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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Fabrizio Carmignani

Post-conflict economies are characterized by high, and often growing, levels of debt. At the same time, peace is particularly fragile in the aftermath of a conflict. This…

Abstract

Post-conflict economies are characterized by high, and often growing, levels of debt. At the same time, peace is particularly fragile in the aftermath of a conflict. This chapter studies how debt affects the risk of war in the 10 years that follow the end of a previous conflict. After controlling for per-capita income and other economic, political, and geographical factors, external debt is found to increase the risk of war. Conversely, the effect of domestic debt is negligible. The policy implication for the international community is clear: debt relief helps stabilize peace in war-torn economies.

Details

Cooperation for a Peaceful and Sustainable World Part 2
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-655-2

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Krisanthi Seneviratne, Dilanthi Amaratunga and Richard Haigh

Despite the role of post conflict housing reconstruction in establishing the development of peace in conflict affected countries, there are many issues which hinder its…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the role of post conflict housing reconstruction in establishing the development of peace in conflict affected countries, there are many issues which hinder its success. While the inconsideration of housing needs in post conflict housing reconstruction has directly or indirectly given rise for most of the issues, the countries emerging from conflicts face many challenges in addressing such housing needs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the management of housing needs in post conflict housing reconstruction. This paper aims to focus on identifying the challenges in addressing housing needs within the context of post conflict housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the grounded theory approach to collect and analyse the data collected through 37 in-depth interviews, conducted with policy makers, practitioners, academics and housing beneficiaries in Sri Lanka. Primary data were verified through a documents review.

Findings

The paper reveals that addressing housing needs in post conflict housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka is challenging, due to several factors. These include the socio economic profile of conflict affected people, conflict sensitive issues, donor requirements, limited availability of finance, weakened government administration, extent of housing and infrastructure damage, attitudes of affected people, land-related issues and shortage of labour and material.

Originality/value

A number of studies have identified the challenges of post conflict reconstruction. This study particularly identifies the challenges of addressing housing needs in post conflict housing reconstruction. These findings are useful for policy makers to develop strategies in addressing housing needs in post conflict housing reconstruction.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Krisanthi Seneviratne, Dilanthi Amaratunga and Richard Haigh

Post conflict housing reconstruction is crucial to development and peacekeeping. However, the success of it, is hindered by a number of problems related to a lack of…

Abstract

Purpose

Post conflict housing reconstruction is crucial to development and peacekeeping. However, the success of it, is hindered by a number of problems related to a lack of addressing housing needs. The purpose of this paper is to explore how such housing needs can be effectively managed in post conflict housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the grounded theory method as the research strategy, unstructured interviews were conducted with policy makers, practitioners, beneficiaries and academics in Sri Lanka. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding to develop the theoretical framework.

Findings

The study reveals the challenges, contributing factors and strategies in addressing housing needs of accessibility, habitability, affordability, location, facilities, cultural considerations and security of land tenure. It also identifies the gaps and recommendations. The paper establishes the links between these and presents a theoretical framework for managing housing needs effectively in post conflict housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka.

Practical implications

This research enhances the success of post conflict housing reconstruction through addressing housing needs effectively, which contributes to sustainable housing development after conflicts.

Originality/value

The study combines the literature from five main areas: conflicts, post conflict, post conflict reconstruction, post conflict housing reconstruction and housing needs and provides a better understanding on how the housing needs can be managed during post conflict housing reconstruction in developing countries based on empirical evidence.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Alemayehu Geda

Capacity building in fragile and postconflict situations is specially challenging for policy makers in that it represents a situation that needs to be carefully managed…

Abstract

Capacity building in fragile and postconflict situations is specially challenging for policy makers in that it represents a situation that needs to be carefully managed. Understanding the dynamic link between capacity building and conflict requires understanding the nature and determinants of conflicts, their duration, intensity and the modalities for their cessation and postconflict reconstruction. This study attempted to do that from systemic or theoretical perspective. A major common theme that runs across the literature is that postconflict recovery and sustainable development and the associated capacity building exercise in Africa need to have the following four feature: (1) first a broad development planning framework with a fairly long‐time horizon and an overarching objective of poverty reduction; (2) second, social policy‐making in such countries is expected to be distinct from non‐conflict countries. This signals the need to articulate country specific policies and (3) third, intervention in such states requires a high volume of aid flows and (4) forth it need to be preceded by deeper understanding of African societies by donors. This study by outlining such basic issues from theoretical perspective resorted to an outline of three core areas of capacity building that are needed in postconflict and fragile states: capacity building to address immediate needs of postconflict states, capacity building to address the core economic and political causes of conflict, as well as, capacity building to address issues of finance and financial sector reconstruction. Each of these aspects is discussed in detail in the study. The study underscores the need to view and understand capacity building exercise as part and parcel of a broad developmental problem which requires broader developmental solutions.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Qais Amarkhil and Emad Elwakil

Although there are many challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition, there is insufficient construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there are many challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition, there is insufficient construction project management literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a framework to understand and determine critical constraints and opportunities in a post-conflict condition facing local construction firms in Afghanistan. The proposed framework is composed of three major steps: identify and determine key performance indicators; identify challenges impacting organization operation and performance in post-conflict condition; determine critical constraints and opportunities based on prioritized performance measures; and organizational strength and weakness factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength, weakness, opportunities and threat matrix analysis has been used to determine post-conflict condition constraints and opportunities. Then the analytical hierarchy process has been used to prioritize the measures and identify the constraints and opportunities facing construction companies in a post-conflict situation. The mix-research method is applied to this study to analyse qualitative variables and quantitative variables obtained from the experts’ opinions and 51 filled questioners.

Findings

The study shows that there are a total of 11 critical constraints and three essential opportunities for construction companies that industry practitioners and policymakers should take into account while formulating the organizational strategy.

Practical implications

The developed framework will benefit construction companies in improving their performance and operation in after-conflict conditions.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive conceptualization of the challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition. It also offers a novel conceptual framework to understand and determine critical constraints and opportunities in a post-conflict condition facing local construction firms in Afghanistan.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Peter Arthur

There have recently been concerted efforts by many postconflict African countries to formulate and implement policies and measures that will reconstruct and develop their…

Abstract

There have recently been concerted efforts by many postconflict African countries to formulate and implement policies and measures that will reconstruct and develop their societies. Much of the discussions of realizing postconflict reconstruction and development have generally focused on disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of ex‐combatants. What is however, missing is a discussion on capacity development and capacity building initiatives to help in reconstruction in the period after DDR. This paper therefore examines the importance of capacity development in postconflict African environment. It notes that while demobilising and disarming warring factions is important, the success of reconstruction efforts in a postconflict environment depends largely on the ability to build and develop capacity and skills that are pertinent to helping reconstruct and promote the development goals of the countries. It is argued that postconflict societies should have a coherent and co‐ordinate approach to rebuilding, reconstructing and developing the capacity of the state in order to achieve the state’s legitimacy and effectiveness. Such capacity development measures should involve the development of physical infrastructure; the building of the state’s institutional structures; the promotion of good political and economic governance; skills and education training for individuals; and measures to improve and deliver security and social services.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

James Earnest

Rehabilitation and reconstruction of social and economic infrastructure in a post-conflict environment are complex, long-debated issues in development cooperation. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Rehabilitation and reconstruction of social and economic infrastructure in a post-conflict environment are complex, long-debated issues in development cooperation. In addition to war creating large-scale human suffering, generating refugees, displacing populations, engendering psychological distress, obliterating infrastructure and transforming the economy, in post-conflict situations, deepening chaos and disorder can be found at the highest social, economic and political levels; serious developmental challenges remain insufficiently addressed. Repairing war-damaged infrastructure in order to reactivate the local economy is a challenge for all post-conflict countries. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed to examine planning and execution of post-conflict reconstruction (PCR). The use of a mixed-method research approach combining both quantitative and qualitative data collection was used to explore planning and implementation of PCR infrastructure projects in Kosovo. The data collection in the field was undertaken for a period of eight weeks, from July to September 2008. A total of 420 respondents were involved in the study process, as follows: key informants (four), pilot test (12), semi-structured interviews (36), project manager/engineers survey (231), chief of mission/country director survey (117), and focus group (20). To meet the needs of the society and recognise the required functional components of project management, the overall contexts of managing projects in a post-conflict environment have been discussed in the study.

Findings

Planning and implementing reconstruction projects in areas affected by conflict have proven to be far more challenging than expected and responses by practitioners, aid agencies, and government regarded as inadequate. The changing political, economic, and social factors in Kosovo after the war in 1999 have had a significant influence on the limited adoption of a project management methodology in development and reconstruction projects. The findings from the exploratory study were aimed at improving understanding of the planning, pre-designing, and implementation of infrastructure projects. The findings indicated a need to promote a better understanding of how projects are undertaken at all levels of the organisation, and to describe processes, procedures, and tools used for the actual application of projects. The findings of the study identified a poor quality of planning and implementation of reconstruction projects in an environment of complexity, change, and uncertainty. The study also raised some very significant findings for a broader approach to community involvement in project identification, planning, and implementation. Infrastructure projects implemented in Kosovo were used to develop a conceptual framework for designing projects and programmes more likely to yield positive outcomes for post-conflict society.

Originality/value

The study was done by the researcher in Kosovo.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Shaza Aldairany, Rosmini Omar and Farzana Quoquab

Conflict environments are under researchers’ scope in many disciplines at micro and macro levels. This paper aims to steer towards finding out how literature addresses…

1069

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict environments are under researchers’ scope in many disciplines at micro and macro levels. This paper aims to steer towards finding out how literature addresses entrepreneurship in conflict contexts. In addition, this paper tries to ascertain the theoretical bases and main themes and issues that have been studied in this area, to map the current knowledge in a clear frame as an attempt to highlight gaps and weaknesses in relevant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Review entrepreneurship, conflict and post-conflict literature including the terminologies, theories, methodologies are the main themes. The primary sources of data are research articles that were published in scholarly journals and written in English. The paper includes, in the final list of reviewed articles, 57 articles.

Findings

The review reveals three main themes of the special definition of entrepreneurship in conflict areas. Many gaps remain, despite the growing interests. More involvement in collecting data directly from the area under conflict is required instead of the heavy dependency on secondary data. In addition, destructive business and conflict consequences have promising research issues to be discovered more in single places or collectively for broader comprehensiveness. These findings may assist researchers, policymakers and international bodies to approach the current literature and build farther on it.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to provide a mapping of literature that focuses on how entrepreneurship in conflict and post-conflict could differ or be similar to stable contexts. The findings advance motivation for future empirical studies to encompass issues and development of entrepreneurship orientation, taxonomies and impacts in conflict and post-conflict contexts.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Ziyana Mohamed Nazeemudeen

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) requires that women’s experiences, needs, and perspectives are incorporated into the political, legal, and…

Abstract

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) requires that women’s experiences, needs, and perspectives are incorporated into the political, legal, and social decisions in order to achieve transitional justice. In a post-conflict society, peace, and security should be understood in a wider context of justice encompassing accountability process and mechanisms, reparations for victims and upholding the principle of equality in all spheres of lives. Thus, the objective of the UNSCR 1325 is to increase women’s participation in decision-making in the peace process to address the wider context of women’s situation in post-conflict society and committing to protect women’s socioeconomic rights. It is obvious that women’s mere presence in decision-making process is insufficient in restoring stability in post-conflict society. Women’s participation will only be meaningful if they are empowered to be active rather than passive participants. Hence, it is argued that women’s leadership could only be built, if they are given adequate representation in decision-making process and institutions. Women’s participation in decision-making and women’s economic empowerment has a symbiotic impact on each other. When women are not stable economically and unable to freely make social choices and take responsibilities, they will not have the courage to compete in an election. Thus, this brief study argues that the economic marginalization (overt and covert discrimination) exposes women to multiple discrimination in post-conflict society in Sri Lanka. Hence, countries like Sri Lanka need to address the existing gap in this sphere of women empowerment and leadership. It concludes that the realization of women’s rights to equality in post-conflict Sri Lanka may be a slow process, but the Sri Lankan experiences provide a good case study on how to face the different challenges in post-conflict context.

Details

Peace, Reconciliation and Social Justice Leadership in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-193-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Andrés Cabrera-Narváez and Fabián Leonardo Quinche-Martín

This paper aims to study the use of photos in corporate sustainability reports (CSRs) as a means to gain legitimacy concerning Colombian post-conflict representations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the use of photos in corporate sustainability reports (CSRs) as a means to gain legitimacy concerning Colombian post-conflict representations.

Design/methodology/approach

From a critical perspective based on legitimacy theory and political economy theory, and using visual semiotics and critical discourse analysis, this paper examines the use of photographs in sustainability reports as a mechanism to account for corporate actions regarding peace in Colombia. This paper relies on 121 pictures from 30 CSRs.

Findings

The analysis shows that companies are gaining legitimacy by referring to post-conflict through visual forms. Nonetheless, the structural conditions that caused the Colombian conflict are still present. Sustainability reporting that includes peace action representations becomes a control and subordination mechanism to reproduce existing power relations in the Colombian social order. Indeed, the generation of opportunities for civilians and ex-combatants, victims reparation, security and reconciliation remains unresolved structural issues. Hence, the use of corporate economic resources and their strategic visual representation in reports is just one business way of representing firms as aligned with government initiatives to obtain tax incentives.

Research limitations/implications

This study is centered on Colombian CSRs for the period 2016-2017; however, 2017 reports by some companies have not yet been published. This study also explored the messages contained in the images that include people. Images that do not depict persons were not examined.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence on visual representations of corporate peace actions aimed at gaining corporate legitimacy. Furthermore, this research examines a unique scenario that promoted more significant corporate social participation, following the signing of the peace agreements between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, Ejército del Pueblo).

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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