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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Muhammad Saqib Chaudhry, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Abubakr Saeed, Aymen Sajjad and Felipe Mendes Borini

The purpose of this paper is to examine the management styles adopted by project managers in the software industry in Oman.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the management styles adopted by project managers in the software industry in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 208 project management professionals is drawn from the Omani software industry. Data analysis is based on factor analysis and analysis of variance techniques.

Findings

The results suggest that project managers in the Omani software industry mainly adopt three management styles: people oriented, task oriented and organization oriented. Furthermore, the management styles of project managers are affected by their experience and age, and the organizational structure.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by examining management styles adopted by managers in a temporary organization environment from an under-researched context, Oman.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Sumreen Masood Khattak, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Malik Ikramullah and Muhammad Mustafa Raziq

This study examines the relationship between employees' perceptions of informational fairness and project performance. Furthermore, it examines if this relationship is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship between employees' perceptions of informational fairness and project performance. Furthermore, it examines if this relationship is sequentially mediated by (1) knowledge sharing and role clarity and (2) communication openness and role clarity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 302 full-time employees of seven project-based construction organizations in Pakistan. Data are analyzed through variance-based structural equation modeling technique and the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping procedure.

Findings

Results indicate that project employees' perceptions of informational fairness positively predict project performance. Moreover, this relationship is sequentially mediated by (1) communication openness and role clarity and (2) knowledge sharing and role clarity.

Originality/value

This study provides further insights on the informational fairness and project performance relationship by examining their underlying mechanisms. It draws on the much ignored context of Pakistan, and offers some implications for managers and researchers with regard to how behavioral factors may further enhance project performance.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Aymen Sajjad, Aleena Jillani and Muhammad Mustafa Raziq

This paper aims to look at the sustainability practices adopted by the Pakistani hotel industry. Sustainability is a relatively under-researched notion from the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to look at the sustainability practices adopted by the Pakistani hotel industry. Sustainability is a relatively under-researched notion from the perspective of the developing world, and in particular, the research lacks evidence from the Pakistani hotel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors follow an exploratory multiple case study design to study the sustainability practices adopted by the Pakistani hotel industry. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with the senior hotel managers.

Findings

The results suggest that sustainability is only partially integrated into the business strategy for most of the sample hotels, and a systematic approach to sustainability is currently lacking. Overall, the central focus of the hotels is on developing commercial performance, whereas some fragmented social and environmental sustainability initiatives are implemented on an ad hoc basis.

Practical implications

This study identifies some practical issues and challenges in relation to sustainability implementation in the Pakistani context. It is suggested that the government, community organizations and the private sector firms need to actively collaborate to promote the sustainability agenda.

Originality/value

This paper extends the extant literature by exploring sustainability implementation in the Pakistani hotel industry. While there is limited sustainability research in the context of the developing world, this study contributes by bridging this gap in the present literature.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Felipe Mendes Borini, Leandro Lima Santos, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Rafael Morais Pereira and Aldo José Brunhara

This paper underscores how organizational ambidexterity and organizational innovation play differentiated roles in the subsidiary reverse knowledge transfers (RKT). The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper underscores how organizational ambidexterity and organizational innovation play differentiated roles in the subsidiary reverse knowledge transfers (RKT). The authors argue that both organizational ambidexterity and organizational innovation play a positive but differentiated role in the RKT process in that the former positively influences subsidiary knowledge creation, whereas the latter positively influences subsidiary knowledge transfers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 289 foreign subsidiaries operating in Brazil. Hypotheses were developed and tested by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results supported the hypotheses and showed that organizational ambidexterity promotes knowledge creation, and that organizational innovation facilitates knowledge transfers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers implications with regard to drivers of subsidiary investments and actions of subsidiary managers vis-à-vis the subsidiary objectives of knowledge creation and/or transfers.

Originality/value

Showing the different roles of organizational ambidexterity and organizational innovation, this paper reveals some underlying mechanisms of the RKT process and contributes by explaining the competitive heterogeneity of subsidiaries, with impacts on subsidiary management’s evolutionary and resource dependence perspective.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Cristina Doritta Rodrigues, Felipe Mendes Borini, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq and Roberto Carlos Bernardes

This study aims to look at the relationship of external embeddedness and institutional distance (governance aspects) with the foreign subsidiary research and development…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to look at the relationship of external embeddedness and institutional distance (governance aspects) with the foreign subsidiary research and development (R&D) capacity. Furthermore, it examines whether these relationships are mediated by subsidiary product and process innovation, and whether institutional distance plays a moderating role in the relationship between subsidiary innovation and R&D capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on survey data from 130 foreign subsidiaries operating in Brazil and test their model using variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results suggest that subsidiary (product and process) innovation fully mediates the relationships between: subsidiary external embeddedness and R&D capacity; and institutional distance and subsidiary R&D capacity, such that the relationship is positive in case of the former and negative in case of the latter. The relationship between subsidiary product and process innovation and R&D capacity is positive and stronger at lower levels of institutional distance.

Originality/value

The research ignores the underlying mechanisms of the external embeddedness and institutional distance relationship with subsidiary R&D capacity. Furthermore, institutional distance based on formal governance aspects and their impacts on subsidiary innovation and R&D capacity are rarely investigated. This paper contributes with regard to these aspects.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Mansoor Ahmad, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Wali ur Rehman and Matthew M.C. Allen

Research on the relationship between high-performance workplace practices (HPWPs) and organizational performance has largely focussed on western settings, limiting the…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the relationship between high-performance workplace practices (HPWPs) and organizational performance has largely focussed on western settings, limiting the knowledge of how these systems influence performance in other countries, including Pakistan. Universalistic assumptions underpin the HPWP paradigm; to examine the validity of these assumptions, the purpose of this paper is to study the links between HPWP and performance in Pakistan, a country with different cultural norms and institutional settings to those in which most research has been conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on a unique survey of 392 establishment managers in the banking, pharmaceutical and information technology sectors. The authors include managers of foreign-owned multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms to ensure the sample represents firms in Pakistan.

Findings

The authors find that some individual HPWPs (recruitment and training) are associated in a statistically significant way with lower labour turnover, higher productivity and higher financial performance. Employee involvement is associated with lower labour turnover and higher labour productivity. Compensation is associated with higher financial performance. None is linked to higher labour turnover, lower productivity or lower financial performance in a statistically significant way. Performance appraisal was not statistically significantly associated with any of the three outcome variables.

Originality/value

The results provide some relatively strong support for universalistic assumptions, but also highlight the need for future research to examine the variable links of some HPWPs and the lack of any association for the performance appraisal measure.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Cristina Doritta Rodrigues, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik and Abubakr Saeed

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the development of the MNE as a whole. However, what underlies the subsidiary ability to create such specialized knowledge that can be transferred to the MNE is less clear. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy, subsidiary initiatives and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers in a cross-country comparative context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are gathered through surveys from 429 foreign subsidiaries operating in New Zealand and 164 subsidiaries in Brazil, and these are analyzed using variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Subsidiary initiatives partially mediate the relationship between MNE entrepreneurial strategy and reverse knowledge transfers in case of subsidiaries operating in Brazil, but they fully mediate in case of New Zealand. Furthermore, expatriation, in case of the latter, has a negative interaction in the relationship between subsidiary initiative and reverse knowledge transfers, but, in case of the former, it has no moderating role. Overall, the results suggest that the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers can be explained by contingencies such as the subsidiary host economy and the heterogenous HQ–subsidiary relationships.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to literature by identifying some contingencies with regard to the occurrence of reverse knowledge transfers. It addresses some research calls with regard to examining reverse knowledge transfers and the role of expatriation across different empirical contexts.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Mansoor Ahmad, Matthew M.C. Allen, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq and Wali ur Rehman

Existing work on convergence/divergence among HRM practices in MNCs and local firms mainly focuses on Europe and the USA. Limited research examines these organizations in…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing work on convergence/divergence among HRM practices in MNCs and local firms mainly focuses on Europe and the USA. Limited research examines these organizations in Pakistan, hindering our understanding of what policies MNCs are likely to adopt there as well as the extent of any differences between HRM in MNC subsidiaries and local firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the similarities and differences between the HRM practices of MNC subsidiaries and domestic firms to assess if there is evidence for convergence or divergence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors targeted MNC subsidiaries and domestically owned firms working in the banking, information technology and pharmaceutical sectors in Pakistan. These sectors have enjoyed a steady inflow of foreign direct investment and have a sizeable number of MNC subsidiaries. Out of 1,081 companies, some 392 participated in a face-to-face survey (response rate of 36.4 percent). The authors ran a series of binary logistic regression models to test the hypothesized relationships between HR practices and nationality of ownership.

Findings

The authors reveal that a small minority of both types of firm use some practices, such as high compensation contingent on performance and performance review, appraisal and career development. However, domestic firms use some practices, such as extensive training, performance appraisals and performance-related pay significantly less than their multinational counterparts. The authors argue that these differences reflect institutional influences in Pakistan as well as a potential opportunity for local firms to change their HRM practices. In other areas, such as recruitment and employee involvement, there are no differences between the two groups.

Originality/value

The authors deepen our understanding of the types of HR practices that local companies in an emerging economy are likely to adopt as well as those that they are unlikely to adopt. Existing research has tended to downplay HRM in Pakistan and the different use of individual HRM practices among MNC subsidiaries and local firms. This research reveals that some companies in Pakistan have sophisticated HRM practices in place in some areas; however, MNC subsidiaries make greater use of some HR practices, reflecting different cultural norms between the two groups.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Qazi Mohammed Ahmed, Mansoor Ahmad, Saquib Yusaf, Aymen Sajjad and Salman Waheed

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of advertising skepticism and need for cognition with consumers’ attitudes toward brand. There is currently…

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1208

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of advertising skepticism and need for cognition with consumers’ attitudes toward brand. There is currently limited understanding on how advertising skepticism and need for cognition relate to the consumers’ attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a “within-brand-comparison” strategy, a mock print advertisement of a telecom brand is shown to 204 cellular services users in Pakistan. This is followed by a survey. Data are analyzed using a variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

The relationship of advertising skepticism with attitude toward brand is negative and partially mediated by the sequence of brand image, advertisement believability and attitudes toward advertisement. In contrast, the relationship between need for cognition and attitude toward brand is positive and fully mediated by the sequence of brand image, advertisement believability and attitudes toward advertisement.

Originality/value

The paper fills some theoretical as well as empirical gaps by showing how (in a within-brand comparative advertisement context) advertising skepticism and need for cognition relate to the consumers’ attitudes toward brand.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik, Mansoor Ahmad and Mehwish Shabaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range…

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4450

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range leadership theory, and contextualizes leadership styles such as transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style (active management by exception, and contingent reward) to temporary project environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected (in year 2017) from 248 individuals working in ten large project-based organizations from different sectors, each having multiple units in Pakistan. Respondents comprise functional managers and individuals (who have lead or worked on projects), as well as dedicated project managers.

Findings

Goal clarity partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and project success. However, in case of the transactional leadership style, there is no mediation as transactional leadership style is not associated with goal clarity. Furthermore, contingent reward is positively associated to project success, while active management by exception is negatively associated to project success.

Originality/value

Research suggests that the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between leadership styles (transactional and transformational) and project success are less clear and need to be further explored. This study contributes to literature by answering such calls, and examines possible underlying mechanisms (i.e. goal clarity) in the relationship between leadership styles and project success.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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