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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2022

Manish Bansal

The study aims at examining the relationship between the forms of misclassification practices, namely expense shifting and revenue shifting. In particular, the study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims at examining the relationship between the forms of misclassification practices, namely expense shifting and revenue shifting. In particular, the study aims at identifying the form of shifting that has been preferred by firms to meet the industry average profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

Core earnings and operating revenue expectation models are used to measure expense shifting and revenue shifting, respectively. The panel fixed-effects models are used to control for unobserved heterogeneity across industries and time.

Findings

Based on a sample of Bombay Stock Exchange-listed firms, the author finds that firms prefer expense shifting over revenue shifting to meet industry average profitability, implying that firms choose the shifting tool based on the relative advantage. Further, the findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that firm life cycle and mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) moderates the relationship between shifting forms and industry average profitability. However, the negative impact of IFRS on shifting practices is found to be less pronounced among BigN audit firms.

Originality/value

The study is among the pioneering attempt to document the substitution relationship between shifting forms. It is the first study that examines a form of classification shifting, where gross profit and core earnings both change as an effect of misclassification.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Manish Bansal

This study is to examine the economic consequences of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) converged standards by exploring its phased manner implementation in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study is to examine the economic consequences of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) converged standards by exploring its phased manner implementation in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study measures the economic outcomes in the form of capital market reactions such as cost of equity capital, cost of debt capital, information asymmetry and market liquidity. Difference-in-difference (DiD) methodology has been used to analyze the data for this study.

Findings

Based on a sample of 2,685 Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) listed firms, results show that the Indian capital market reacts negatively to the adoption of IFRS-converged standards. In particular, results show that the cost of equity capital, cost of debt capital and information asymmetry have been increased and market liquidity has been decreased for test firms relative to benchmark firms immediately after IFRS convergence and this negative effect is more pronounced among small firms than large firms. Subsequent tests suggest that test firms have better capital market reactions in the later year of implementation relative to benchmark firms that are implementing IFRS for the first time. It indicates the learning curve effect of IFRS on the economic outcomes as negative impact ameliorates over time.

Originality/value

The study is among earlier attempts to investigate the impact of IFRS on capital market reactions by exploring the phased manner implementation framework. The study is also among the pioneering attempts to examine the learning curve impact of IFRS on capital market reactions.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Manish Bansal

The study aims to examine the impact of the firm life cycle on the misclassification practices of Indian firms. The study also examines the impact of International…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the impact of the firm life cycle on the misclassification practices of Indian firms. The study also examines the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the misclassification practices of Indian firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses Dickinson (2011) cash flow patterns to classify firm-years under life cycle stages. Two forms of misclassification, namely revenue misclassification and expense misclassification have been examined in this study.

Findings

Based on a sample of 19,268 Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) firm-years spanning over ten years from March 2010 to March 2019, results show that firms operating at high (low) life cycle stage are more likely to be engaged in revenue (expense) misclassification, implying that firms substitute between the classification shifting tools depending upon ease and needs of each tool. Further, our results demonstrate that the magnitude of expense shifting has been significantly increased among test firms (firms reporting under IFRS) relative to benchmark firms (firms reporting under domestic GAAP) in the post-IFRS adoption period, implying that adoption of IFRS negatively affects the accounting quality of Indian firms.

Research limitations/implications

The study considers only two main forms of misclassification, namely revenue and expense misclassification. However, future research may explore the cash flow misclassification.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that standard-setting authorities make more mandatory disclosure requirements under IFRS to curb the corporate misfeasance of classification shifting.

Originality/value

First, the study is among the earlier attempts to examine the impact of the firm life cycle on misclassification practices. Second, the study explores the unique Indian institutional settings concerning the phased-manner implementation of IFRS and examines its impact on the classification shifting practices of firms.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Manish Bansal and Ashish Garg

The study aims to investigate the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)-converged standards (Indian Accounting Standards (INAS)) on the accounting…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)-converged standards (Indian Accounting Standards (INAS)) on the accounting quality of Indian firms. The phased manner approach of implementing INAS provides us a unique setting to investigate the issue in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used difference-in-difference (DiD) methodology, where the accounting quality is compared between test firms and benchmark firms during the pre-and post-INAS adoption period. Accounting quality is operationalized through four different constructs, namely, earnings smoothing, discretionary accruals, earnings timeliness and value relevance of earnings.

Findings

The findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that accounting quality has been significantly reduced after the adoption of INAS. In particular, results show that the degree of earnings smoothing, and the magnitude of discretionary accruals have been increased among test firms in the post-adoption year. Besides, findings provide evidence that timely recognition of losses and value relevance of earnings has been reduced for test firms relative to benchmark firms after the adoption of INAS.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the mere adoption of high-quality standards does not ensure higher accounting quality in countries with a weaker enforcement mechanism. Hence, stringent enforcement mechanisms are needed to ensure full compliance with accounting standards. This study serves as a case study for other emerging countries that are in the process of IFRS convergence and make them aware of the unintended consequences of IFRS adoption.

Originality/value

Indian authorities implemented INAS in a phased manner that provides a unique setting to use DiD methodology. DiD helps to control the impact of concurrent economic shocks, while examining the impact of the particular regulatory shock. Besides, this is the first attempt to investigate the impact of INAS on the accounting quality of Indian firms.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Manish Bansal and Asgar Ali

The study presents the zero investment strategies based on the pricing impact of real earnings management (REM) on stock returns after taking into account the direction…

Abstract

Purpose

The study presents the zero investment strategies based on the pricing impact of real earnings management (REM) on stock returns after taking into account the direction and endogeneity nature of REM.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use standard portfolio methodology and Fama–Macbeth cross-sectional regression to analyze the data for this study. Both upward and downward form of REM has been examined. Accrual earnings management (AEM) has been controlled while examining the association between REM and stock returns.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the REM anomaly exists in the Indian equity market and is consistent under different market conditions and investment horizons. It is robust after controlling for cross-sectional effects and AEM. Our subsequent analysis suggests that a decile-based zero investment portfolio strategy based on REM loadings generates an annual excess return of 17.90%. The presented annual excess return is highest among quantile and mean-based investment strategies. Further, the authors find that REM sorted proposed investment strategies outperform the AEM sorted investment strategies in all spheres.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that investors can form an arbitrage profitable investment strategy by taking a long position in the bottom 10% of negative REM stocks, and a short position in the top 10% of positive REM stocks.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the pricing impact of REM on stock returns and provides zero investment strategies by betting against REM.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Manish Bansal

This study aims at investigating the moderating role of family business generation on the association between board independence and earnings management practices of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at investigating the moderating role of family business generation on the association between board independence and earnings management practices of Indian family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel data regression models to analyze the data. Board independence is operationalized via the proportion of independent directors on board and the dual role of chief executive officer. Earnings management is operationalized through discretionary accruals, which are estimated by the performance-adjusted modified Jones model (Kothari et al., 2005). Family business generation is based on the firm’s age, where each generation is equated to a period of 25 years. The parameters of interest are estimated through the hybrid model (Allison, 2009) which controls for the unobserved cross-sectional heterogeneity across firms while estimating the coefficients for time-invariant variables.

Findings

Based on a sample of 26,962 Bombay Stock Exchange–listed firm-years, spanning over 13 years from the year ending March 2007 to March 2019, the results exhibit that Indian family firms are less likely to be engaged in earnings management; board independence is ineffective in controlling the earnings management practices of firms, and this relation is found to be more pronounced among family firms; first-generation family firms are more likely to be engaged in earnings management than second- or third-generation firms; and board independence has a weaker role in curbing the earnings management practices of first-generation family firms. Overall, the results exhibit that generational involvement significantly influences the association between family firms and earnings management and moderates the relationship between board independence and earnings management. These results are robust to sensitivity measures.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the moderating impact of family business generation on the association between board independence and earnings management according to the author’s knowledge. Besides, this is among the earlier attempts to investigate the earnings management practices of Indian family firms.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Manish Bansal and Vivek Kumar

This study aims to investigate the impact of mandatory corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending legislation on the earnings management strategies of firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of mandatory corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending legislation on the earnings management strategies of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use panel data regression models to analyze the data for this study. This study covers the post-legislation period, which spans over five years from the financial year ending March 2015 to the financial year ending March 2019.

Findings

The results show that firms manipulate accounting measures to avoid breaching the cut-off criteria for mandatory CSR. In particular, the results show that firms operating around the operating revenue threshold misclassify operating revenue as non-operating revenue. In contrast, firms operating around the net worth and net profit thresholds do downward real and accrual earnings management. These results are consistent with several robustness measures.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the impact of mandatory CSR spending on earnings management.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2022

Manish Bansal and Hajam Abid Bashir

This study aims to investigate the impact of business strategy on the classification shifting practices of Indian firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of business strategy on the classification shifting practices of Indian firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study considered cost leadership and differentiation strategy. Two forms of classification shifting, namely, expense misclassification and revenue misclassification have been examined in this study. Panel data regression models are used to analyze the data for this study.

Findings

The results show that managers of cost leadership strategy firms are more likely to be engaged in expense misclassification, whereas firms following differentiation strategy are likely to be engaged in revenue misclassification. Subsequent tests of this study suggest that firms following a hybrid strategy (mix of cost leadership and differentiation) prefer revenue misclassification over expense misclassification for reporting inflated operating performance. These results imply that firms prefer the shifting tool based on the ease and need of each shifting strategy. These results are consistent with several robustness measures.

Practical implications

The results suggest that investors should understand business strategy before developing insights about the accounting quality of firms. Investors should conduct a comprehensive review of income statement items before using items for portfolio evaluation.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between business strategy and classification shifting.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Hajam Abid Bashir, Manish Bansal and Dilip Kumar

This study aims to examine the value relevance of earnings in terms of predicting the value variables such as cash flow, capital investment (CI), dividend and stock return…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the value relevance of earnings in terms of predicting the value variables such as cash flow, capital investment (CI), dividend and stock return under the Indian institutional settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used panel Granger causality tests to examine causality relationships among variables and panel data regression models to check the statistical associations between earnings and value variables.

Findings

Based on a data set of 7,280 Bombay Stock Exchange-listed firm-years spanning over ten years from March 2009 to March 2018, the results show higher sensitivity of earnings toward cash flows, CI, divided and stock return and vice-versa. Further, the findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that earnings are positively related to value variables. Overall, the results established that earnings are value-relevant and have predictive ability to forecast the value variables that facilitate investors in portfolio valuation. The results are consistent with the predictive view of the value relevance of earnings. Several robustness checks confirm these results.

Originality/value

This study brings new empirical evidence from a distinct capital market, India, and provides a new facet to the value relevance debate in terms of its prediction view. The study is among earlier attempts that jointly measure the ability of earnings in forecasting different value variables by taking a uniform sample of firms at the same period. Hence, the study provides a comprehensive view of the predictive ability of reported earnings.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Manish Bansal, Ashish Kumar and K. N. Badhani

The authors aim at investigating different forms of classification shifting (CS). CS is a novel form of earnings management under which managers misclassify income…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim at investigating different forms of classification shifting (CS). CS is a novel form of earnings management under which managers misclassify income statement line items and cash flow statement line items with an intent to report favorable operating performance of firms. In particular, the authors check the existence of revenue misclassification, expense misclassification and cash flows misclassification among Indian firms by taking the uniform sample of firms over a single period.

Design/methodology/approach

Operating revenue model (Malikov et al., 2018), core earnings expectation model (McVay, 2006) and operating cash flows model (Roychowdhury, 2006) are employed for measuring revenue misclassification, expense misclassification and cash flows misclassification, respectively. The panel data regression models are used to analyze the data for this study.

Findings

Based on the sample of 12,870 Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) listed firm-years observations between 2010 and 2018, we find that, on average, Indian firms are engaged in revenue misclassification rather than expense misclassification to report inflated core earnings. Firms are found to be engaged in cash flows misclassification too. Besides, we find that magnitude of shifting is greater among larger firms. Results also establish that adoption of Ind AS increases the scope of shifting practices. These results are based on several robustness checks.

Practical implications

The results suggest that investors conduct a comprehensive review of the items of financial statements before using them in their portfolio valuation. It suggests auditors check the basis of revenue classification and standard-setting authorities, like ICAI in India, to make more mandatory disclosure requirements for classification of revenues and cash flows. It suggests lenders not to make lending decisions by looking at the operating performance metrics, as CS is the most preferred tool to positively influence the perception of lenders toward operating performance.

Originality/value

It is the first study that investigates different forms of classification shifting jointly for a sample of firms. Most of the earlier studies have examined one kind of classification shifting at a time. This study adds to the existing literature on earnings management by documenting that some firm-specific factors pressurize firms to prefer one form of shifting over another to report inflated core earnings.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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