In recent years, increasing competition in communicational network of Iran has led to attracting more attention to marketing and particularly, advertising activities. The aim of…
In recent years, increasing competition in communicational network of Iran has led to attracting more attention to marketing and particularly, advertising activities. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of TV advertising appeals of communication companies (in this study, MTN Irancell Company) on customers' attitude towards their advertising efforts and their brand.
The aim was achieved through an empirical study involving a survey. Of 400 questionnaires sent out, 384 were returned. The dataset from the sample underwent series of statistical analyses, i.e. reliability test, factor analyses (exploratory and confirmatory) and structural equation modelling (SEM).
Factor analyses extracted seven dimensions, i.e. one‐sided appeal, two‐sided appeal, humour appeal, fear appeal, comparative appeal, attitude toward advertising and brand attitude. All related indicators manifested their constructs, respectively. The results show that there is a positive, direct, and significant relationship between: advertising appeals and attitude towards advertising; advertising appeals and brand attitude; and attitude towards advertising and brand attitude.
The paper empirically justified the interrelationship among advertising appeals, attitude toward advertising and brand attitude in an integrated model. Communication companies may find this paper useful as perceptual measures can be empirically substantiated using SEM.
This chapter demonstrates that women challenge oppressive gender relations by engaging in active agency at different levels. Iranian women’s struggles for gender equality show a…
This chapter demonstrates that women challenge oppressive gender relations by engaging in active agency at different levels. Iranian women’s struggles for gender equality show a critical consciousness of the politics of local male domination and an indigenous contestation of the cultural practices which sanction injustices against women.
This chapter is based on the findings and analysis of the book, Women, Power and Politics in 21st Century in Iran. It is the result of the political and personal experiences of a number of Iranian women academics, journalist and activists who live and work in Iran.
Based on the updated findings and new statistical data, this chapter argues that women, despite their high level of education and activism, continue to face gender inequality, in particular in the sphere of employment.
This chapter is intended to counter the often inaccurate and misleading impressions put forward by the media, politicians and some academics in the West when they talk about Iranian women. Within the broader feminist theoretical positioning, the aim of this chapter is to contribute to the debate on essentialism and the stereotype of Iranian women as submissive Muslim women without agency.
Feminist knowledge production is diverse. Nonetheless, consideration of the historical and geographical locations of feminist knowledge production is vital to our understanding of the complex processes of women’s liberation. Thus, Iranian women’s voices are important to what is traditionally understood as feminism.
Open innovation has attracted the attention of experts and business entities for the sustainable survivability of firms, especially in the post-COVID-19 era. The food and beverage…
Open innovation has attracted the attention of experts and business entities for the sustainable survivability of firms, especially in the post-COVID-19 era. The food and beverage industry has been facing sustainable survivability problems. It is important to identify and evaluate the factors of open innovation from the perspectives of the food and beverage industry. This study serves that purpose by identifying and evaluating the factors of open innovation in the post-COVID-19 era with a special reference to Pakistan's economy.
The present study integrates the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and Matrice d’ Impacts Croises Multiplication Applique a Classement (MICMAC) methods to analyze the factors involved in the adoption of open innovation in the food and beverage industry in Pakistan. Firstly, based on an extensive literature review of the most relevant studies, the factors affecting open innovation have been identified and finalized using FDM and experts' opinions. Secondly, the hierarchical framework has also been prepared by implementing the ISM approach. Thirdly, the MICMAC approach was employed to evaluate the factors to examine the driving and dependence powers of the factors of open innovation adoption.
The study identified 17 factors of open innovation adoption in Pakistan's food and beverage industry and 16 factors were finalized using FDM. The ISM-MICMAC matrix unveiled that awareness seminars and training, along with a lack of executive commitments, were strong factors with high driving power, but these factors proved to be weakly dependent powers regarding the other factors. Moreover, a lack of innovation strategy, R&D and non-supportive organizational culture exhibited low driving power but strong dependent power.
The findings of the study could help firms and business entities understand the driving and dependent factors involved in open innovation for the sustainable survivability of the food and beverage industry. The study provides strong reasons to believe that an open innovation strategy, along with stakeholder collaboration, the adoption of rules and regulations and managerial commitment, could stimulate open innovation. Moreover, governments should promote the business sector, especially the food and beverage industry, to facilitate the sector while also providing awareness seminars and training, creating environments conducive to reducing innovation costs.
Some previous studies have analyzed the factors involved in green innovation from the perspective of the manufacturing industry and environmental protection. The present study is a pioneer study to examine the factors involved in the adoption of open innovation in the food and beverage industry in Pakistan from the perspective of the post-COVID-19 era. For this purpose, the present study uses an integrated Fuzzy Delphi-ISM-MICMAC approach for the analysis.