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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Neil R. Smith and Emily Grundy

This paper's aim is to analyse ethnic group differences in self reported limiting long term illness (LLTI) among middle‐aged men and women in England and Wales and compare…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's aim is to analyse ethnic group differences in self reported limiting long term illness (LLTI) among middle‐aged men and women in England and Wales and compare patterns of variation in 1991 and 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is a cross‐sectional analysis of two nationally representative cohorts aged 40‐59 in 1991 and 2001, respectively. Seven ethnic minority groups were selected from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study of England and Wales (White Irish, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese). Logistic regression estimated the odds ratio for having a LLTI in each ethnic minority group compared to White British. The odds of having a LLTI in 2001 compared to 1991, by sex, were adjusted stepwise for differences in age, social class, car ownership, household overcrowding and tenure and length of residence.

Findings

All ethnic groups reported a higher prevalence of LLTI in 2001 than in 1991. The rise in LLTI was largest in White Irish, Bangladeshi and Pakistani and smallest in Black African and Chinese groups. Controlling for socioeconomic factors had a weak influence on the risk of limiting long term illness in men and women. Controlling for length of residence attenuated the risk of LLTI in 2001 in White Irish and Pakistani men, and Indian men and women.

Practical implications

Emerging ethnic differences highlight a growing need for differential health services to manage the increase in LLTI and demands for illness management.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that ethnic differences in LLTI changed during the 1990s with some groups becoming more disadvantaged relative to the White British population and others less so.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Derek Milne, Dominique Keegan, Roger Paxton and Kaeti Seth

An interview‐based survey of evidence‐based practice (EBP) and the research, continuing professional development (CPD) and audit activity that support it was conducted in the…

Abstract

An interview‐based survey of evidence‐based practice (EBP) and the research, continuing professional development (CPD) and audit activity that support it was conducted in the North East of England amongst a representative sample of NHS clinical psychologists and counsellors (n = 30). It profiled their participation in EBP activities over the past year and their intentions for the next year. The findings suggest that the sample had used guidelines and protocols on 56 per cent of occasions, had on average drawn on research, CPD and audit approximately half of the time, but had been only minimally influenced by research, CPD or audit. It is concluded that EBP has occurred in all defined areas and that the conditions for an increased degree of EBP are promising.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Neil J. MacKinnon and Dawn T. Robinson

To provide a comprehensive review of theoretical and research advances in affect control theory from 1988 to 2013 for academic and student researchers in social psychology.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a comprehensive review of theoretical and research advances in affect control theory from 1988 to 2013 for academic and student researchers in social psychology.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Against the background of a concise history of affect control theory from its beginnings in the 1960s to its maturation in the late 1980s, a comprehensive review of research and publications in the last 25 years is reported in five sections: Theoretical Advances (e.g., self and institutions, nonverbal behavior, neuroscience, artificial intelligence); Technological Advances (e.g., electronic data collection, computer simulations, cultural surveys, equation refinement, small groups analysis); Cross-Cultural Research (archived data and published analyses); Empirical Tests of the Theory; and Substantive Applications (e.g., emotions, social and cultural change, occupations/work, politics, gender/ideology/subcultures, deviance, criminology, stereotyping, physiological behavior).

Findings

Reveals an impressive number of publications in this area, including over 120 articles and chapters and four major books, and a great deal of cross-cultural research, including European, Asian, and Middle-Asian cultures.

Research Limitation/Implications (if applicable)

Because of limitations of space, the review does not cover the large number of theses, dissertations, and research reports.

Originality/Value

No other review of affect control theory with this scope and detail exists.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Winnifred R. Louis, Donald M. Taylor and Tyson Neil

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits that…

Abstract

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits that drive expectancy‐value processes (rational decision‐making) from group‐level costs and benefits. In Study 1, high identifiers linked group‐ and individual‐level outcomes of conflict choices whereas low identifiers did not. Group‐level expectancy‐value processes, in Study 2, mediated the relationship between social identity and perceptions that collective action benefits the individual actor and between social identity and intentions to act. These findings suggest the rational underpinnings of identity‐driven political behavior, a relationship sometimes obscured in intergroup theory that focuses on cognitive processes of self‐stereotyping. But the results also challenge the view that individuals' cost‐benefit analyses are independent of identity processes. The findings suggest the importance of modeling the relationship of group and individual levels of expectancy‐value processes as both hierarchical and contingent on social identity processes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Human Factor In Social Capital Management: The Owner-manager Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-584-6

Abstract

Details

The Human Factor In Social Capital Management: The Owner-manager Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-584-6

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Peter A.C. Smith and Judy O’Neil

Many organizations now utilize action learning, and it is applied increasingly throughout the world. Action learning appears in numerous variants, but generically it is a form of…

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Abstract

Many organizations now utilize action learning, and it is applied increasingly throughout the world. Action learning appears in numerous variants, but generically it is a form of learning through experience, “by doing”, where the task environment is the classroom, and the task the vehicle. Two previous reviews of the action learning literature by Alan Mumford respectively covered the field prior to 1985 and the period 1985‐1994. Both reviews included books as well as journal articles. This current review covers the period 1994‐2000 and is limited to publicly available journal articles. Part 1 of the Review was published in an earlier issue of the Journal of Workplace Learning (Vol. 15 No. 2) and included a bibliography and comments. Part 2 extends that introduction with a schema for categorizing action learning articles and with comments on representative articles from the bibliography.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2015

Giovanna Gianesini and Antonella Brighi

In this study, we aimed at examining the unique and interactive effects of peer violence in cyberspace on adolescents’ emotion regulation and socioemotional adjustment, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we aimed at examining the unique and interactive effects of peer violence in cyberspace on adolescents’ emotion regulation and socioemotional adjustment, as well as the mediational role of resilience in the link between adolescent’s pathogenic relational experiences and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we intended to explore emotion differentiation and regulation in reaction to bullying perpetration and victimization and in terms of positive (proud, confident, good) and negative (ashamed, excited, guilty), Passive (sad, embarrassed, humiliated) and Reactive (angry, scared) emotions and how it impacted and predicted positive and negative outcomes.

Methodology/approach

A stratified convenient sample of 494 Italian students aged 13–19 years (M = 15.27, SD = 1.23) was selected to represent all different school types in Italy and the students were administered a self-report questionnaire on school bullying involvement. General Linear Models, ANOVA, and T-tests were employed to explore gender differences, the relationships between variables, and their contribution to the predictive model. A two-step Cluster analysis was used to profile adolescents based on patterns of resilience, health outcomes, and cyberbullying involvement.

Findings

Results showed significant gender differences, with females using internet and Facebook more than males and being more resilient, positive, and prosocial, but also responding to victimization with higher levels of alienation, anger, humiliation, and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms. Males perpetrated peer violence more than females, were less likely to be victimized, and were generally less emotionally impacted by it. Victimization rates (63.7%, n = 296) were higher than perpetration rates (51.7%, n = 233) and bully-victimization was prevalent (47.1%). Victims prevalently experienced passive emotions (sadness, humiliation, embarrassment) while perpetrators experienced negative ones (guilt and shame). Cluster analysis evidenced different pathways and trajectories of resilience and cyberbullying involvement: Resilient victims (RV), Healthy uninvolved (HU), Healthy Bullies (HB), Alienated Bully-Victims (ABV), and Resilient Bully-Victims (RBV). RV, HU, and HB resulted all well-adjusted, despite the different involvement in cyberbullying, and also RBV and despite the double involvement in cyberbullying, ABV were the only maladjusted and at-risk group in our sample characterized by very low Positivity, very low Resilience, and extremely high Alienation.

Research implications

This study proposes a comprehensive, developmental, ecological, relational, and self-regulatory resilience approach to cyberbullying, which represents an innovative and advanced contribution to the literature with significant implication for research and practice. Fully understanding and measuring the emotional impact of cyber peer violence and resilience following cyberbullying victimization and perpetration can help in developing targeted interventions for both victims and bullies. This study highlighted the need for a self-regulatory model of resilience for modulating emotions, arousal, and behaviors across contexts, relationships, and difficulties. It also evidenced that moderate levels of resilience and positivity are sufficient to buffer youth from involvement in cyberbullying and to predict healthy adjustment and less pathological outcomes.

Originality/value

By profiling adolescents based on resilience levels, health outcomes, and cyberbullying involvement, we evidenced five distinct trajectories of risk evaluation for cyberbullying beyond participating roles. Our results confirmed the fundamental importance of assessing resilience and emotion regulatory resources together with peer violence involvement in identifying and targeting adolescents at risk.

Details

Technology and Youth: Growing Up in a Digital World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-265-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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