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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Zhengbiao Han, Shuiqing Huang, Huan Li and Ni Ren

This paper uses the GB/T20984-2007 multiplicative method to assess the information security risk of a typical digital library in compliance with the principle and thought…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses the GB/T20984-2007 multiplicative method to assess the information security risk of a typical digital library in compliance with the principle and thought of ISO 27000. The purpose of this paper is to testify the feasibility of this method and provide suggestions for improving information security of the digital library.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts convenience sampling to select respondents. The assessment of assets is through analyzing digital library-related business and function through a questionnaire which collects data to determine asset types and the importance of asset attributes. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire method is used to identify the threat possibility and its influence on the assets. The 12 respondents include directors and senior network technicians from the editorial department, comic library, children’s library, counseling department and the learning promotion centre. Three different Guttman scale questionnaires, tool testing and on-site inspection are combined to identify and assess vulnerabilities. There were different Guttman scale questionnaires for management personnel, technical personnel and general librarian. In all, 15 management librarians, 7 technical librarians and 72 ordinary librarians answered the vulnerability questionnaire. On-site inspection was conducted on the basis of 11 control domains of ISO 27002. Vulnerabilities were scanned using remote security evaluation system NSFOCUS. The scanning covered ten IP sections and a total of 81 hosts.

Findings

Overall, 2,792 risk scores were obtained. Among them, 282 items (accounting for 10.1 per cent of the total) reached the high risk level; 2 (0.1 per cent) reached the very high risk level. High-risk items involved 26 threat types (accounting for 44.1 per cent of all threat types) and 13 vulnerability types (accounting for 22.1 per cent of all vulnerability types). The evaluation revealed that this digital library faces seven major hidden dangers in information security. The assessment results were well accepted by staff members of this digital library, which testified to the applicability of this method to a Chinese digital library.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is only a case study of a typical Chinese digital library using a digital library information security assessment method. More case-based explorations are necessary to prove the feasibility of the assessing strategy proposed in this study.

Originality/value

Based on the findings of recent literature, the authors found that very few researchers have made efforts to develop methods for calculating the indicators for digital library information security risk assessment. On the basis of ISO 27000 and other related information security standards, this case study proposed an operable method of digital library information security risk assessment and used it to assess a the information security of a typical Chinese digital library. This study can offer insights for formulating a digital library information security risk assessment scale.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Thomas M. Apke

Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the…

Abstract

Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the fastest and best way of penetrating foreign markets is to use a local branch already established in the foreign market, or, alternatively, establish a subsidiary or joint venture. Focuses then on licensing and some of the problems that can arise from that – piracy, exploitation, competition and financial implications if things go wrong. Suggests ways to circumvent this through licensing agreements, patents, trademarks, copyright, technology transfer agreements, and/or national intellectual property laws. Defines a licensing agreement, covering the subject matter of the license, technical assistance provisions, specification of the scope of the license, royalty compensation, quality standards and warranties, infringement of licensed rights, and duration and termination of the agreement. Mentions, also, antitrust considerations and the tax aspects of licensing. Recommends this approach as it spells out terms and conditions clearly to all parties, thereby, hopefully, reducing misunderstanding and disputes.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Parvez Ahmed, Kristine Beck and Elizabeth Goldreyer

This paper studies the efficacy of using moving average technical trading rules with currencies of emerging economies. If technical trading rules are successful, they can…

Abstract

This paper studies the efficacy of using moving average technical trading rules with currencies of emerging economies. If technical trading rules are successful, they can become a risk management tool for multinational firms and investors in emerging markets. Typical risk management tools such as forwards, futures, and options are not sufficiently active in emerging currency markets. In this paper we use four Variable Length Moving Average (VMA) trading models and compare them to a simple buy and hold strategy. Results support the effectiveness of our trading models, which imply the presence of strong serial correlation among currency returns for emerging markets. As a result, the predictability of future currency prices will allow investors to create effective hedges in the often volatile emerging markets.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Karla M. Acosta, Zahra H. Mohammad, Heyao Yu, Kristen Kirkwood, Kristen Gibson, Jack A. Neal and Sujata A. Sirsat

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the layout has an effect on cross-contaminations levels at farmers markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the layout has an effect on cross-contaminations levels at farmers markets.

Design/methodology/approach

We used social cognitive theory's triadic reciprocity model to investigate how influencing the environment could change the behaviors of farmers’ market consumers and reduce the risk of microbial cross-contamination using a Fluorescent Compound (FC). For this purpose, a 3 × 2 experimental between-subject factorial design was utilized in this study: three farmers market layouts (i.e. U-shaped [U-S], L-shaped [L-S] and square-shaped [S–S]) and two different set-ups per market (i.e. produce and non-produce vendors completely separated, and alternating produce and non-produce vendors). FC was utilized to simulate microbial contamination on the participants (n = 54) hands. The participants were allowed to walk through the layout for 3 min and touch items after which a total of 475 swab samples were processed and recorded for absorbance levels.

Findings

The results indicated that the cross-contamination level of the U-S market was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of the L-S and S–S markets. The best market layout and set-up based on the average levels of simulated cross-contamination were the U-S market, particularly with the A set-up, where produce and non-produce booths were scattered.

Originality/value

This study is the first to use the quantification of FC to identify the impact of a farmers’ market layout/design on cross-contamination levels. These results can be used to provide guidance to market managers on layout and design from a safety standpoint to reduce the risk of cross-contamination.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Georgios I. Zekos

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State…

Abstract

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State to control activities on its territory, due to the rising need to find solutions for universal problems, like the pollution of the environment, on an international level. Globalisation is a complex, forceful legal and social process that take place within an integrated whole with out regard to geographical boundaries. Globalisation thus differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from multinational activities that occur in more than one nation‐State. This does not mean that countries are not involved in the sociolegal dynamics that those transboundary process trigger. In a sense, the movements triggered by global processes promote greater economic interdependence among countries. Globalisation can be traced back to the depression preceding World War II and globalisation at that time included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a means of getting access to extended markets. The first step was to create sufficient export surplus to maintain full employment in the capitalist world and secondly establishing a globalized economy where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The idea of interdependence among quite separate and distinct countries is a very important part of talks on globalisation and a significant side of today’s global political economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Rutger Muurling and Thorsten Lehnert

Employee Stock Options are the most widely used incentive compensation tool, and prior research has shown their advantages. However, research among different peer groups…

Abstract

Employee Stock Options are the most widely used incentive compensation tool, and prior research has shown their advantages. However, research among different peer groups, different time frames, different research methodologies, and the constantly changing public opinion prevents unanimous agreements on the various benefits of Employee Stock Options. In this paper we apply a number of research hypotheses tested in recent US studies to a European sample of EuroStoxx 50 companies. Due to the globalisation, the similar accounting regulations and the IT and telecommunications revolu tions, Europe and the United States have grown closer together than ever before and are expected to display similar business practices. This assessment should be especially relevant for the large European companies, which mostly have a dual listing in the United States and are therefore essentially forced to manage according to American practices. How ever, the results differ significantly from the existing US research, providing insufficient grounds to accept previous findings for European companies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Yaw A. Debrah and Ian G. Smith

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…

Abstract

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 23 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Julie R. Dahlquist

Moving average trading strategies are examined for trading ten major currencies during the 1997‐2001 time period. Both a traditional trend‐following moving average cross…

Abstract

Moving average trading strategies are examined for trading ten major currencies during the 1997‐2001 time period. Both a traditional trend‐following moving average cross over strategy and a contrarian strategy are tested. Following a simple moving average cross over out performed, on average, the contrarian strategy. However, neither strategy consistently outperformed a simple strategy of holding U.S. dollars during the four‐year test period.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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