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1 – 10 of over 113000
Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2003

M.A.L.M van Assen

In this study negotiated exchange under the 1-exchange rule is considered in the whole population of 142,660 exchange networks up to size 9. A review shows that 51 of…

Abstract

In this study negotiated exchange under the 1-exchange rule is considered in the whole population of 142,660 exchange networks up to size 9. A review shows that 51 of these networks have been studied in the literature. Predictions for the whole population of networks are derived by parsimonious versions of power-dependence and exchange-resistance theory. All but 301 networks are classified similarly as equal, weak, or strong power networks by the power-dependence and exchange-resistance theory. Only 4% of the networks is classified as a strong power network, as opposed to the 43% of the networks studied in the literature.

Details

Power and Status
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-030-2

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Carla Ramos and David Ford

Companies inevitably interact and entrench in complex organic systems of business relationships with other. These business networks are not objectively defined, instead…

Abstract

Companies inevitably interact and entrench in complex organic systems of business relationships with other. These business networks are not objectively defined, instead they are shaped by the subjective perception of actors. This inherent subjectivity is associated with the notion of network pictures, that is, a research tool that researchers or managers can use to grasp practitioner theories. In this chapter, we discuss how the importance of identifying these theories results mainly from underlying principles of sense-making theory, as well as from the idea around performativity. Drawing on these theoretical groundings, this chapter has two objectives: to explore how practitioners actually perceive their business surroundings and to assess the extent of overlapping between (IMP Group) academic theories and practitioner theories. To achieve these objectives, the researchers use a dimensional network pictures model previously developed in the literature to analyze the network pictures of 49 top-level managers across 17 companies from two very distinct contexts or networks: a product-based network and a project-based network. Among other practices, findings illustrate how practitioners tend to simplify what is going on in their complex surroundings, to personalize their relationships with those surroundings, and to think in a stereotyped way. Moreover, the juxtaposition between the captured practitioner theories and academic (IMP Group) theories show that these are not always overlapping, and are in some cases quite the opposite. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of the importance of grasping actors’ views of the world, arguing that sense-making theory and the notion of performativity are the two main conceptual drivers justifying the urgency in making those views more visible. This research also adds to the research on the impact and suitability of IMP Group theories on managerial thinking and practice. Finally, this research reinforces the current call for further practice-based research in business network contexts.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships Within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Omar Lizardo and Melissa Fletcher Pirkey

Traditionally, organizational theory has been a receptacle of methods and mechanisms from network theory. In this paper, we argue that organizational theory can also be an…

Abstract

Traditionally, organizational theory has been a receptacle of methods and mechanisms from network theory. In this paper, we argue that organizational theory can also be an active contributor to network theory’s conceptual development. To that end, we make explicit a theoretical strategy that has only been used informally by network theorists so far, which – following Vaughan (2002) – we refer to as analogical theorizing. Using the basic correspondence between dyadic relationships as the most minimal form of “organization,” we show that processes and mechanisms extracted from various theoretical strands of organizational theory can be mapped onto the dynamics of social relationships. This allows us to build novel theoretical insight as it pertains to issue of relationship emergence, maintenance, and decay in social networks.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Adesegun Oyedele and Fuat Firat

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call of international marketing professionals for more studies on strategies that firms use in response to the complexities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call of international marketing professionals for more studies on strategies that firms use in response to the complexities of interacting with other institutions in the emerging markets (EMs) of sub-Saharan Africa. The key research question investigated by employing the exploratory qualitative data gathered is: What strategies and global alliances do small local firms (SLFs) in Nigeria adopt to succeed under complex market conditions?

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is exploratory qualitative research. The authors conducted extended interviews to generate rich case study data from the top management of the selected SLFs in Nigeria. The interview data were assessed using open, axial and selective coding to uncover macro-narratives that guide SLFs’ strategies and global alliances.

Findings

The macro-narratives derived from the qualitative case analysis reveal a theoretical framework centered on three major elements of competitive strategies in Nigeria: build global capacity and strategic alliances from the get-go; develop local strategic alliances; master matching alliance partners’ needs to create innovative payment plans and, when necessary, shift the transaction cost burden to alliance partners. Matching theory rather than traditional network theories is better at explicating SLFs’ alliances in Nigeria. Implementation of these strategies requires flexible strategic initiatives.

Originality/value

The study adapts institutional interaction theory, network theory, matching alliance perspective, trade credit theories and the literature on small firms’ strategies in EMs to explicate successful small local firm strategies and global alliances under complex market conditions in Nigeria. The recognition that SLFs regularly migrate and shift the burden of transactions’ cost to multiple stakeholders in the supply network by matching customers and supplier needs is important. The discovery of matching theory in explicating SLFs’ global alliances in Nigeria is unique to this study.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Evert Gummesson

The purpose of this paper is to advocate that case study research needs to renew itself and employ its full potential as an innovative theory‐generating methodology in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advocate that case study research needs to renew itself and employ its full potential as an innovative theory‐generating methodology in management disciplines; and to propose that a viable strategy for such renewal is to exploit the power of case study research and network theory as supplementary methodologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a reflective and synthesising comparative study.

Findings

If one steps down from the tip of the iceberg and inspects the underwater properties of case study research and network theory a common core is found: the recognition of complexity. The methodologies supplement each other, case study research primarily using verbal language and qualitative data, while network theory uses a nodes‐and‐links language that opens up for verbal, graphic and mathematical treatment. Case study research is primarily associated with qualitative research in social sciences and network theory with quantitative research in both social and natural sciences. By abolishing the unfortunate categories of qualitative/quantitative and natural sciences/social sciences that have been set against each other, and letting them join forces for a common goal – to learn about life – people open up for methodological creativity.

Originality/value

By comparing case study research with network theory on a fundamental level, the paper offers a novel perspective on research. It is a contribution to an overriding desire to improve the understanding of management and society.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Rob Dekkers and Hermann Kühnle

Progress in theory building in the field of collaborative networks in manufacturing is preponderantly seen in contributions from disciplines outside manufacturing science…

Abstract

Purpose

Progress in theory building in the field of collaborative networks in manufacturing is preponderantly seen in contributions from disciplines outside manufacturing science. Interdisciplinary research is one way of accelerating the development of appropriate theory for this emerging domain where industrial practice has moved beyond the state of the art of scientific knowledge for establishing workable, competitive solutions. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent interdisciplinary research has contributed to a better understanding of collaborative (manufacturing) networks.

Design/methodology/approach

To find out more about provenances of on‐going studies, to identify clusters of contributions and to provide direction for future work of researchers in this domain, publications of the past 22 years have been evaluated. To retrieve these contributions, a structured literature review has been undertaken by applying keywords to selected databases and using a strictly defined stepwise procedure. In total, 202 publications of all kinds have been evaluated.

Findings

From the analysis of the results, it appears that most interdisciplinary contributions to collaborative (manufacturing) networks rely on one original outside discipline for either developing solutions or advancing theoretical insight. Consequently, and after further analysis, it seems that researchers in collaborative networks hardly resort to multi‐disciplinary approaches, unless “natural”; further advances might arrive from stimulating these multi‐disciplinary avenues rather than sticking to more mono‐disciplinary, and less risky, takes on both applications and theoretical insight. A more detailed investigation of the value of contributions reveals that efforts to make interdisciplinary advances are either difficult or limited. Also, the findings indicate that researchers tend to follow a more “technical” approach to decision making by actors in networks rather than searching for a shift in paradigm.

Originality/value

While setting out these directions for future research and guiding research, this first‐of‐its‐kind review introduces the collaboration model as a systematic approach to collaborative (manufacturing) networks. This model might serve as a reference model to integrate disciplines for addressing the characteristics of Collaborative Networks. Its use in the review led to the finding that typical traits of networks, such as changeability, supplementary assets and decentralisation of decision making, are under‐researched.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Shane R. Thye, Aaron Vincent, Edward J. Lawler and Jeongkoo Yoon

This chapter analyzes the ways that individuals develop person-to-group ties. The chapter reviews the development and evidentiary basis of the theory of relational…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyzes the ways that individuals develop person-to-group ties. The chapter reviews the development and evidentiary basis of the theory of relational cohesion, the affect theory of social exchange, and the theory of social commitments.

Methodology/Approach

We survey twenty-five years of published literature on these theories, and review unpublished theoretical tests and extensions that are currently in progress.

Findings

The research program has grown substantially over the past twenty-five years to encompass more varied and diverse phenomena. The findings indicate that structural interdependencies, repeated exchanges, and a sense of shared responsibility are key conditions for people to develop affective ties to groups, organizations, and even nation-states.

Research Limitations/Implications

The research implies that if people are engaged in joint tasks, they attribute positive or negative feelings from those tasks to their local groups (teams, departments) and/or to larger organizations (companies, communities). To date, empirical tests have focused on microlevel processes.

Practical Implications

Our work has practical implications for how managers or supervisors organize tasks and work routines in a way to maximize group or organizational commitment.

Social Implications

This research helps to understand problems of fragmentation that are faced by decentralized organizations and also how these can be overcome.

Originality/Value of the Chapter

The chapter represents the most complete and comprehensive review of the theory of relational cohesion, the affect theory of social exchange, and the theory of social commitments to date.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Jens Eschenbächer and Novica Zarvić

Collaborative networks (CN) are organizational forms that are especially enabled by innovations in the area of information and communication technologies. For an in‐depth…

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborative networks (CN) are organizational forms that are especially enabled by innovations in the area of information and communication technologies. For an in‐depth understanding of CN a theoretical foundation is required. The purpose of this paper is to explain goal‐oriented and opportunity‐based CN with the help of existing and well‐known organization theories. A detailed overview about frequently mentioned concepts and theories in network studies is given and then a structured selection of theoretical approaches that are aiming to explain CN is discussed in detail. Finally, ten aspects for the existence and efficiency of CN are derived.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in this work is based on a literature review and an impact analysis of the investigated organization theories along the life cycle of CN.

Findings

The result of the analysis shows that none of the investigated theories is able to describe the complex phenomenon of CN entirely and to clear all knowledge deficits. Therefore, multiple theories need to be considered as foundation.

Originality/value

This research represents a contribution to the theoretical body of knowledge in the field of CN. More specifically, it represents a first initial step towards the explanation of certain aspects of CN by means of existing organization theories.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Albrecht Reibiger

Different axiomatizations of network theory are considered. Kirchhoff networks are regarded with priority. Multipole and multiport networks are introduced as alternative…

Abstract

Purpose

Different axiomatizations of network theory are considered. Kirchhoff networks are regarded with priority. Multipole and multiport networks are introduced as alternative variants. Additionally, Minty and Paynter networks, which are always dualizable are discussed briefly. The latter are special cases of Kirchhoff as well as of multiport networks. This paper seeks to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops network theory inside of set theory, i.e. networks, multipoles, etc. are defined as objects of set theory. As such objects we use preferably ordered pairs, ordered triples, etc. The objects of network theory are then separated from the class of all these set theoretical objects by means of some defining conditions. These conditions are the axioms of our approaches to network theory.

Findings

It is shown that all presented variants of axiomatizations can be developed on the basis of a uniform representation for the time functions for voltages and currents. All these variants allow interdisciplinary applications of network theory and they can be generalized to multidimensional networks. An interesting byproduct is the relationship between multiport networks, networks in Belevitch normal form, Paynter networks, and bond graphs.

Originality/value

For applications it is essential that Kirchhoff and multipole networks are with respect to their modeling capability of equal value. But from the foundational point of view the multipole terminology has a number of crucial disadvantages compared with that based on Kirchhoff networks. This fact is important both for the conception of circuit simulation software packages and for the development of basic circuit theory curricula.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Barbara Schultz‐Jones

The purpose of this paper is to review the post‐1996 literature of information science and other disciplines for the application of social network theory and social network

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the post‐1996 literature of information science and other disciplines for the application of social network theory and social network analysis to research that provides an understanding of information environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review involved a content analysis of 373 articles retrieved from five electronic journal databases offering broad disciplinary coverage, and a selection of nine peer‐reviewed electronic access journals in information science. Each database was limited to academic or peer reviewed journals and searched using two query phrases: social network theory (SNT) and social network analysis (SNA).

Findings

The paper demonstrates the growth of interest by information science and other disciplines in research that applies social network theory and utilizes social network analysis, indicating what research approaches and major focus trends differentiate the disciplines.

Research limitations/implications

The search phrases overlook articles using social networks as the only key phrase for indexing. However, the intention was to examine the application of a theoretical concept and specific methodology, so the terms used were appropriate for this purpose.

Practical implications

The paper identifies opportunities to apply social network theory and social network analysis to the study of the exchange of information resources.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that information science could advance valuable contributions to an understanding of information behavior using social network theory and social network analysis as a vehicle to connect with a significant body of existing research in other disciplines.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 113000