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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Garth den Heyer

The purpose of this research was to examine which factors increase the risk of post-traumatic stress in police officers to assist with identifying strategies that will…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to examine which factors increase the risk of post-traumatic stress in police officers to assist with identifying strategies that will minimize its occurrence.

Design/methodology/approach

This study of constabulary and non-constabulary members of the New Zealand Police has been based on an 80-question electronic survey, which was sent to all serving, resigned and retired members of the New Zealand Police Association, which number approximately 18,000. The survey included a series of questions that measured the post-traumatic stress that participants experienced.

Findings

Variables associated with post-traumatic stress were examined using logistic regression modeling techniques. The study found that post-traumatic stress was prevalent among serving, resigned and retired police members and exposure to trauma, especially prolonged exposure, was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress. More than 49% of participants were found to have some post-traumatic stress symptoms and more than 14% of participants indicated a presumptive clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the research included not include questions relating to the Social Provisions Scale (SPS) and General Health Questionnaire, nor did it include police officer recruits. A further limitation was that it was a cross-sectional study.

Originality/value

An understanding as to which variables influence or increase post-traumatic stress disorder is important for police officers and the police institution. The findings from this study indicate that exposure to trauma is strongly associated with high levels of post-traumatic stress, while good sleep and relaxation decrease the influence of such variables.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2010

Irene Brackenridge and Catrin Morrissey

Literature on trauma and post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has neglected the needs of people with intellectual disability, particularly those in forensic settings. The…

Abstract

Literature on trauma and post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has neglected the needs of people with intellectual disability, particularly those in forensic settings. The National Centre for High Secure Learning Disability Services at Rampton Hospital conducted a service evaluation on aspects of trauma experience and post‐trauma symptoms in the current population. File information and self‐reports indicated that most individuals had experienced a great deal of lifetime trauma, typically multiple types of abuse. A high rate of potentially trauma‐related symptoms was noted in files. However, file records of potentially traumatic events, including abuse, were often lacking in detail. There was limited information about the events themselves, and there was no information to suggest that any trauma‐specific assessments had been used to measure trauma exposure or symptoms. PTSD as a diagnosis was rarely considered, and there was little consideration of trauma‐specific interventions. While some individuals said that their experiences had resulted in a lot of distress, others could not talk about the past at all. This paper discusses the problem of assessing past trauma and response in a forensic intellectual disability population, and future directions for practice in forensic services. The service under study plans to address the needs of patients who have experienced trauma and abuse by conducting routine structured assessments, offering adapted evidence‐based psychological interventions where appropriate, and providing trauma‐specific education for staff to promote a compassionate approach.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Matthew R. Leon, Holly K. Osburn and Thomas Bellairs

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating…

Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating civilian and military populations separately, much less focus has been given to synthesizing and integrating findings to describe how civilian and military war survivors are comparatively affected by PTSD. This review is broken down into three sections covering (1) risk factors associated with PTSD, (2) relationships between PTSD and mental health outcomes, and (3) protective factors that can attenuate PTSD and its effects. Each section covers findings for civilians and military personnel and highlights similarities and differences between groups.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Britt-Marie Stålnacke

Psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress and depression may play an important role in the recovery after whiplash injuries. Difficulties in psychosocial…

Abstract

Psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress and depression may play an important role in the recovery after whiplash injuries. Difficulties in psychosocial functioning with limitations in everyday life may dominate for some time after the injury. Our study therefore investigates the relationships between pain, post-traumatic stress, depression, and community integration. A set of questionnaires was answered by 191 persons (88 men, 103 women) five years after a whiplash injury to assess pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS), whiplash-related symptoms, post-traumatic stress (impact of event scale, IES), depression (Beck depression inventory, BDIII), community integration (community integration questionnaire, CIQ), life satisfaction (LiSat-11). One or more depressive symptoms were reported by 74% of persons; 22% reported scores that were classified as mild to severe depression. The presence of at least one post-traumatic symptom was reported by 70% of persons, and 38% reported mild to severe stress. Total scores of community integration for women were statistically significantly higher than for men. The total VAS score was correlated positively to the IES (r=0.456, P<0.456), the BDI (r=0.646, P<0.001), and negatively to the CIQ (r=-0.300, P<0.001). These results highlight the view that a significant proportion of people experience both pain and psychological difficulties for a long time after a whiplash injury. These findings should be taken into consideration in the management of subjects with chronic whiplash symptoms and may support a multi-professional rehabilitation model that integrates physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

David Hill and Walter Busuttil

Combat Stress, a charity that aims to meet the needs of veterans with psychological disability, often related to their service, is seeing growing demand for the care it…

Abstract

Combat Stress, a charity that aims to meet the needs of veterans with psychological disability, often related to their service, is seeing growing demand for the care it offers. This paper explores the impact of post‐traumatic stress disorder on veterans. In many cases, this is associated with subsequent substance misuse. In describing Combat Stress's approach to helping these individuals, it argue that mainstream and other non‐statutory service providers should develop their screening and assessment services to help meet veterans' needs.

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Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Clare S. Allely and Bob Allely

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have also found that there is an association between PTSD and higher rates of re-offending. Studies have also found that a significant number of cases of trauma and PTSD go undetected and therefore untreated in individuals who are incarcerated.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out exploring studies that have investigated PTSD in incarcerated populations to identify current clinical considerations and recommendations.

Findings

This paper explores the key findings from the literature and highlights the important clinical implications and recommendations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper focusing specifically on how the findings from the literature can inform clinical practice and also what factors need to be given greater consideration, going beyond the current systematic and literature reviews in the field.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2015

Ramadan Halimi, Emond Dragoti, Hidajete Halimi, Nazife Sylejmani-Hulaj and Sevdie Jashari-Ramadani

We aimed to assess, in socio-cultural context, the level of hatred and revenge in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sampling frame consisted of…

Abstract

We aimed to assess, in socio-cultural context, the level of hatred and revenge in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sampling frame consisted of 215 Kosova War veterans, randomly selected. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD and Manchester Short Assessment of Life was used to assess social satisfactions. The participants were asked to declare the strength of feelings of hatred and revenge in the four preceding weeks by using four items scale: not at all, a little bit/sometimes, a lot and extremely. Willingness for action of veterans was assessed using three item scale: yes, no or maybe. A probability level of 0.05 was adopted to be considered as statistically significant for differences among groups. DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD (very similar to DSM-V) were met by 52.6% of veterans; the data have confirmed existence of thoughts and fantasies of revenge against opposing forces by 42.8% veterans; at the same level 42.8% manifested feelings of hatred. Fantasies of taking revenge a lot was recorded by 19.5% and extremely by 1.4% of veterans, while hateful thoughts at level a lot were likely expressed by 22.3% and extreme by 2.8% of veterans. It is important to note that 84.7% were confident to act based on their beliefs. Social-economic and cultural factors have played major role in the understanding of psychological problems of traumatized individuals with a direct impact on their ability to function socially. This study has confirmed the urgent need for the establishment of psychological rehabilitation programs as well as programs for the social and economic rehabilitation of War Veterans.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Anna Egeressy, Tony Butler and Mick Hunter

Background: Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is over represented in the prisoner population and is predictive of violence and suicide. This raises issues in relation…

Abstract

Background: Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is over represented in the prisoner population and is predictive of violence and suicide. This raises issues in relation to prisoner management, as well as theoretical issues such as why there is a range of vulnerability for PTSD. The current study examines the relationship between PTSD and personality profiles of prisoners. Method: Data from 1305 participants in the NSW survey of health in prisoners are examined to identify relationships between personality profiles derived from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and PTSD. Participants are grouped as experiencing no trauma; with a trauma history but no PTSD; and being diagnosed with PTSD. A logistic regression modelled significant predictors of PTSD. These data indicated that women prisoners report PTSD at twice the rate of males. An increased risk for PTSD is associated with high Harm Avoidance, low Self‐Directedness, high Persistence and high Self‐Transcendence. Conclusions: A combination of both temperament and character traits influences the trajectory towards PTSD development. Targeted treatment of these traits is needed in addressing the problems of prisoners with PTSD and managing the associated risks of violence and suicide.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Karen Landay and Rachel E. Frieder

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance…

Abstract

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance, others, such as psychopathy, may strengthen them. In the present chapter, we consider the ramifications of individuals with high levels of psychopathy or psychopathic tendencies in the military with regard to both their own stress and performance and that of those around them. We discuss different reactions to psychological and physical stress, as well as the implications of psychopathic tendencies as they relate to current military issues, including gender, leadership, teamwork, turnover, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide. By juxtaposing relevant research findings on stress and psychopathy, we conclude that psychopathic tendencies should have neither uniformly negative nor positive effects on stress and performance in the military. Rather, effects on such individuals and the peripheral others with whom they interact will likely vary greatly depending on numerous factors.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1993

Eric Bailey

The belief that large‐scale natural disaster can bring severestress and deviant behaviour has existed for some time, and incidentshave been described from as far back as…

Abstract

The belief that large‐scale natural disaster can bring severe stress and deviant behaviour has existed for some time, and incidents have been described from as far back as the 1800s in America. The resultant behaviour was categorized, in 1980, as “post‐traumatic stress disorder” (PTSD). There is a division among those interested in the psychological consequences of large‐scale disaster. One school argues that mental health effects are significant and long term, the other that they are not so much so. Reviews the evidence, including examples from World War II and the Towyn floods in 1990. Suggests that two positions may apply: that PTSD exists in conventional terms, with long‐term psychological effects; or alternatively that, although there may be psychological effects, the main difficulties are caused by major disruption to normal life patterns by material effect. Concludes by suggesting that the second position may hold and that, consequently, organizations should concern themselves more with alleviating material effect while ensuring that the mental effect is minimized. Suggests further research with prompt field studies to establish the nature of the disorder.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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