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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Petri Suomala

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance

Abstract

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance measurement is one of the means that can be employed in the pursuit of effectiveness.

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Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2012

Cameron K. Tuai

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library…

Abstract

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library administrators. To understand how to control the costs of integration, this study uses structural contingency theory to study the coordination of librarians and technologists within the information commons.

Design/methodology/approach – This study tests the structural contingency theory expectation that an organization will achieve higher levels of performance when there is a positive relationship between the degree of workflow interdependence and the complexity of coordinative structures necessary to integrate these workflows. This expectation was tested by (a) identifying and collecting a sample of information common; (b) developing and validating survey instruments to test the proposition; and (c) quantitatively analyzing the data to test the proposed contingency theory relationship.

Findings – The contingency theory expectations were confirmed by finding both a positive relationship between coordination and interdependence and a positive relationship between perceptions of performance and degree of congruency between interdependence and coordination.

Limitations – The findings of this study are limited to both the context of an information common and the structures tested. Future research should seek to both broaden the context in which these findings are applicable, and test additional structural relationships as proposed by contingency theory

Practical implications – This study contributes to the library profession in a number of ways. First, it suggests that managers can improve IC performance by matching coordination structures to the degree of interdependence. For instance, when librarians and technologists are strictly co-located, managers should coordinate workflows using less resource-intensive policies rather than meetings. Second, the instruments developed in this study will improve the library manager's ability to measure and report unit interdependence and coordination in a valid and reliable manner. Lastly, it also contributes to the study of structural contingency theory by presenting one of the first empirical confirmations of a positive relationship between interdependence and coordination.

Originality/value – This study represents one of the first empirical confirmations of the structural contingency theory expectations of both a positive relationship between workflow interdependence and coordination, and a positive relationship between performance and coordination's fit to workflow interdependence. These findings are of value to both organizational theorists and to administrators of information commons.

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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-313-1

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2007

James R. Evans

The objective of this paper is to analyze and interpret some empirical results, obtained from an online survey, on the types of review and analysis approaches used by…

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3603

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to analyze and interpret some empirical results, obtained from an online survey, on the types of review and analysis approaches used by organizations in manufacturing, service, education, health care, and not‐for‐profit sectors and their relationships with business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered using an online survey to capture basic information about the organization and its performance, the types of measures used in each of the five Baldrige results item groups, types and frequencies of review of the data, and types of analyses conducted. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistical analyses and tests for significant differences.

Findings

The results suggest that a significant gap exists in the sophistication of analysis methods between higher and lower performing organizations in terms of customer, financial, and market performance, and that better performance is associated with more mature and sophisticated approaches to performance analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the exploratory nature of this study, the generalizibility of the conclusions is limited; however, the results of this study can be useful for developing more formal theories to understand management practices and business performance and, as a basis for more designing, research efforts validate the propositions suggested by these theories.

Practical implications

Managers should invest in effective performance measurement systems that include sound approaches for analyzing results and sharing information appropriately throughout the organization.

Originality/value

This work provides further validation of the quality management principle and Baldrige core value of “management by fact,” and offers practical advice for designing effective performance management systems.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Gabriela Lobo Veiga, Edson Pinheiro de Lima, José Roberto Frega and Sergio E. Gouvea da Costa

To investigate the relationship between performance frontier and operations strategy. A two-level conceptual framework is proposed based on performance elements that act…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the relationship between performance frontier and operations strategy. A two-level conceptual framework is proposed based on performance elements that act as output/input variables and delimit the scope of the frontier analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The framework proposition is based on the fourth round of high-performance manufacturing survey data. A representative set of variables for assessing performance based on operations strategy constructs is defined through multivariate data analysis techniques. The main method used is the principal component analysis.

Findings

The proposed first-level conceptual framework formalizes the relationships between performance frontier analysis techniques and operations strategy, delimiting the scope and the structural definitions. The second-level conceptual framework defines the constructs of the input and output dimensions for frontier analysis studies.

Originality/value

The paper contribution is developed in the gap of market-led orientation to study operations strategy performance frontier since most related literature focuses on capabilities development with a main focus on the resource-based view (RBV) approach. A conceptual framework based on the competitive priorities is therefore proposed to represent the operations strategy in the view of the frontier techniques. The value lies in defining performance measures which are not a straightforward task as the growth of organization competitiveness and complexity require multiple performance measures. A deeper understanding of frontier estimation on the operations strategy context is also provided, contributing to positively influence firms to succeed in the current dynamic competitive environments.

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International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2015

Malcolm B. Coate

Plus Factors have long played an important role in inferring a price agreement from the totality of the evidence. In response to changes in the case law, economists have…

Abstract

Purpose

Plus Factors have long played an important role in inferring a price agreement from the totality of the evidence. In response to changes in the case law, economists have proposed two alternative paths for the future of price fixing analysis. This paper evaluates the suggested approaches and recommends retaining the enhanced Plus Factor methodology.

Methodology/approach

By carefully defining the Plus Factor concept, three key components of the analysis emerge: (1) information on communications associated with the alleged agreement, (2) economic considerations affecting market competition, and (3) characteristics that serve to differentiate explicit from tacit collusion.

Findings

Developments rationalizing the Plus Factor concept show promise, as the methodology is not more closely related to economic theory. On the other hand, replacement of the Plus Factor methodology with one focused on market performance seems problematic. By abandoning the Plus Factor concept, the economist loses a key institutional constraint on over-aggressive enforcement.

Practical implications

Until advocates can address the difficulties associated with using performance evidence to identify price fixing, the standard Plus Factor concept appears more appropriate. Thus, antitrust analysts should continue to use the Plus Factor methodology to infer agreements in price fixing investigations, as long as the economic rationalization of the specific Plus Factor is clearly presented.

Originality/value

The paper synthesizes a number of recent contributions to the price fixing literature and addresses key issues of interest to the enforcement community. By providing a critique of the proposed policy shift to use performance evidence to infer price fixing liability, the study serves to justify continued application of the Plus Factor methodology.

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Economic and Legal Issues in Competition, Intellectual Property, Bankruptcy, and the Cost of Raising Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-562-8

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Anne Pemberton, Jerome Hoskins and Caitlin Boninti

The purpose of this paper is to outline a useful model for identifying and addressing employee performance issues in academic libraries, specifically in a Learning Commons.

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2489

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline a useful model for identifying and addressing employee performance issues in academic libraries, specifically in a Learning Commons.

Design/methodology/approach

The Human Performance Technology (HPT) model created by the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) was used to identify employee performance issues in a newly created Learning Commons at a mid‐size academic library.

Findings

Applying the HPT model to a Learning Commons enabled the authors to identify organizational and employee performance issues and identify solutions to these issues. The HPT model was deemed a useful tool for addressing performance issues.

Research limitations/implications

Little research has been published using the HPT model in libraries and more research should be performed to determine the suitability of this model for libraries. It should be acknowledged that the model is used to identify weaknesses and any organization using this model will likely uncover areas for improvement.

Practical implications

The HPT model provides a method to identify measurable performance indicators which could be used to set standards of performance for employees. Setting such standards can help achieve and maintain levels of high quality for any library service. This model is particularly useful when employees at one service point may include a combination of student workers, paraprofessionals, and librarians.

Originality/value

The study could identify only one article in the relevant literature addressing the use of the HPT model in a library setting. This paper more broadly introduces HPT to the field of librarianship as an assessment tool.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Joseph R. Sasson and Ian Douglas

The current paper seeks to describe a conceptual integration of the fields of performance analysis, knowledge management (KM), and technology to create a net‐centric

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2814

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper seeks to describe a conceptual integration of the fields of performance analysis, knowledge management (KM), and technology to create a net‐centric knowledge management system (KMS).

Design/methodology/approach

The design methodology incorporates an interdisciplinary approach and the involvement of various government agencies that provides a basis for creating a process‐centered KMS.

Findings

Three prototypes that integrate the aforementioned fields have been created and demonstrate the viability and value of this type of KMS.

Originality/value

The authors know of no other system that is as integrative, interdisciplinary, comprehensive, and effective at taking a process‐centered view of KM. This paper provides an example of how such a system can be built and implemented to meet KM needs in a complex environment with knowledge accessibility challenges.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Ruggero Sainaghi, Rodolfo Baggio, Paul Phillips and Aurelio G. Mauri

This paper aims to provide a review of hotel performance within the hospitality and tourism research domain. The authors use network analysis to examine two research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of hotel performance within the hospitality and tourism research domain. The authors use network analysis to examine two research questions. The first relates to ascertaining general trends within the hotel performance literature, and the second focuses on identifying the salient streams and sub-topics.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles were selected according to three criteria: keywords, journals and year of publication. The analysis embraces 20 years (1996-2015). These choices assure a wide coverage of the literature. Using these three criteria, the sample includes 1,155 papers. For the analysis, the authors created a network of papers designated as nodes, and the citations among the papers as links. A network approach recognizes the internal structure of the network by identifying groups of nodes (papers) that are more densely connected between themselves than to other nodes within the network (modules, clusters or communities).

Findings

The authors found 761 papers that were “connected” studies within the network. By contrast, 34 per cent of the sample (394 papers) consists of “unconnected” studies. Excluding outliers, the net sample was 734 articles. The authors identify 14 clusters, which they break down into several sub-topics. The authors conclude by providing some conclusions regarding trends and future research directions. With regards to salient topics, cross-citation and network analysis provide a detailed picture of where the literature comes from and where it currently stands. Conclusions are articulated at the theoretical and empirical levels.

Originality/value

Compared with previous hotel performance reviews, the approach followed by this study enables the discovery of an analytical research map, which is able to identify both clusters and sub-topics populating each segment. Researchers are able to position their work and identify issues that are in growth and decline.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Teck‐Yong Eng

An important managerial task in business‐to‐business marketing is the strategic management of supplier‐customer relationships, which is concerned with a portfolio of…

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3741

Abstract

An important managerial task in business‐to‐business marketing is the strategic management of supplier‐customer relationships, which is concerned with a portfolio of relationships. A review of existing customer portfolio theories reveals that: most of the portfolio dimensions have not yet been empirically validated; the theoretical base of relevant dimensions may be conceptually inadequate in terms of strategy analysis; and the link between customer portfolio dimensions and customer performance has not yet been examined. Attempts to address these gaps in the literature by studying customer portfolios of large UK‐based banks. The main results indicate that the common industrial organization perspective may only give a short run picture of customer performance. Suggests that long run positioning value of a customer portfolio can be accounted for by resource‐based analysis and strategic approach to customer portfolio analysis. Concludes with a discussion of the results and implications.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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