Search results

1 – 10 of over 38000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Kaisa Henttonen, Minna Janhonen, Jan‐Erik Johanson and Kaisu Puumalainen

Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social‐network

Abstract

Purpose

Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social‐network structure, measured in terms of task‐related advice‐network density, centralisation and fragmentation, on work‐team performance. The paper seeks to examine: the impact of the social‐network structure (dense, fragmented or centralised) on work‐team performance and the origins of the social structure. It also tests whether team diversity (in terms of variety with regard to gender and separation with regard to age and education) has an impact on team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on 76 work teams (499 employees) representing 48 different organisations.

Findings

With regard to the first question, density was positively related to team performance. The impact of advice‐network fragmentation was also positive, and this is in line with the results of other studies focusing on teams conducting standard tasks. In addressing the second question the paper explored whether diversity as variety (age) and diversity as separation (age and education) had an effect on the work team's social‐network structure. Age and education had no effect, but gender diversity was related negatively to density and positively to fragmentation. It was also related negatively to team performance.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is twofold in that it explores social‐structure effects on team performance and examines the possible antecedents of the team's social structure. The results of the investigation strengthen the rationale behind integrating the literature on social‐network analysis and teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Quinetta M. Roberson and Ian O. Williamson

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effects of team composition on justice climate strength. Specifically, we adopt a social network approach to…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effects of team composition on justice climate strength. Specifically, we adopt a social network approach to justice in teams to explore the social-psychological mechanisms underlying diversity effects.

Design/methodology/approach – Using data from 80 self-managed project teams, we consider the impact of surface-level and deep-level diversity in teams on member social network ties and subsequently dispersion in their perceptions of procedural and interpersonal justice.

Findings – The results showed that diversity in team members’ psychological attributes – specifically, preferences for individualism – were associated with variability in members’ attachment to the team. In contrast, team gender and racial diversity were not significantly related to member social network ties. The results also demonstrated a relationship between network tie diversity and both procedural and interpersonal justice climate strength, such that variability in members’ attachment to the team was related to variability in their justice perceptions.

Overall, these findings demonstrate that teams characterized by higher levels of deep-level diversity may experience greater variability in their social interactions, which amplify variability in members’ justice perceptions.

Implications – Practically, these findings suggest that potential performance advantages of informational diversity in teams may come at a cost, as such diversity may reduce the quality of members’ justice experiences. Theoretically, they provide insight into the nature of the relationship between diversity and justice, which is largely dependent on the social psychological processes evoked by diversity. They also highlight team social networks as a useful means for examining such processes and understanding the operation of justice in teams.

Details

Fairness and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-162-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Shona Hunter and Elaine Swan

The paper has two purposes: to introduce a new perspective on power and resistance in equalities work; and to trouble either or theorisations of success and failure in…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper has two purposes: to introduce a new perspective on power and resistance in equalities work; and to trouble either or theorisations of success and failure in this work. Instead it offers a new means of exploring micro‐practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies/develops an “actor network theory” (ANT) analysis to a single case study of Iopia, a Black woman equalities practitioner working in a prison education context. It uses this to explore the ways in which Iopia interacts with a variety of human and non‐human objects to challenge racism in this context.

Findings

Iopia, from an initial position of marginality (as a Black woman experiencing racism) is able to establish herself (by virtue of this same identity as a Black woman combating racism) as central to a “new” network for equality and diversity. This new network both challenges and sustains narrow exclusionary definitions of diversity. Thus, Iopia's case provides an example of the contradictions, and paradox, experienced by those working for equality and diversity.

Research limitations/implications

In the future, this type of feminist ANT analysis could be more fully developed and integrated with critical race and other critical cultural theories as these relate to equalities work.

Practical implications

The approach, and, in particular, the notion of translation, can be used by practitioners in thinking through the ways in which they can use material objects to draw in multiple “others” into their own networks.

Originality/value

The article is one of the first to explore equalities workers via the lens of ANT. It is unique in its analysis of the material objects constituting both diversity workers and diversity work and thus its analysis of diversity workers and their work as part of a complex set of social and “material” relations.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Petru L. Curşeu, Jörg Raab, Jing Han and Aukje Loenen

This paper sets out to test the mediating role of internal network density and external network range in the relationship between educational diversity (i.e. separation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to test the mediating role of internal network density and external network range in the relationship between educational diversity (i.e. separation and variety) and group effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 267 employees in 54 organizational groups.

Findings

The study's results show that educational separation has a U‐shaped relationship with the advice network density. Moreover, educational variety moderates the relation of educational separation with external network range in such a way that for groups with high educational variety, the relationship between educational separation and external network range is U‐shaped, while for groups with low educational variety the relationship has an inverted U shape. The results also show that internal network density and external network range mediate the relationship between educational diversity and group effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends the literature on group diversity by simultaneously exploring two forms of educational diversity (separation and variety) as they relate to group network density and external network range. The study is cross‐sectional, restricting causal inferences and future research should further explore the way in which the alignment of educational variety and separation relates to social network structure and group effectiveness.

Practical implications

Understanding the association between educational diversity and group social network structure and the way they relate to group effectiveness enables managers to improve group effectiveness.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first to explore the curvilinear association between educational diversity and social network structure.

Social implications

By exploring the relation between diversity and social network structures, these results increase understanding of how to address diversity issues at the societal level.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Michele Rubino, Filippo Vitolla and Antonello Garzoni

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of the network contract (NC) on the internationalization of Italian firms to evaluate whether and how network

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of the network contract (NC) on the internationalization of Italian firms to evaluate whether and how network characteristics, management perceptions and governance influence firms’ degree of internationalization (DOI).

Design/methodology/approach

By using the data from a survey of 350 Italian firms that joined a network in 2012, hierarchical regression analyses were applied to test four hypotheses.

Findings

Network size and diversity as well as management attitudes and perceptions influence firms’ exports. However, only network diversity is positively related to the number of markets in which firms operate. A positive direct effect of network diversity on network managers’ activities and a significantly indirect effect via network managers’ activities also exist.

Practical implications

Network diversity is crucial for achieving better results in foreign markets. Interacting with diverse network participants can help firms manage diversity, expressed in terms of information, resources and competencies, helping overcome the barriers that hinder the internationalization process. The presence of an efficient network manager should facilitate the achievement of firms’ internationalization objectives.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first studies to analyze the effects of an Italian NC on firms’ internationalization. From a theoretical standpoint, it adds to the literature a specific analysis that relates primarily to small firms, showing that, in this context, the results are not always consistent with those of prior studies.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Lisa Torres and Matt L. Huffman

Previous research has shown that social networks can be an important source of employment information, such as job leads, for both men and women. However, few studies have…

Abstract

Previous research has shown that social networks can be an important source of employment information, such as job leads, for both men and women. However, few studies have considered whether women and men benefit equally from having a diverse set of personal contacts. We argue that because previous research has not considered both the sex of the person providing job-related information and the sex of the person receiving the information, one cannot determine whether returns to network diversity differ by gender. We describe a unique data set that permits such an analysis, and report findings suggesting sex differences in returns to network diversity.

Details

Diversity in the Work Force
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-788-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Erin Oldford, Saif Ullah and Ashrafee Tanvir Hossain

The objective of this paper is to leverage a two-sided view of social capital to develop a model of board gender diversity and firm performance using social capital data…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to leverage a two-sided view of social capital to develop a model of board gender diversity and firm performance using social capital data from Northeast Regional Center of Rural Development.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine a large sample of 2,322 US publicly listed firms over the period 1996 to 2009. The final sample consists of 14,634 firm-year observations.

Findings

The authors find that when a firm's social network is not supportive of gender diversity, corporate boards have lower levels of female representation. The strength of a social network's social ties exacerbates the relationship between social capital and board gender diversity. The authors also report a negative relationship between female board membership and firm performance in social networks that are not pro-diversity. Robustness tests reveal that the authors’ social capital view of board diversity also applies to board ethnic diversity.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses primarily on blue chip firms due to data constraints. It will be interesting for future researchers to investigate a broader spectrum of firms from a broader perspective of diversity beyond the study’s gender and ethnicity findings. Furthermore, this study assesses the US context, and future research could investigate firm sociability in other national contexts.

Practical implications

This study contributes new insights to the discourse on gender diversity on corporate boards which stand to inform both policy and practice. The results of the study can inform the position of an industry association on board gender diversity, with guidance on how messaging across networks can be more effective should it account for the hidden bias that the authors uncover in the current study. From a manager's perspective, this study can help those managers and boards trying to enhance board gender diversity by providing a more complete understanding of the factors that can limit progress.

Originality/value

This study contributes a social capital view of board gender diversity to the growing literature of corporate governance, board diversity and local environmental influences on corporate policies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Jack Cadeaux

In the context of a retailer with an international supply network, this paper develops theories of (a) how both stability and strong ties in an international supply network

Abstract

In the context of a retailer with an international supply network, this paper develops theories of (a) how both stability and strong ties in an international supply network combine to yield a resource base that enables the development of flexible relationships with suppliers, (b) how stability and relationship flexibility in the international supply network of a retail reseller may in turn be driven both by the international diversity and by the density of the retailer’s supply network in a product category, and (c) how both the international diversity and the density of a retailer’s supply network may directly affect the likelihood of a retailer developing flexible relationships with its supplier. In doing so, this paper develops and presents six hypotheses and discusses some approaches to measurement of the underlying constructs and testing the hypothesized effects.

Details

Entrepreneurship in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-448-1

Keywords

Content available
Article

Golshan Javadian, Tina R. Opie and Salvatore Parise

One key determinant of entrepreneurial success is entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), defined as an individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform…

Abstract

Purpose

One key determinant of entrepreneurial success is entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), defined as an individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform entrepreneurial tasks. Whereas previous research has examined how individual and business factors influence ESE, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of entrepreneurs’ social networks upon ESE. The paper examines such relationships for black and white entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 110 black and white entrepreneurs responded to a survey measuring ESE and critical constructs representing elements of the quality of entrepreneurs’ networks: emotional carrying capacity (ECC) and network ethnic diversity.

Findings

The authors found significant, positive relationships between both ECC and network ethnic diversity on ESE for white entrepreneurs but only found a significant positive relationship between ECC and ESE for black entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

While research is clear about the role that ESE plays in entrepreneurial activities, few studies have focused on the factors that improve ESE. In the present work, the authors study the role of context by examining how entrepreneurs’ social networks influence ESE. The authors examine such influences for both white and black entrepreneurs to better understand the implications of ethnicity.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Thomas W. Dougherty, Yu Ha Cheung and Liviu Florea

The purpose of this paper is to integrate scholarship on personality, mentoring, developmental relationships, and social networks in delineating how employees with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate scholarship on personality, mentoring, developmental relationships, and social networks in delineating how employees with particular personality characteristics are more or less likely to be involved in four types of developmental networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews scholarship on personality characteristics and developmental relationships to identify a set of distinct personality characteristics proposed to be related to employees' tendencies to develop four types of developmental networks. These network types are defined based on high or low relationship strength and high or low relationship diversity in employee ties with others. We develop propositions delineating the nature of expected relationships of these personality characteristics with developmental network types.

Findings

The paper identifies five personality characteristics – interdependent/independent self‐construal, core self‐evaluations, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and extroversion/introversions – and explained how each should be related to employees' tendencies to develop the four types of developmental networks. These networks have been described as opportunistic, entrepreneurial, receptive, and traditional developmental networks, based upon the strength and the diversity of network relationships.

Originality/value

The paper suggests that personality variables are potentially valuable for understanding how individuals develop particular types of developmental relationships, an area that deserves more research attention. It is noted that developmental relationships have been shown to be related to both employees' objective career outcomes such as promotions and salary progress, and subjective outcomes such as career and job satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 38000