environments of military operations.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Don Ivie and Brett Garland

Expanding on earlier research, this paper aims to develop a more complete understanding of military experience as it relates to stress and burnout in law enforcement. The…

3610

Abstract

Purpose

Expanding on earlier research, this paper aims to develop a more complete understanding of military experience as it relates to stress and burnout in law enforcement. The current study examines whether influences on stress and burnout vary between officers with military experience and officers without a military background.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were obtained from earlier research on police staff at a Northeastern metropolitan city. A combination of analytic methods, including t‐tests and multivariate regression analysis, were used to explore the effects of variables on stress and burnout among military and non‐military officers.

Findings

The results indicate that negative exposures to demanding events influenced burnout for all officers. In contrast, negative exposures affected stress levels for those officers with no military experience. Coping techniques were important predictors of stress and burnout for both groups; however, contrary to expectations, police experience in years was not significant in any model. Demographic controls had no influence on stress and burnout for either group, with the exception of gender, which was a significant predictor of stress only for the non‐military group.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for police departments interested in developing group‐based strategies for reducing stress and burnout among officers. The findings are limited in their capacity for wide geographical generalization, however, because this study represents the views of only one department.

Originality/value

In contrast with previous empirical work, the findings here demonstrate that military experience can have a favorable influence on the work outcomes of police officers. This study suggests that officers with military backgrounds are less stressed when faced with demanding situations and that military experience provides female officers with an edge in handling work‐related stressors.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Ingemar Karlsson and Sven‐Åke Christianson

Investigates situations that were perceived as stressful by Swedish police officers and the kind of support and help they had received in connection with that. A total of…

2164

Abstract

Investigates situations that were perceived as stressful by Swedish police officers and the kind of support and help they had received in connection with that. A total of 162 respondents took part in the study. Results show that most of the traumatic experiences reported by police officers occurred early on in their careers. The traumatic experiences often remained in their memories in the form of visual, tactile, and olfactory sensations. A variety of stress reactions were described in connection with these experiences. As regards ways of working through the traumatic experiences, more than half reported that it helped them to talk about the event with their colleagues. Only a few had been offered debriefing or professional help in connection with the event. A notable finding is that the majority of the officers did not receive any support at all from their superiors in connection with the event.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Gading Ekapuja Aurizki, Ferry Efendi and Retno Indarwati

The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among elderly who live in a post-earthquake area.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among elderly who live in a post-earthquake area.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional study involving 152 elder people who survived the disaster and were selected conveniently. The study was conducted in two worst-affected districts of Lombok Utara regency. PTSD was diagnosed using a modified version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale version 5 (CAPS-5). The demographic data were assessed using a self-developed questionnaire consisting of 13 items. All data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2 test and binary logistic regression with p<0.05.

Findings

Out of the 152 elder people, 91 (59.9 percent) suffered PTSD. Intrusion symptoms were the most common symptoms experienced by the respondents (94.1 percent). The factors associated with the PTSD in the elderly after the earthquake were having chronic illnesses (OR=2.490; 95% CI=1.151–5.385), public health center utilization (OR=2.200; 95% CI=1.068–4.535) and occupational status before the disaster (OR=2.726; 95% CI=1.296–5.730). These findings highlight that individual factors and access to health care services remain an important aspect of stress identification among the elderly following the disaster event.

Social implications

Elder people constitute a vulnerable group that is often forgotten and neglected during post-disaster recovery, though they have potentially higher psychosocial distress than younger age groups. This study was conducted to raise awareness about mental health problems suffered by the elderly.

Originality/value

This is the first study to apply CAPS-5 to assess PTSD among Indonesian elderly people following a natural disaster. This paper also provides insights that can be used by governments and other relevant parties to address PTSD problems suffered by many elderly people in a post-disaster area.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Cynthia A Holubik and Steven R Tomlinson

The threat of future biological attacks within the United States forces the additional responsibility of preparedness and response onto health care managers. An endless…

Abstract

The threat of future biological attacks within the United States forces the additional responsibility of preparedness and response onto health care managers. An endless amount of information on this topic can be readily obtained from a variety of sources. The purpose of this resource guide is to provide health care managers with a well-organized, up-to-date listing of credible sources that can be accessed electronically. This resource guide is designed to facilitate the retrieval of relevant information that is crucial in the process of health care managers designing a bioterrorism preparedness and response plan.

The implications of a bioterrorist attack within the United States were well observed in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The effects of these attacks were not only felt by the primary victims but also reached into communities and health care organizations that treated patients. The concerns for future attacks have spurred an enormous amount of interest and forced health care administrators to implement safety measures and develop plans encompassing preparedness and response. With respect to this topic, a major problem facing health care managers is the ability to obtain relevant, up-to-date, reliable information.

Many health care managers are aware of the endless amount of resources that are available pertaining to preparedness and response planning. It should also be noted that the information concerning bioterrorism rapidly changes and the available information can be overwhelming. To that end, the authors have compiled an array of selected websites that provide excellent, up-to-date, and unique resources in attempts to facilitate the gathering of knowledge and make that experience more efficient.

The objective of the following resource guide is to provide a comprehensive list of topics in a “user-friendly” format that can be obtained electronically. To facilitate information retrieval, electronic resources have been categorized according to topic. For example, up-to-date information concerning the multitude of biological agents can be obtained by using the links contained within the biological agents category. Under this topic heading you will find a listing of important resources. Each listing contains a heading that identifies the sponsoring organization, a short explanation of information and materials that can be expected, and a web address identifying its location.

The authors’ compilation was not intended to be exhaustive nor do the authors necessarily endorse or warrant the reliability of the information/products. Websites may change regularly; please visit www.bioterrorism@ba.ttu.edu to obtain an electronic version of this resource guide and for updates to web addresses.

Details

Bioterrorism Preparedness, Attack and Response
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-268-9

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