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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Eric Osei-Assibey and Seth Obeng Adu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of portfolio equity flows to the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region over the period 1996-2010.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of portfolio equity flows to the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region over the period 1996-2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 14 SSA countries to estimate the baseline regression through employing the system generalized methods of moment dynamic panel estimation framework. To check the robustness of the estimation results, the study further analyses the data set using the random effects-generalized least squares (EGLS) estimator. The Random effects-generalized least squares estimator is also referred to a the Estimated Generalized least Squares (EGLS) estimator.

Findings

The paper finds a significant positive relationship between financial development and portfolio equity flows. Furthermore, while the study surprisingly finds trade openness to have a significant negative relationship, political stability is found to have a significant positive relationship with portfolio equity. To check for the robustness of these results, the authors further analyse the data set using the random EGLS estimator. The result of the EGLS estimator confirms that there is a robust positive relationship between financial development and portfolio equity flows to SSA. However, the results suggest that neither trade openness nor political stability is a robust determinant of portfolio equity flows to the sub-region.

Practical implications

Policy measures should aim at enhancing financial sector development, political stability and rule of law. A transparent judicial system that enhances rule of law and deepens democratic governance in countries in the sub-region is critical, but even more critical is deepening the financial sector, given the important role financial development plays in portfolio equity flows as suggested by the findings. A range of measures and appropriate policy responses are therefore needed for countries that have to manage macroeconomic and financial stability risks to deepen the financial sector.

Originality/value

Most studies on private capital flows to SSA have focussed on foreign direct investment flows with no or scanty evidence on the drivers of portfolio equity flows. This study fills this gap in the literature.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2014

Christian Landau

We investigate whether active involvement of private equity firms in their portfolio companies during the holding period of a later-stage private equity investment is…

Abstract

We investigate whether active involvement of private equity firms in their portfolio companies during the holding period of a later-stage private equity investment is related to increased levels in operating performance of these companies. Our analysis of unique survey data on 267 European buyouts and secondary performance data on 29 portfolio companies using partial least squares structural equation modeling indicates that private equity firms, that is, their board representatives, can increase operating performance not only by monitoring the behavior of top managers of portfolio companies, but also by becoming involved in strategic decisions and supporting top managers through the provision of strategic resources. Strategic resources, in particular expertise and networks, provided by private equity firm representatives in the form of financial and strategic involvement are associated with increases in the financial performance and competitive prospects of portfolio companies. Operational involvement, however, is not related to changes in operating performance. In addition to empirical insights into the different types of involvement and their effects, this chapter contributes to the buyout literature by providing support for the suggested broadening of the theoretical discussion beyond the dominant perspective of agency theory through developing and testing a complementary resource-based view of involvement. This allows taking into account not only the monitoring, but also the more entrepreneurial supporting element of involvement by private equity firms.

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Andriansyah Andriansyah and George Messinis

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework to test the hypothesis that portfolio model predicts a negative correlation between stock prices and exchange rates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework to test the hypothesis that portfolio model predicts a negative correlation between stock prices and exchange rates in a trivariate transmission channel for foreign portfolio equity investment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes panel data for eight economies to extend the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) Granger non-causality test of heterogeneous panels to a trivariate model by integrating the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) approach to Granger causality.

Findings

The evidence suggests that stock prices Granger-cause exchange rates and portfolio equity flows Granger-cause exchange rates. However, the overall panel evidence casts doubt on the explicit trivariate model of portfolio balance model. The study shows that Indonesia may be the only case where stock prices affect exchange rates through portfolio equity flows.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed test does not account for potential asymmetries or structural shifts associated with the crisis period. To isolate the impact of the Asian Financial crisis, this paper rather splits the sample period into two sub-periods: pre- and post-crises. The sample period and countries are also limited due to the use of the balance of payment statistics.

Practical implications

The study casts doubt on the maintained hypothesis of a trivariate transmission channel, as posited by the portfolio model. Policy makers of an economy may integrate capital market and fiscal policies in order to maintain stable exchange rate.

Originality/value

This paper integrates a portfolio equity inflow variable into a single framework with stock price and exchange rate variables. It extends the Dumitrescu and Hurlin’s (2012) bivariate stationary Granger non-causality test in heterogeneous panels to a trivariate setting in the framework of Toda and Yamamoto (1995).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Alexander Scholz, Stephan Lang and Wolfgang Schaefers

Understanding the pricing of real estate equities is a central objective of real estate research. This paper aims to investigate the impact of liquidity on European real…

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Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the pricing of real estate equities is a central objective of real estate research. This paper aims to investigate the impact of liquidity on European real estate equity returns, after accounting for well-documented systematic risk factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on risk factors derived from general equity data, the authors extend the Fama-French time-series regression approach by a liquidity factor, using a pan-European sample of 272 real estate equities.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that liquidity is a significant pricing factor in real estate stock returns, even after controlling for market, size and book-to-market factors. In addition, the authors detect that real estate stock returns load predominantly positively on the liquidity risk factor, suggesting that real estate equities tend to behave like illiquid common equities. These findings are underpinned by a series of robustness checks. Running a comparative analysis with alternative factor models, the authors further demonstrate that the liquidity-augmented asset-pricing model is most appropriate for explaining European real estate stock returns.

Research limitations/implications

The inclusion of sentiment and downside risk factors could provide further insights into real estate asset pricing in European capital markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the role of liquidity as a systematic risk factor in a pan-European setting.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Stephan Lang and Alexander Scholz

The risk-return relationship of real estate equities is of particular interest for investors, practitioners and researchers. The purpose of this paper is to examine, in an…

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1183

Abstract

Purpose

The risk-return relationship of real estate equities is of particular interest for investors, practitioners and researchers. The purpose of this paper is to examine, in an asset pricing framework, whether the systematic risk factors play a significantly different role in explaining the returns of listed real estate companies, compared to general equities.

Design/methodology/approach

Running the difference test of the Fama-French three-factor and the liquidity-augmented asset pricing model, the authors analyze the effect of the systematic risk factors related to market, size, BE/ME and liquidity in a time-series setting over the period July 1992 to June 2012. By applying the propensity score matching (PSM) algorithm, the authors bypass the “curse of dimensionality” of traditional matching techniques and identify a comparable control sample of general equities, in terms of the relevant firm characteristics of size, BE/ME and liquidity.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that European real estate equity returns load significantly differently on the size, value and liquidity factor, while the influence of the market factor seems to be equivalent. In addition, the authors find an economically and statistically significant underperformance of European real estate equities, after accounting for the diverging role of systematic risk factors. Running the conditional time-series regression, the authors further reveal that these findings are predominately caused by the divergent risk-return behavior of real estate equities in economic downturns.

Practical implications

Due to the diverging role of the systematic risk factors in pricing real estate equities, the authors provide evidence of potential diversification benefits for investors and portfolio managers.

Originality/value

This is the first real estate asset pricing study to dissect the unique risk-return relationship of real estate equities by employing propensity score matching.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

William Coffie and Osita Chukwulobelu

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine whether or not the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) reasonably describes the return generating process on the…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine whether or not the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) reasonably describes the return generating process on the Ghanaian Stock Exchange using monthly return data of 19 individual companies listed on the Exchange during the period January 2000 to December 2009.

Methodology/approach – We follow a methodology similar to Jensen (1968) time series approach. Parameters are estimated using OLS. This study is designed to measure beta risk across different times by following the time series approach. The betas of the individual securities are estimated using time series data of the excess return version of the CAPM.

Findings – Our test results show that although market beta contributes to the variation in equity returns in Ghana, its contribution is not as significant as predicted by the CAPM, and in some cases very weak. Our results also reject the strictest form of the Sharpe–Lintner CAPM, but we found positive linear relationship between equity risk premium and market beta. Instead, our evidence uphold the Jensen (1968) and Jensen, Black, and Scholes (1972) versions of the CAPM.

Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the single-factor CAPM. Future studies will extend the test to include both size and BE/ME fundamentals and factors relating to P/E ratio, momentum and liquidity.

Practical implications – Our results will make corporate managers to be cautious when using CAPM as a basis to determine cost of equity for investment appraisal purposes, and fund managers when evaluating asset and portfolio performance.

Originality/value – The CAPM is applied to individual securities instead of portfolios, since the model was developed using information on a single security.

Details

Finance and Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-225-7

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2014

David M. Smith

This study examines several aspects of active portfolio management by equity hedge funds between 1996 and 2013. Consistent with the idea that cross-sectional return…

Abstract

This study examines several aspects of active portfolio management by equity hedge funds between 1996 and 2013. Consistent with the idea that cross-sectional return dispersion is a proxy for the market’s available alpha, our results show that equity hedge funds achieve their strongest performance during periods of elevated dispersion. The performance advantage is robust to numerous risk adjustments. Portfolio managers may use the current month’s dispersion to plan the extent to which the following month’s investment approach will be active or passive. We also estimate the active share for equity hedge funds and find an average of 53%. We further document the average annual expense ratio for managing hedge funds’ active share to be about 7%. This figure is remarkably close to active expense ratios reported previously for equity mutual funds, which may be interpreted as evidence of uniform pricing for active portfolio management services.

Details

Signs that Markets are Coming Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-931-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Bart Frijns and Ivan Indriawan

This paper aims to assess the ability of New Zealand (NZ) actively managed funds to generate risk-adjusted outperformance using portfolio holdings data. Focusing on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the ability of New Zealand (NZ) actively managed funds to generate risk-adjusted outperformance using portfolio holdings data. Focusing on domestic equity allocations addresses the benchmark selection issue, particularly for funds with national and international exposures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assess performance using several asset pricing models including the CAPM, three-factor and four-factor models. The authors also assess performance across funds with different characteristics such as fund size, size of local holdings, type of fund provider, past returns and fees. The authors further examine whether funds engage in any stock-picking or market timing by considering the active share and tracking error.

Findings

The returns on NZ equity holdings of NZ actively managed funds from 2010 to 2017 provide little evidence of risk-adjusted outperformance and stock-picking skill. These exposures yield pre-cost returns that have a nearly perfect correlation with the market index and an insignificant alpha. Funds show little tendency to bet on any of the main characteristics known to predict stock returns, such as size, book-to-market and momentum. In addition, the authors show that the average active shares and tracking errors are low, suggesting that the majority of funds hold NZ equity portfolios that closely mimic the market index.

Originality/value

Existing studies rely on returns data which aggregate performance across all asset classes with varying exposures. This may lead to benchmark selection issues (particularly for funds with international exposures) which may obscure the fund manager’s true stock-picking skills. Assessment using holdings data would enable suitable performance measurement by researchers and industry analysts.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Florin Aliu, Artor Nuhiu, Besnik A. Krasniqi and Gent Jusufi

This study aims to compare the diversification risk of the crypto portfolio with those of equity portfolios. For this purpose, the hypothetical index was constructed with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the diversification risk of the crypto portfolio with those of equity portfolios. For this purpose, the hypothetical index was constructed with 20 cryptocurrencies that hold the highest market capitalization in the Coin Market Cap database, named as the Crypto-Index 20.

Design/methodology/approach

The portfolio diversification techniques were used to identify risk linked with the six largest European equity indexes and compared with the Crypto-Index 20. Indexes were considered as an independent portfolio while analysis was completed separately for each of them. Data concerning stock prices and their trade volume were collected from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database while crypto prices and their trade volume from the Coin Market Cap database. The diversification risk of the stock indexes was measured separately for each portfolio with the same risk techniques and the same methodological process.

Findings

Research results indicate that Crypto-Index 20 on average was 76 times riskier than FTSE 100, 55 times riskier than FTSE MIB, 44 times riskier than IBEX 35, 10 times riskier than CAC 40 and 9 times riskier than DAX and MDAX. Crypto-Index 20 comprises a stronger positive correlation and is exposed to higher volatility than six selected European equity indexes.

Originality/value

This research provides practical implications for the investors on the diversification benefits and risks attached to the cryptocurrencies portfolio by comparing it with the traditional equity portfolios. From a policy perspective, regulators might obtain information on the risk properties involved into cryptocurrencies and the possibility of creating an optimal portfolio.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2016

Jana Hili, Desmond Pace and Simon Grima

The uncertainty as to whether investments in riskier and less efficient markets allow managers to ‘beat the market’ remains a question to which answers are required…

Abstract

Purpose

The uncertainty as to whether investments in riskier and less efficient markets allow managers to ‘beat the market’ remains a question to which answers are required. Accordingly, the purpose of this chapter is to offer new insights on portfolios of the US, European and Emerging Market (‘EM’) domiciled equity mutual funds whose objectives are the investment in emerging economies, and specifically analyses two main issues: alpha generation and the influence of the funds’ characteristics on their risk-adjusted performance.

Methodology/approach

The dataset is made up a survivorship-bias controlled sample of 137 equity funds over the period January 2004 to December 2014, which are then grouped into equally weighted portfolios according to the scheme’s origin. The Jensen’s (1968) Single-Factor model along with the Fama and French’s (1993) and Carhart’s (1997) multifactor models are employed to authenticate results and answer both research questions.

Findings

Research analysis reveals that EM exposed fund managers fail to collectively outperform the market. It thereby offers ground to believe that the emerging world is very close to being efficient, proving that the Efficient Market Hypothesis (‘EMH’) ideal exists in this scenario where market inefficiency might only be a perception of market participants as any apparent opportunity to achieve above-average returns is speedily snapped up by very active managers. Overall these managers take a conservative approach to portfolio construction, whereby they are more unperturbed investing in large cap equity funds so as to lessen somewhat the exposure towards risks associated with liquidity, stability and volatility.

Furthermore, the findings show that large-sized equity portfolios have the lead over the medium and small-sized competitors, whilst the high cost and mature collective investment vehicles enjoy an alpha which although is negative is superior to their peers. The riskiest funds generated the lowest alpha, and thereby produced doubts as to whether investors should accept a higher risk for the hope of earning higher returns, at least when aiming to gain an exposure into the emerging world.

Originality/value

Mutual fund performance is not an innovative topic so to speak. Nonetheless, researchers and academia have centred their efforts on appraising the behaviour of fund managers domiciled primarily in developed and more efficient economics, leaving the emerging region highly uncovered in this respect. This study, therefore aims at crafting meaningful contributions to the literature as well as to the practical perspective.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Bank Financial Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-000-8

Keywords

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