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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, Basharat Javed, Karthik N.S. Iyer and Baochun Zhao

The purpose of this study was to examine the process of the use of management’s positivity and negativity sources and their mediation on pharmaceutical members’ satisfaction that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the process of the use of management’s positivity and negativity sources and their mediation on pharmaceutical members’ satisfaction that, in turn, enable a health-care organization to meet its business objectives with more agility.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from a survey of 106 pharmaceutical members regarding their relationships with management.

Findings

The results of LISREL analysis revealed that the use of positivity variables such as reward enhanced each of referent, expert and positive conflict; in addition, referent boosted satisfaction. However, the use of negativity variables such as opportunism enhanced power, but weakened each of referent, expert and legitimate power sources. The use of coercion enhanced power too, but produced dissatisfaction. Further, the prevalence of negative conflict caused dissatisfaction.

Originality/value

This study also reported major contributions when it examined the effect of the mediation of the use of positivity intrinsic power sources on satisfaction. It found that referent power functioned as a full mediator by dropping the amount of the relationship between the use of reward and satisfaction to zero and as a partial mediator by dropping the amount of the relationship between the use of coercion and satisfaction. In addition, the use of referent power mediated the joint effect of both the use of coercion and reward power sources, triggering a positive effect on satisfaction. Several managerial implications were discussed.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, Basharat Javed and Muhammad Naveed Iqbal

The purpose of this paper is to expand previous theories of motivation and religious ethics by examining the moderation effect of Islamic work ethic (IWE) on the relationship…

1003

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand previous theories of motivation and religious ethics by examining the moderation effect of Islamic work ethic (IWE) on the relationship between perception of politics (POP) and job satisfaction, and turnover intention and negligent behavior (NB).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 260 workers employed in various sectors in an Asian country. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the main effect of the five hypotheses. In addition, moderated models are used to identify factors (IWE) that may change the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

Findings

Results revealed that POP was negatively related to job satisfaction, and positively related to turnover intention and NB. IWE was positively related to job satisfaction, and negatively related to turnover intention (confirming previous research findings), and NB (a contribution of the current study). Furthermore, when the moderator variable of IWE was introduced to the relationship between POP and job outcomes, the influence and direction of the POP were altered (a major contribution of this study). In other words, the moderator variable strengthened job satisfaction and reduced both turnover intention and NB of organizational workers.

Originality/value

When the moderator variable of IWE was introduced to the relationship between the POP and job outcomes, the influence and direction of the POP were altered (a major contribution of this study).

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Prashant Srivastava, Karthik N.S. Iyer and Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas

The purpose of this paper is to enhance understanding on supply chain partnership strategy-environment context co-alignment and its relationship with performance. Using the…

1810

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance understanding on supply chain partnership strategy-environment context co-alignment and its relationship with performance. Using the environment-strategy-performance view framework and the supporting relational perspective, the study develops a model and hypotheses to understand how supply chain partnership strategy as a response to co-align with operating context elements may impact operational and overall firm performance. Additionally, the study investigates the interrelationships among partnership strategy elements.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for testing the hypothesized relationships in the conceptual model was collected through a survey of managers in the Hoover’s database of US manufacturing firms. The survey sample included 115 responses from a wide variety of manufacturing forms.

Findings

Findings support the conventional wisdom relating collaboration to operational and financial performance. While product complexity associates with the “building block” resources, resource complementarity and resource specificity, technological turbulence relates significantly with only resource specificity. Interestingly, competitive intensity associates differentially with the resources – positive with resource specificity and negatively with resource complementarity. The results also reveal mediating influences of resource specificity and collaboration.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings have to be considered in context. The moderate size, wide industry/firm diversity and robust research design notwithstanding, and the cross-firm nature can potentially obscure causal linkages. Besides, more comprehensive insights could be obtained by modeling the co-alignment of strategy with other factors in the operating context such as industry munificence, and market unpredictability.

Practical implications

Firms derive operational and financial performance benefits from close collaboration with partners since the operational enhancements from such relationships have customer service implications. Besides, the synergistic interrelationships among strategic partnership resources and their eventual impact on operational and financial performance is highlighted suggesting that firms develop a proper mix of unique and complementing set of resources and leverage them through collaborative behaviors. Importantly, the results provide a framework for managers to understand the criticality of aligning their resources with contextual elements to realize enhanced operational efficiencies, customer service, and financial benefits.

Originality/value

Much of the evidence on the rent generation capabilities in supply chain partnerships is still anecdotal and extant empirical research lacks adequate explanation. Thus this study offers an initial strategic response framework for an appropriate co-alignment of partnership resources with environmental context factors to realize operational benefits and overall financial performance. The framework answers the critical question: does a supply chain partnership strategy that matches “fit” or co-aligns with its critical operating environment context realize better performance? Additionally, it unravels the interrelationships among strategic partnership resources.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Jamal A. Al‐Khatib, Angela D'Auria Stanton and Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas

The purpose of this study is to segment the consumer Gulf market based on actionable and strategy yielding marketing variables (i.e. ethical orientations, trust, opportunisms and…

6213

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to segment the consumer Gulf market based on actionable and strategy yielding marketing variables (i.e. ethical orientations, trust, opportunisms and Machiavellianism).

Design/methodology/approach

Consumers from Saudi Arabia, Oman and Kuwait were asked to complete a survey which incorporated scales to measure consumers' ethical beliefs, Machiavellianism, ethical orientation, opportunism, trust, as well as demographic classification questions. Specifically, every attempt was made to have a broad distribution across the demographic categories of gender, age and education. Participation in the study was restricted to citizens of their respective nations. Local “data captains” were selected in each nation and trained in data collection techniques by two of the study's authors. Of the 598 questionnaires distributed, a total of 365 usable surveys were yielding an overall response rate of 61 percent. A multistage clustering approach was incorporated in order to identify the unique ethical consumer segments.

Findings

The analysis resulted in three distinct segments/clusters: “Principled Purchasers”, “Suspicious Shoppers” and “Corrupt Consumers”. Members of the Principled Purchasers segment tended to be less Machiavellianistic, less opportunistic, more trusting of others, less relativistic, more idealistic and perceived questionable actions in a negative light. Suspicious Shoppers were less trusting, tended to proceed with caution in their dealings, were somewhat opportunistic but placed a high emphasis on ethical behavior. Like the Suspicious Shoppers, the Corrupt Consumers were not trusting individuals. Unlike Suspicious Shoppers, however, Corrupt Consumers were Machiavellianistic, took advantage of opportunities, were not ethically oriented and were more likely to act in an unethical manner.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should attempt to obtain data from a more diverse sample in the Middle East. Social desirability bias may have been a factor in response to some of the questions resulting in respondents providing the socially desirable response in order to appear ethical. Future studies should examine the inclusion of measures for controlling such bias.

Practical implications

Companies should alter their marketing approach depending upon the segment being targeted. Companies focusing on “Principled Purchasers” should emphasize customer satisfaction and honesty in their transactions. “Suspicious Shoppers” are best appealed to by companies who can create a mutually satisfying relationship in which both parties benefit. In conducting business with “Corrupt Consumers”, international marketing managers must be aware of situations in which this group might try to exploit or deceive the firm, such as used or altered returns, product theft, illegal consumption or other immoral/illegal activities; all of which are costly to the organization and, ultimately, the general public at large.

Originality/value

Despite the socio‐economic similarities among Gulf countries (levels of income, market size, religion, language, etc.), important micro level differences exist and are often overlooked. Ignoring such differences may steer multinational firms towards the adoption of a simple and less expensive standardized marketing strategy across the region.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas

With business becoming more international, marketers need to understand the ethical beliefs of foreign consumers because of their effect on the outcomes of market expansion…

8808

Abstract

With business becoming more international, marketers need to understand the ethical beliefs of foreign consumers because of their effect on the outcomes of market expansion strategies. The ethical judgments of US consumers have been examined, but few studies have investigated similar attitudes in foreign‐national settings. To understand the various types of consumer ethics, this exploratory study classifies ethical beliefs by linking Hofstede’s cultural taxonomy to personality and ethics. This classification is achieved by comparing ethical judgments of consumers from eight different countries the USA, Ireland, Austria, Egypt, Lebanon, Hong Kong, Indonesia, and Australia. Labels for the emergent cultural personality types are also developed. Strategic implications for marketers are then discussed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Anusorn Singhapakdi, Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, Janet K. Marta and Mohd Ismail Ahmed

Given the ever‐increasing globalization of economies, growing numbers of marketing firms are expecting more of their profits to be derived from international sales. Global…

11615

Abstract

Given the ever‐increasing globalization of economies, growing numbers of marketing firms are expecting more of their profits to be derived from international sales. Global competition is ferocious; thus, developing long‐term partner relationships often becomes a significant competitive advantage. Corporate ethics are of pivotal importance in global business, though globalization also complicates ethical questions, because an individual’s culture affects his/her ethical decision making. Failures to account for the effects of differences in consumers’ culturally‐based ethical values will hinder a marketer’s efforts to expand internationally. Compares consumers from Malaysia and the USA in terms of their perceptions of marketing ethics situations, their attitudes toward business and salespeople, and their personal moral philosophies. The survey results reveal some significant differences between the consumers from these two countries.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, Gordon L. Patzer and Michael L. Klassen

Entrepreneurs interested in entering different cultures andcountries can be confronted with a bewildering array of differences inmoral values. This situation is indicated by past…

2661

Abstract

Entrepreneurs interested in entering different cultures and countries can be confronted with a bewildering array of differences in moral values. This situation is indicated by past research that has examined the moral judgements of American consumers, but has directed little or no effort towards investigating such attitudes in foreign‐market settings with the intent to assist the entrepreneur in understanding differences across cultures. Compares attitudes of consumers in two different countries (Northern Ireland and Hong Kong) who share a common environment of colonialism. Uses a theoretical three‐stage typology of moral development to establish hypotheses and explain the results of this study. The findings reveal Irish consumers to be less sensitive to consumer ethical issues and less idealistic than the Hong Kong consumers. However, there was no difference between the survey groups with regard to relativism and Machiavellianism. Culture, competition, economics, war and terrorism might be factors that explain such differences, as well as similarities, between the two consumer groups.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Yusuf Sidani, Imad Zbib, Mohammed Rawwas and Tarek Moussawer

The purpose of this paper is to address issues of gender, age, and ethical sensitivity and to address the interplay of gender and age and levels of ethical sensitivity within the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address issues of gender, age, and ethical sensitivity and to address the interplay of gender and age and levels of ethical sensitivity within the Lebanese context.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured survey was designed and administered to a sample of Lebanese respondents to test the extent of ethical sensitivity of the respondents. This study used a range of situations and scenarios to identify the levels of both sensitivity to business ethics and awareness of unethical business.

Findings

Significant differences were found in ethical sensitivity in only four out of 18 situations where in all cases females were more sensitive than males to issues of ethical nature. When comparing younger to older employees, significant differences were found in six out of the 18 situations. Age of the respondents seemed to better explain some ethical differences among respondents in some situations.

Research limitations/implications

The specific context (workers) in which this study was conducted may limit the generalizability of the results. In addition, such studies measure perceptions of business ethics or intentions to act in an ethical or unethical way. This does not necessarily describe the actual behavior that people will be involved in.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that males and females ethical orientations tend to get closer to each other as they mature in age. This could be due to workplace socialization. Accordingly, managers are invited to see the impact of workplace culture on ethical beliefs and behaviors.

Originality/value

This study contributes in understanding variations in ethical sensitivities across gender and age. There are only few research studies addressing business ethics and gender differences in the Middle East. This study adds to what is known about the effect of these variables on ethical orientations across different contexts.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, K.N. Rajendran and Gerhard A. Wuehrer

When countries differ in the perceived quality of their products, country‐of‐origin (CO) labelling influences consumer choice. While the influence of nationalism on perceived…

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Abstract

When countries differ in the perceived quality of their products, country‐of‐origin (CO) labelling influences consumer choice. While the influence of nationalism on perceived quality has been well documented in the literature, the effect of worldmindedness has not been examined in this context. Primarily explores the role of worldmindedness in product quality perception. Confirms the impact of CO and nationalism on product evaluation. In studying 593 Austrian consumers, the research finds the effect of CO is moderated by the characteristics of consumer groups. Reveals that the effect of worldmindedness on product evaluation is enhanced for foreign products and is diminished for domestic products, however, the impact of nationalism on product evaluation is enhanced for domestic products and is diminished for foreign products. Suggests promotional and positioning implications for targeting both groups.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Jamal A. Al‐Khatib, Scott J. Vitell and Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas

In recent years, business ethics has drawn increased interest from business and marketing practitioners as well as from academicians. Despite the repeated call in the literature…

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Abstract

In recent years, business ethics has drawn increased interest from business and marketing practitioners as well as from academicians. Despite the repeated call in the literature for cross‐cultural research in this age of globalization, virtually no studies have examined the ethical beliefs and ideologies of foreign consumers and compared them to those of US consumers. Investigates the ethical beliefs, preferred ethical ideology and degree of Machiavellianism of US versus Egyptian consumers. Concludes that while US consumers appear generally less likely to accept various questionable consumer practices than Egyptian consumers, they are more likely to reject moral absolutes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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