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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Jie Yang, Mingchao Chang, Zhihong Chen, Lulu Zhou and Jiangjiang Zhang

Based on the intrinsic motivation theory and spiritual leadership theory, the current study proposes a chain mediation model for testing the linkage between spiritual

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the intrinsic motivation theory and spiritual leadership theory, the current study proposes a chain mediation model for testing the linkage between spiritual leadership and employees' innovative behavior through individual values and role identity.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 309 valid leader–subordinate matching questionnaires from 10 Internet enterprises and 21 manufacturing enterprises in China were collected through a field study. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping.

Findings

The results show that spiritual leadership has a positive impact on employees' innovative behavior. Uncertainty avoidance and creative role identity not only respectively play a mediating role but also play a chain mediating role in the process of spiritual leadership influencing employees' innovative behavior.

Originality/value

This study explores the influence of leadership style on employees' individual values, which has rarely been done in previous studies. Furthermore, the research explores the impact of personal values (uncertainty avoidance) on employee self-perception (creative role identity). And it enriches the relationship between spiritual leadership and employees' innovative behavior and reveals the deeper influence mechanism between them.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2020

Ying Zhang and Fu Yang

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between spiritual leadership and employee innovative behavior by testing the mediating role of autonomous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between spiritual leadership and employee innovative behavior by testing the mediating role of autonomous motivation and the moderating role of employee power distance orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The author predicted an indirect relationship between spiritual leadership and employee innovative behavior via autonomous motivation. Also, the author predicted the positive effect of spiritual leadership on employee innovative behavior will be stronger when employee power distance orientation is high. Hypotheses are tested with data gathered from 174 participants.

Findings

Results showed that spiritual leadership was positively related to employee innovative behavior via autonomous motivation. And, the positive relationship between spiritual leadership and autonomous motivation was stronger when employee power distance orientation was high. Furthermore, the indirect effect of autonomous motivation was stronger when employee power distance orientation was high.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a new theoretical perspective – self-determination theory – to test how and when spiritual leadership enhances employee innovative behavior by suggesting autonomous motivation as a mediator and employee power distance orientation as a boundary condition.

Practical implications

The results of this research provide suggestions for leaders to adopt spiritual leadership as well as enhance interactions between them and employees to increase employee innovative behavior.

Originality/value

This study highlights the moderating role of employee power distance orientation and uses self-determination theory to examine how and when spiritual leadership plays a positive role.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2020

Ki Seok Jeon and Byoung Kwon Choi

This study aims to examine the relationships between three dimensions – vision, hope/faith and altruistic love – of spiritual leadership and employees' creativity and to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationships between three dimensions – vision, hope/faith and altruistic love – of spiritual leadership and employees' creativity and to verify the mediating role of affective commitment in such relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 462 South Korean employees in diverse industries through self-reported questionnaires, and hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The authors found that vision, hope/faith and altruistic love were positively related to employees' creativity, while their affective commitment mediated such relationships. The authors also verified that the multidimensional structure of spiritual leadership was valid in the context of South Korea.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that leaders need to understand the importance of vision, hope/faith and altruistic love toward employees in formulating employees' affective commitment and stimulating creativity. Thus, organizations need to establish and operate leadership training programs for promoting leaders' behaviors that are based on spirituality.

Originality/value

This study contributes to broadening the variety of spiritual leadership's outcomes by providing an initial evidence of how spiritual leadership is associated with employees' creativity. Extending the verification of multidimensional structure of spiritual leadership so that it can be applied in South Korea has also been considered.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Lauren Klaus and Mario Fernando

By applying Parameshwar’s (2005) ego-transcendence model to two influential business leaders, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social innovation is promoted by…

Abstract

Purpose

By applying Parameshwar’s (2005) ego-transcendence model to two influential business leaders, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social innovation is promoted by business leaders through spiritual leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used research tactics available within a phenomenological framework.

Findings

Based on the analysis of the two business leader case studies, several links between spiritual leadership and social innovation were identified. The central role of a higher purpose in enacting spiritual leadership as well as bringing about social innovation was most significant.

Research limitations/implications

Use of secondary data, the inherent weaknesses in analysis based on a single individual’s interpretations and the analysis of only two business leaders were key limitations. A unique overlap was found between Dawson and Daniel’s (2010) social innovation model and Parameshwar’s (2005) ego-transcendence model.

Practical implications

As higher purpose was a key element in enacting spiritual leadership, leaders could look for the seeds of a higher purpose within the challenging circumstances of a situation. By shaping one’s behaviour to a higher purpose-related social cause than merely following rules and procedures or social conventions, leaders are more likely to develop their own personal decision-making style. By highlighting the importance of paying attention to the suffering of others rather one’s own suffering, the study also have implications for reducing the ego-based practices in day to day leadership in organisations.

Originality/value

Ego-transcendence model explains the link between social innovation and spiritual leadership in a non-organisational setting. The current study applies this link to the leadership context in business.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Faith Wambura Ngunjiri

The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women leaders in Kenya. The paper seeks to connect African data with existing literature on spiritual leadership, to demonstrate where African spiritual leadership is similar to, or different from, western conceptualizations of spiritual leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study from which this paper is derived employed qualitative methods, specifically interviews with supplemental archival data and observations. Four major themes are explored: beneficence, courage, hope/forbearance and ubuntu/humanness as emerging from the women's leadership stories. These four themes are compared and contrasted against existing literature on spiritual leadership.

Findings

It is found that beneficence, courage, and hope are comparable to existing western conceptualizations, whereas ubuntu is unique to the African context.

Research limitations/implications

The paper and the larger study were derived from interviews with 16 participants; as such, generalization was not a goal. The paper provides a deeper understanding of spiritual leadership as enacted by African women, with implications for the need for increased research on non‐western, non‐white perspectives on the phenomenon.

Practical implications

Readers may relate to the women's stories and be both informed and inspired towards their own social justice leadership.

Originality/value

Whereas the paper is derived from field research conducted in 2005 and published variously in other sources as cited, this paper takes an original perspective in comparing and contrasting African and western understandings of spiritual leadership, and expanding the understanding of the same in a novel way not done in previous publications.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Sharmila Devi Ramachandaran, Steven Eric Krauss, Azimi Hamzah and Khairuddin Idris

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence into women academic leadership practices. The study designed to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence into women academic leadership practices. The study designed to provide a clear understanding of the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence practices within women academic leadership practices. In addition, the study will be an ideal for women in academic environment, considering that more women will have the opportunities to hold leadership positions in higher learning institutions. Understanding the unique skills and attributes of spiritual intelligence could increase their confidence towards taking on leadership positions in future. This study will also provide greater clarification on how spiritual intelligence when translated through leadership practice will contribute to a more balanced and harmonious working environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study assimilated a qualitative approach guided by phenomenological inquiry to explore the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence practices among the women leaders. Phenomenology best fit the researchers’ assumptions that it is possible to know, define and categorize women academic leader’s experiences in a more structured manner. It is by entering into their field of perception that the researcher pursues to understand spiritual intelligence as the leaders saw it.

Findings

The finding established three main effectiveness of integrating spiritual intelligence into leadership practices: employees inspired by vision; increase credibility and long-term sustainability of institution; and heightened moral values and reduces ethical issues. The authors conclude that bringing the attributions of spiritual intelligence will transform the workplace into a more meaningful and purposeful atmosphere by constructing balanced and harmonious relationship within employees.

Research limitations/implications

The study rely profoundly on women academic leaders as a primary source of data. Due to their higher position, there may be some elements of their works which are similar to each other or different compared with other women leaders who may not have reached the higher position. The responses was mainly based on the self-perception of women academic leaders grounded on their insight of leadership and experience. This experiences probably could not be verified by others to see if their perceptions of leadership were in line with how others perceive them. The study also limited in terms of generalizability as the sample was purposively selected.

Practical implications

The study will be applicable for human resource personnel to develop policies and procedures that are needed to improve the holistic strategies of leading not only in public university but also throughout all the other higher educational institutions. The study assist researcher and the practitioner in the Human Resource Development (HRD) field to understand the issues related to leadership practice in current era. Hence, the information in this study could be used to aid them in advocating employee training programs and formulating HRD intervention remedial programs input for designing and facilitating of intervention for professional academic leaders, academicians and change agent to understand and analyse the characteristics of personal and organizational situation in order to contribute to the long run survival of the higher educational learning institutions.

Originality/value

This paper has provided unique evidence of women leadership particularly in Malaysian higher educational context on their experiences of spiritual intelligence and its effectiveness into their leadership practices.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

George Gotsis and Katerina Grimani

Inclusion is of critical importance to creating healthier workplaces, if the ongoing dynamic of workforce diversity is taken for granted. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Inclusion is of critical importance to creating healthier workplaces, if the ongoing dynamic of workforce diversity is taken for granted. The purpose of this paper is to designate the role of spiritual leadership in fostering more humane and inclusive workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the extant literature on two distinct research streams, inclusion and inclusive leadership, and spiritual leadership, elaborate a mediation model, identify antecedents and outcomes, and articulate a set of propositions reflecting key findings.

Findings

The authors advance a conceptual model according to which inclusive practices founded on spiritual values will mediate the positive relationship between spiritual leadership and a climate for inclusion. They argue that calling and membership as components of spiritual wellbeing will reinforce employees’ experience of both uniqueness and belongingness, thus affecting their perceptions of inclusion and inducing multi-level beneficial outcomes.

Practical implications

Spiritual leadership assumes a preeminent role in embracing and valuing diversity: it embodies a potential for positioning inclusive ideals more strategically, in view of enabling employees unfold their genuine selves and experience integration in work settings.

Social implications

Spiritual leadership helps inclusive goals to be situated in their societal context; inclusion is thus viewed as both an organizational and societal good, embedded in social contexts, and pertinent to corporate vision, mission and philosophy.

Originality/value

The paper examines spiritual leadership as a predictor of climates for inclusion. Drawing on spiritual values, spiritual leaders display a strong potential for inclusion, facilitating diverse employees to experience feelings of both belongingness and uniqueness in work settings that assume high societal relevance.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Mahyarni Mahyarni

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of spiritual leadership toward spirituality, job satisfaction and reduction of deviant behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of spiritual leadership toward spirituality, job satisfaction and reduction of deviant behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural model based on WarpPLS (Solimun et al., 2017) is used for data analysis, with the first-order factor analysis based on variables with reflective indicators.

Findings

The research findings show that the sustainability of workplace spirituality can stimulate employees’ job satisfaction. Accordingly, the direct influence of workplace spirituality on workplace deviant behavior (WDB) is quite major (0.296); this indicates the importance of workplace spirituality for employees in working so it can reduce the WDB. An interesting part about this study is the indirect influence of workplace spirituality on workplace deviant behavior through job satisfaction, which also has a major value (0.208), almost equal to direct influence. This circumstance depicts how workplace spirituality influences workplace deviant behavior, as well as the importance of the improvement of employees’ job satisfaction.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is primarily placed on the causal relationship between the variables of spiritual leadership and WDB, other than the direct influence; there is also an indirect influence that has a big value, which is the path of spiritual leadership toward workplace deviant behavior through workplace spirituality (−0.248). In other words, workplace deviant behavior is not only influenced directly by spiritual leadership but also by workplace spirituality.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Jonathan Smith and Andrew Malcolm

Managers in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) carry responsibility for achieving government targets on the provision of quality care and service to patients. The…

Abstract

Managers in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) carry responsibility for achieving government targets on the provision of quality care and service to patients. The demands on managers to achieve these targets is significant in itself, but are often multiplied because of having to cope with the conflicting pressures of an organisation that operates with a ‘business’ focus, yet is essentially a caring body that is service‐oriented at heart. These two areas of business and service are not naturally compatible and can create tension. Leaders are expected to bridge the two with ease, with little preparation on how to cope with the conflict that these two paradigms can create.This paper, detailing the authors' work with managers in an NHS acute trust, provides unique insights into ways of dealing with the tensions and challenges that leaders experience. The authors argue that a holistic approach to leadership is required to enable this tension to be managed effectively, which considers the physical, mental and spiritual. Of these three elements it is the spiritual dimension that is the most contentious, difficult and most often avoided aspect to leadership and the authors also found this in their work with this NHS acute trust. The paper introduces a model that highlights the three elements to the holistic approach, and goes on to use it in an analysis of the situation faced by managers. The analysis highlights the importance of balance and need for including more consideration of the spiritual dimension in leaders' activities.

Details

International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9886

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Zahrotush Sholikhah, Xuhui Wang and Wenjing Li

This paper aims to examine the role of two mediating variables in the relationship between spiritual leadership with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The two…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of two mediating variables in the relationship between spiritual leadership with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The two mediating variables used in the study were organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and workplace spirituality as followers’ intrinsic motivation and self-concept factors. Furthermore, the research also examined the role of perceived organizational support as moderating variable on the relationship between spiritual leadership and workplace spirituality.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted using questionnaires via a face-to-face method. The five-point Likert scale was used to assess the variables and to measure the items. The tool of analysis used was partial least square. The sample consisted of 234 respondents encompassing teachers and educational staffs of an Islamic based education institution in Indonesia.

Findings

The results supported five out of the eight proposed hypotheses. It was apparent that there was a partial mediating role of the OBSE as followers’ motivational concept on the relationship between spiritual leadership and organization citizenship behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The dearth of literature on the adoption of spiritual leadership in Islamic schools makes the depth of discussion on the study framework somewhat limited.

Practical implications

The insight provided by this study into understanding and link between spiritual leadership and OCB among Muslim education practitioners. While a large body of leadership research has adopted a variation of leadership theories, the results shifted the focus of attention to the adoption of spiritual leadership as an essential determinant of discretionary behavior in a religious-based institution.

Social implications

Islamic schools are in dire need of teachers with discretionary behavior. Spiritual leadership proved to have a significant relationship with organizational based self-esteem and OCB. It promotes the intrinsic well-being of the follower by creating a vision where people can achieve their higher purposes of life and contributing to society by performing services to others, and by giving people a feeling of being appreciated.

Originality/value

The study extends scholarly understanding on the role of spiritual leadership, which is a relatively new and growing area of interest for academics and practitioners, in shaping teachers and academic staffs’ OCBs regarding both theory and practice.

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