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1 – 10 of 21
Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Zhanna Kremez, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven and Sara Quach

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth investigation of e-commerce strategy implementation in mature franchise organisations from both franchisor and franchisee…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth investigation of e-commerce strategy implementation in mature franchise organisations from both franchisor and franchisee perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed a multiple case study method where the e-commerce strategies of two mature franchise organisations were investigated in depth. Franchising experts were interviewed to provide an additional dimension to this study.

Findings

This research found that e-commerce must be integrated with the overall business strategy for optimal franchise performance. Since all parties to the franchising relationship are affected by the introduction of e-commerce, both the franchisees’ and the franchisor’s interests must be considered when the strategy is being developed. In addition, the consumer’s perspective is central to how e-commerce is structured, and franchisees are best placed to know their customers’ needs because they are directly involved in operating their business and interfacing with customers.

Practical implications

A preliminary model for e-commerce structures in service and retail franchising has been developed that depends on the nature of the business, the distribution arrangements and the order fulfilment arrangements. The two main avenues in e-commerce structuring were centralisation and decentralisation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to knowledge through an in-depth investigation of the internal process of e-commerce implementation in franchise networks from both franchisor and franchisee perspectives.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Kerry Bodle, Mark Brimble, Scott Weaven, Lorelle Frazer and Levon Blue

The purpose of this paper is to investigate success factors pertinent to the management of Indigenous businesses through the identification of points of intervention at the…

2245

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate success factors pertinent to the management of Indigenous businesses through the identification of points of intervention at the systemic and structural levels. Through this approach, the economic and social values that First Nations communities attach to intangible Indigenous cultural heritage (ICH) and Indigenous cultural intellectual property (ICIP) may be both recognised and realised as assets.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a multidisciplinary approach to address a global issue of economic and social significance to First Nation peoples, their businesses and the Australian Aboriginal communities. The authors adopt a First Nation epistemological standpoint that incorporates theoretical perspectives drawn from a diverse range of fields and theories (Preston, 2013), as well as advocate the use of Indigenist methodology for research with First Nation peoples as it is underpinned by critical race theory.

Findings

The authors argue conceptually that accounting, accountability and auditing consideration are required to fully identify what is impacting the successful management of Indigenous enterprises. Specifically, in relation to accounting, Elders should be included to assist in valuing the intangible ICH and ICIP assets. Furthermore, the authors emphasise the need to improve the financial and commercial literacy levels of Indigenous entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The authors prescribe the use of tools for the accounting treatment of ICH and ICIP as intangible assets within an Australian regulatory environment and define an auditing process and accountability model incorporating cultural, social and environmental measures. A central tenet of this model relates to improving levels of personal and commercial financial literacy in the First Nation participants. Collectively, these factors promote informed participation and decision-making, and may promulgate more sustainable outcomes.

Social implications

Integrated thinking requires all these factors to be considered in a holistic manner, such that a First Nation enterprise and the wider Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can understand, and make decisions based on, the overall impact it has on all their stakeholders and generally on the society, the environment and the economy.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to Australia’s strategic research priorities of maximising social and economic participation in society and improving the health and well-being of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The authors address the inability of current Western accounting standards, practices and models to suitably account for communally held and protocol-bound intangible Indigenous cultural heritage and Indigenous cultural intellectual property assets.

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Mengnan Qu, Sara Quach, Park Thaichon, Lorelle Frazer, Meredith Lawley, Denni Arli, Scott Weaven and Robin E. Roberts

This study aims to examine the effect of country of origin (COO) on customers' value expectation and willingness to pay by employing signalling theory and cue utilisation.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of country of origin (COO) on customers' value expectation and willingness to pay by employing signalling theory and cue utilisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 386 customers via an online survey in the context of Australian food retail franchise stores in China.

Findings

The findings indicate that COO origin is an important determinant of customer expectations including service quality, social value, emotional value, monetary price, behavioural price and reputation. Furthermore, the only social value was a significant predictor of willingness to pay. Although the direct effect of COO on willingness to purchase was not significant, the COO had a significant indirect effect on willingness to pay via social value. Finally, the COO has a stronger effect on monetary price expectation among customers who were aware of the country brands than those who were unaware.

Originality/value

The study extends the body of knowledge related to the effect of COO during the pre-purchase process and provides important implications for retailers who are looking to enter an overseas market such as China.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Sara Quach, Scott Weaven, Park Thaichon, Debra Grace and Lorelle Frazer

Drawing on an outside-in marketing perspective, this paper aims to outline the development, implementation, evaluation and reflection of a real-world entrepreneurship education…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on an outside-in marketing perspective, this paper aims to outline the development, implementation, evaluation and reflection of a real-world entrepreneurship education (EE) intervention with cognitive, affective and ultimately behavioural objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A specific and uniform EE program specifically targeted to current “would be” entrepreneurs who were investigating the franchising business model was developed, focusing on the behavioural outcomes. The effectiveness of the EE intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental research design, which involved franchisees who had not participated in the EE intervention (control group) and franchisees who had participated in the EE intervention (experimental group). The administration of the national on-line survey yielded a total of 520 responses (194 in the experimental group and 326 in the control group).

Findings

The planning process in the pre-intervention stage included situation analysis, objective setting and decisions in relation to the communication strategy, i.e. content and mode. The effectiveness of the EE intervention was evaluated in the post-intervention stage. The findings indicate that EE intervention resulted in participants’ positive cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes such as performance and relationship management. Finally, following a reflection process, additional elements covering topics related to work-life balance were incorporated into the module pertaining to an individual’s suitability to become a franchisee.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a conceptual framework that represents an outside-in EE approach whereby problems, audiences, objectives and communication strategies (content and method) are strategically intertwined to produce relevant, measurable and diagnostic behavioural outcomes. The EE intervention can also improve the B2B relationship between actors in a business network.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Sara Quach, Scott K. Weaven, Park Thaichon, Debra Grace, Lorelle Frazer and James R. Brown

Framed within the theoretical domain of attribution theory, this study aims to investigate the antecedents of experienced regret following an entrepreneur’s business failure…

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Abstract

Purpose

Framed within the theoretical domain of attribution theory, this study aims to investigate the antecedents of experienced regret following an entrepreneur’s business failure (defined as firm discontinuance, closure or bankruptcy) and the impact of regret on personal well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of interest was business owners whose businesses had failed within the past five years. The data was collected from 319 failed entrepreneurs using an online survey. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses presented in this study.

Findings

External attribution, including economic uncertainty and contract restrictions, was positively related to feelings of regret. Considering internal attribution, due diligence had a positive effect on regret whereas customer relationship development ability can reduce feelings of regret. Moreover, prevention-focused entrepreneurs were likely to experience higher levels of regret when engaging in extensive consideration in using information. Finally, regret had a detrimental effect on the entrepreneurs’ well-being.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides fresh perspectives on experienced regret, a relatively unexplored emotion in the entrepreneurship literature. In the context of small business operations, the locus of attribution (associated with business failure) is the key influence on learning following failed business attempts.

Practical implications

This study extends current knowledge of regret in the context of entrepreneurial failure, which has a significant catalytic effect on employment and entrepreneurial mobility.

Originality/value

This research sheds light on how emotional responses are derived from an entrepreneur’s self-assessment of their performance and attribution of blame for failure.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Robin Roberts, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven and Park Thaichon

This chapter is a descriptive and exploratory study of the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in adapting their franchise systems to accommodate cultural diversity…

Abstract

This chapter is a descriptive and exploratory study of the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in adapting their franchise systems to accommodate cultural diversity among franchisees. It uses literature on migrant entrepreneurs and cultural diversity in small business settings in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the Americas as a basis for application to a franchising context. Triggered by events in the Australian franchising sector over the past two years, in which franchise systems have been embroiled in controversial and illegal activities undertaken by franchisees – many of whom were business migrants – the research begins to unravel the complexities of utilizing migrant franchisees as vehicles of system growth. Two sources of data provide indicative evidence about the issues associated with migrant franchisees. Firstly, two surveys of franchisors were conducted in 2014 and 2016 to obtain descriptive data about the incidence of migrants as franchisees. Secondly, a series of focus groups provided insights into the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in recruiting and managing migrant franchisees. Tentative findings of best practice in accommodating migrant franchisees are revealed. This research begins to fill an important gap in the literature about cultural diversity in franchising.

Details

Entrepreneurial Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-286-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Maurice Roussety, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven and Park Thaichon

Franchising manifests a bundle of risks created by the delegation of functions as both franchisor and franchisee exploit their respective comparative advantage. The galvanization…

Abstract

Franchising manifests a bundle of risks created by the delegation of functions as both franchisor and franchisee exploit their respective comparative advantage. The galvanization of this advantage is governed by the franchise agreement and optimized by the effectiveness of the governance structure. This chapter considers the concept of risk and discusses its implications in valuing franchisee-operated businesses. It examines how risks arise, where they congregate and synthesizes the specific franchising issues relating to risk-adjusted cashflows, risk analysis, risk mitigation, and risk pricing. The authors propose that risks in franchising are multi-layered and hierarchical. Consequently, this relationship is represented in a Franchise Risk Ecology (FRE) comprising risks inherent in the market, the franchisor, the system, the industry, and within the franchisee-operated business.

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Scott Weaven, Lorelle Frazer and Jeff Giddings

Although Australian franchising sector regulation promotes system disclosure and provides for mandatory conflict mediation, there is some concern that inequities exist within the…

3129

Abstract

Purpose

Although Australian franchising sector regulation promotes system disclosure and provides for mandatory conflict mediation, there is some concern that inequities exist within the conflict management process. From 2006 to 2008 no less than four government inquiries into franchising took place in Australia in an attempt to resolve problems occurring in the sector. A major issue was that of the perceived imbalance of power in the franchisor‐franchisee relationship, which often results in conflict between the two parties. The purpose of this paper is to extend the conflict literature in dyadic exchange relationships through investigating the causes of conflict from the franchisor and franchisee perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory research is undertaken to identify the major causes of franchising conflict. Face‐to‐face interviews are conducted with 24 franchising experts, such as lawyers and mediators, to draw upon their considerable experience in the sector.

Findings

The key findings suggest that a lack of due diligence is associated with the formation of unrealistic expectations which increases the potential for future relational conflict. Although franchising experience impacts upon operational approaches and conflict, the role played by third parties and market conditions both appear to exacerbate dissatisfaction in franchise systems.

Research limitations/implications

This research is exploratory and therefore the findings are tentative. The preliminary conceptual models will be tested in a large quantitative survey of key franchising stakeholders in the near future.

Originality/value

With the Australian franchising sector presently under intense scrutiny by regulators this research is timely and important. It is expected that the findings will provide government and industry representatives with a more balanced understanding of the causes of franchising conflict so that preventative action may be taken.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Scott Weaven and Lorelle Frazer

This paper aims to extend current understanding of organisational choice theory through examining to what extent firm‐level factors influence the growth of franchisee‐owned…

2859

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extend current understanding of organisational choice theory through examining to what extent firm‐level factors influence the growth of franchisee‐owned mini‐chains within Australian franchise systems. In particular, this study examines how the age of the system, corporatisation of management processes, plurality of distribution, levels of intra‐firm conflict and franchise system complexity influence multiple unit franchising adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology was adopted to gain a clearer picture of the salient issues influencing multiple unit franchising adoption from the franchisor's perspective.

Findings

The research reveals that mature franchise systems in Australia use sequential methods of multiple unit franchising expansion in order to minimise adverse selection costs and leverage learning economies derived from previous experiences in managing intra‐firm channel relationships.

Research limitations/implications

Industry‐specific influences and differences in managerial orientations may limit the predictive application of this study to all franchise systems. However, on balance the reflections offered by the participants provide a rich and valuable source of information about the factors influencing their willingness to encourage this growth strategy.

Practical implications

Franchisors need to consider upfront whether they are ready and able to encourage multiple unit ownership within their systems. Less experienced franchisors may need to corporatise operations, minimise channel conflict and introduce administrative support procedures to ensure the recruitment of suitable franchisee candidates who will assist in realising the franchisor's goals, thus promoting a harmonious franchising relationship.

Originality/value

Whereas, previous research has investigated motivations for encouraging multiple unit franchising, this paper supplements that literature by examining multiple unit franchising within Australia.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Bill Merrilees and Lorelle Frazer

This research paper aims to understand the variability of performance among franchisees in a given system.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research paper aims to understand the variability of performance among franchisees in a given system.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, case study approach was used to get a clearer and deeper picture of the main issues and parameters. Nine franchisees across three systems were interviewed, and the marketing and management practices of high and average performing franchisees were compared.

Findings

Major contrasts have been identified between high and average franchisee performers, suggesting that entrepreneurial franchisees may have superior marketing and management systems that are not readily identifiable.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to an eventual theory of effective marketing.

Practical implications

Both franchisors and franchisees could use these findings to improve their marketing performance.

Originality/value

Provides a case study to aid understanding of performance variability among franchisees.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

1 – 10 of 21