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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Hossein Karimi, Timothy R.B. Taylor, Paul M. Goodrum and Cidambi Srinivasan

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

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1006

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A database of 50 North American construction projects completed between 2001 and 2014 was compiled by taking information from a research project survey and the Construction Industry Institute Benchmarking and Metrics Database. The t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to determine whether there was a significant difference in construction project safety performance on projects with craft worker recruiting difficulty. Poisson regression analysis was then used to examine the relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Total Number of Recordable Incident Cases per 200,000 Actual Direct Work Hours (TRIR) on construction projects.

Findings

The result showed that the TRIR distribution of a group of projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty tended to be higher than the TRIR distribution of a group of projects with no craft worker recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.004). Moreover, the average TRIR of the projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty was more than two times the average TRIR of projects that experienced no craft recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.035). Furthermore, the Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that there was a positive exponential relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and TRIR in construction projects (p-value = 0.004).

Research limitations/implications

The projects used to construct the database are heavily weighted towards industrial construction.

Practical implications

There have been significant long-term gains in construction safety within the USA. However, if recent craft shortages continue, the quantitative analyses presented herein indicate a strong possibility that more safety incidents will occur unless the shortages are reversed. Innovative construction means and methods should be developed and adopted to work in a safe manner with a less qualified workforce.

Originality/value

The Poisson regression model is the first model that quantifiably links project craft worker availability to construction project safety performance.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Ebenezer Toyin Megbowon and Abbyssinia Mushunje

The purpose of this paper is to analyze food security status and its determinants among households in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze food security status and its determinants among households in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on the General Household Survey which was conducted in 2014 where 3,033 households were sampled from the province. Specifically, this study examines the determinants of food security proxy by dietary diversity (24-hour recall) using descriptive statistics, Poisson regression. A frequency count of food groups consumed household dietary diversity score was used as the explained variable.

Findings

The descriptive analysis shows that, although 61.7 percent of households in the study area have a high dietary diversity score, however, food group giving micronutrients are less consumed as food groups having cereals (maize), beef, sugar and oil was mostly consumed. Results on the marginal effect of Poisson regression indicate that household head characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status, and employment status), pension receiving households and geographical location significantly influence household dietary diversity.

Originality/value

This study advocates for the intensification of rural development and food security programs, formal and informal education for household heads, female empowerment and dietary enlightenment for households in order to promote the consumption of diverse diets and more healthful food groups.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Sandra García-Bustos, Nadia Cárdenas-Escobar, Ana Debón and César Pincay

The study aims to design a control chart based on an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart of Pearson's residuals of a model of negative binomial regression

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to design a control chart based on an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart of Pearson's residuals of a model of negative binomial regression in order to detect possible anomalies in mortality data.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed chart, the authors have considered official historical records of death of children of Ecuador. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to the data, and a chart of the Pearson residuals was designed. The parameters of the chart were obtained by simulation, as well as the performances of the charts related to changes in the mean of death.

Findings

When the chart was plotted, outliers were detected in the deaths of children in the years 1990–1995, 2001–2006, 2013–2015, which could show that there are underreporting or an excessive growth in mortality. In the analysis of performances, the value of λ = 0.05 presented the fastest detection of changes in the mean death.

Originality/value

The proposed charts present better performances in relation to EWMA charts for deviance residuals, with a remarkable advantage of the Pearson residuals, which are much easier to interpret and calculate. Finally, the authors would like to point out that although this paper only applies control charts to Ecuadorian infant mortality, the methodology can be used to calculate mortality in any geographical area or to detect outbreaks of infectious diseases.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2007

J. Myles Shaver

As a field, we should put more emphasis on interpreting the magnitude of coefficient estimates rather than only assessing statistical significance. To support this claim…

Abstract

As a field, we should put more emphasis on interpreting the magnitude of coefficient estimates rather than only assessing statistical significance. To support this claim, I demonstrate how focusing only on statistical significance can lead to incorrect and incomplete conclusions in many common applications of the linear regression model. Moreover, I demonstrate why interpreting coefficient estimates in common non-linear estimators (e.g., probit, logit, Poisson, and negative binomial estimators) requires additional care compared to the linear regression model.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1404-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Eric C.C. Shiu, John A. Dawson and David W. Marshall

Convenience and health trends are arguably the two most prevailing consumption trends in the British food market, with single‐adult households as keener followers than…

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6160

Abstract

Convenience and health trends are arguably the two most prevailing consumption trends in the British food market, with single‐adult households as keener followers than many other household types. Two portfolios of food products have been developed as proxies of the twin trends respectively, and the Poisson regression technique is employed to segment these two trend markets. Results confirm some previously held views, challenge others, and make some serendipity that has not been found in previous studies. Marketers are informed of greater accessibility in the health trend market vis‐à‐vis the convenience trend market for segmentation purpose, and are advised to treat the two trend markets as non‐overlapping. A number of future research directions, including a multivariate measure of the aspiration intensity of the two food trends and a measure of the twin trends for a wider range of typical products within the consumer market, are suggested.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 106 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Showkat Ahmad Shah and Md. Saiful Islam

A wetland is a place of tourist attraction, and tourism values play a key role in economic development. Among various services provided by a wetland, recreational services…

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380

Abstract

Purpose

A wetland is a place of tourist attraction, and tourism values play a key role in economic development. Among various services provided by a wetland, recreational services are increasingly valuable in the tourism sector. This paper aims to unfold the potential recreational values of the Dal Lake in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses individual travel cost methods (TCMs) and assesses its impact on regional development in terms of income and employment generation. A sample of 200 tourists is selected through an on-site survey on Dal Lake, and the demand for recreational visits and its value is estimated by employing the truncated Poisson regression model (TPRM) and un-truncated Poisson regression model (UTPRM). The consumers' surplus is estimated and tourists' benefit to visiting the wetland is explored.

Findings

On average, estimated consumers' surplus per visitor is Rs 6,250 (US$96.15) and Rs 25,000 (US$384.61) from respective models. The annual total recreational value of the lake is accounted for Rs 1713m (US$ 26m). This high consumer surplus (CS) and recreational values of the lake indicate large demand for its recreational facilities.

Originality/value

The study is based on primary data and thus, is original. The paper has implications for the policymakers to formulate sustainable management plans for the proper use of Dal Lake and tourism development.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Saibal Ghosh

Using data on Indian listed companies for 2005, the purpose of this paper is to examine how firm ownership relates to auditor choice. More specifically, the author tests…

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3282

Abstract

Purpose

Using data on Indian listed companies for 2005, the purpose of this paper is to examine how firm ownership relates to auditor choice. More specifically, the author tests several hypotheses about the links between firm ownership, auditor relationships and earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

Several econometric techniques were employed including ordinary least squares, logit regression, ordered logit regression, Poisson and negative binomial regression to test the association between firm ownership and auditors.

Findings

The results indicate that firms having high discretionary accruals are less likely to be audited by domestic entities. The analysis also suggests that domestic auditors are less likely to be preferred by both foreign and Indian private corporations. In addition, the analysis indicates that audit fees are higher for firms with higher earnings opacity.

Research limitations/implications

Driven by data availability, the paper relies on cross‐sectional data.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate that firm ownership is an important consideration for firm auditor relationships. Thus, policymakers should not worry if firms persistently choose to do business with the same auditor. Second, the results are a pointer to the fact that given the differences in their governance structures, the role of domestic and foreign auditors in servicing business groups and state‐owned corporations is distinctly different. Finally, the evidence suggests that the choice of multiple auditors is more to address the complexities involved in multiple business lines, as opposed to curtailing audit fees.

Originality/value

To the author's knowledge, this is perhaps the first study for an emerging economy and more certainly for India to examine the firm ownership‐auditor nexus.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Yeolib Kim and Jae Seon Jeong

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Big-Five model of personality traits relates to the use of multiple internet functions and test if the relationship differs…

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1074

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Big-Five model of personality traits relates to the use of multiple internet functions and test if the relationship differs by gender, age, and education.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the research questions, this study uses data from a large-scale survey of 9,479 Korean media users. Poisson’s regression is applied to model the count data, which accounts for the number of internet functions used. In the regression models, the first block entered is socio-demographics followed by a second block including personality traits.

Findings

Results indicate that openness to experience and conscientiousness are positively related to using multiple internet functions, whereas emotional stability has a negative relationship. The findings differed depending on age and education. The younger age cohort, with higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion, are likely to use more internet functions. In addition, the relationship between conscientiousness and using multiple internet functions is relevant for users with higher education levels.

Originality/value

The present paper is the first that uses multiple internet functions as a critical variable to study individual difference factors. Overall, this study provides evidence that individual difference factors such as socio-demographics and personality traits have a strong role to play in internet research.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Abdullah S. Karaman, Merve Kilic and Ali Uyar

The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically what affects Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)-based sustainability reporting and its relationship with firm…

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2961

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically what affects Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)-based sustainability reporting and its relationship with firm performance in the aviation industry between 2006 and 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors derived data from the GRI Sustainability Disclosure Database and Thomson Reuters EIKON; from the former, they downloaded GRI-based reports, and from the latter, they obtained financial data. The authors performed four-level analysis – report existence, report count, application level of report and firm performance –using various regression models (i.e. logistic regression, Poisson regression, ordered logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression).

Findings

First, the authors based the analysis on the existence of GRI-based sustainability reports, which showed that firm size and leverage are positively associated with sustainability reporting. Contrary to expectations, ownership was negatively associated. Furthermore, free cash flow per share, growth and profitability do not have significant effects on sustainability reporting, in contrast to expectations. Subsequent analysis was based on report count (number of total published reports within the examination period) and application levels of reports. Compared to the preceding analysis, there were no notable surprises. In addition, we found evidence that growth is negatively associated with application levels of reports (partially supported). Thus, report existence, report count and application level results largely confirm each other. Finally, the authors tested the effect of sustainability reporting on firm performance, which did not produce significant results. Thus, in the aviation industry, sustainability reporting does not play a significant role in enhancing firm performance.

Practical implications

First, the findings show that larger and highly leveraged aviation firms can reduce agency and legitimacy costs through sustainability reporting. Surprisingly, the same assumption did not hold for ownership structure as the firms with diffused ownership base tend not to publish sustainability reports. Thus, boards are advised to establish and improve monitoring mechanisms in these types of firms. Second, although the number of aviation companies publishing separate sustainability reports has increased significantly over the years, almost half of the companies are not still producing sustainability reports. Hence, if the aviation industry believes the merits of engaging in sustainability issues and sincerely desires to enhance its sustainability reporting practices, the authors can suggest the following initiatives. Boards might encourage companies to incorporate sustainability issues into company operations by assigning the necessary financial and human resources. The boards might also establish a separate sustainability committee or department, which could focus on sustainability issues and reporting practices. Regulatory bodies could also encourage aviation companies to act in a socially and environmentally responsible manner by proposing legal requirements and providing guidance.

Social implications

Relevant civil organisations and environmental activists might undertake more active roles to enhance awareness of sustainability issues in the aviation industry.

Originality/value

Most of the prior studies did not focus on standalone GRI-based sustainability reports, and they were conducted on limited samples and not the aviation industry in particular. This study aims to fill these gaps empirically by establishing testable hypotheses and attempting to demonstrate the validity of theoretical relationships in a wide range of data and among aviation companies worldwide. In this sense, this study is unique in what it undertakes. This study also tests whether sustainability reporting impacts firm value in the aviation industry which, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, has not been examined in prior studies to this extent.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Peter Leasure

Various federal agencies have acknowledged that they would take voluntary disclosure of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) misconduct into account in assessing a…

Abstract

Purpose

Various federal agencies have acknowledged that they would take voluntary disclosure of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) misconduct into account in assessing a transgressing company’s fines. However, several scholars questioned whether companies would actually receive that benefit. Previous research yielded the answer that companies do not get any benefit from voluntarily disclosing. The current study aims to revisit this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses a census approach where all FCPA cases will be analyzed. The present study also uses added control variables and different statistical approaches in an effort to answer the question of whether there is a benefit to voluntary disclosure.

Findings

The results here contradict previous findings and show that companies do actually receive a benefit to voluntary disclosure when the bribe promised or paid is under a certain amount. Once the bribe paid or promised surpasses this amount, the benefit to voluntary disclosure ceases.

Practical implications

Findings provide insight to companies facing possible FCPA violations.

Originality/value

Only one author attempted to answer the question of whether there was a benefit to voluntary disclosure. However, a subsequent study illuminated several flaws within that previous research. The current study is the first to provide a substantial answer to the question.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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