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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Lisa Mainiero

The #MeToo movement has brought questions of sexuality and power in the workplace to the forefront. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on hierarchial consensual…

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Abstract

Purpose

The #MeToo movement has brought questions of sexuality and power in the workplace to the forefront. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on hierarchial consensual workplace romances and sexual harassment examining the underlying mechanisms of power relations. It concludes with a call to action for organizational leaders to adopt fair consensual workplace romance policies alongside strong sexual harassment policies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper represents a conceptual review of the literature on consensual workplace romance, sexual harassment, passive leadership and power relations. Passive leadership leads to a climate of incivility that in turn suppresses disclosures of sexual harassment (Lee, 2016). Consensual workplace romances across hierarchical power relations carry significant risks and may turn into harassment should the romance turn sour.

Findings

Two new concepts, sexual hubris and sexploitation, are defined in this paper. Sexual hubris, defined as an opportunistic mindset that allows the powerful to abuse their power to acquire sexual liaisons, and its opposite, sexploitation, defined as a lower-status member using sexuality to gain advantage and favor from an upper-level power target, are dual opportunistic outcomes of an imbalanced power relation. Sexual hubris may increase the likelihood for sexual harassment such that a mindset occurs on the part of the dominant coalition that results in feelings of entitlement. Sexploitation is a micromanipulation tactic designed to create sexual favoritism that excludes others from the power relation.

Research limitations/implications

Sexual hubris and sexploitation are conceptualized as an opportunistic mechanisms associated with imbalanced power relations to spur future research to tease out complex issues of gender, sexuality and hierarchy in the workplace. Sexual hubris serves to protect the dominant coalition and shapes organizational norms of a climate of oppression and incivility. Conversely, sexploitation is a micromanipulation tactic that allows a lower-status member to receive favoritism from a higher-power target. Four research propositions on sexual hubris and sexploitation are presented for future scholarship.

Practical implications

Most organizational leaders believe consensual romance in the office cannot be legislated owing to privacy concerns. Passive leadership is discussed as a leadership style that looks the other way and does not intervene, leading to workplace hostility and incivility (Lee, 2016). Inadequate leadership creates a climate of passivity that in turn silences victims. Policies concerning consensual workplace romance should stand alongside sexual harassment policies regardless of privacy concerns.

Social implications

The #MeToo movement has allowed victims to disclose sexual misconduct and abuse in the workplace. However, the prevalence of sexual harassment claims most often can be traced to a leadership problem. Employers must recognize that sexual hubris and sexploitation arise from imbalances of power, where sex can be traded for advancement, and that often consensual workplace romances end badly, leading to claims of sexual harassment. Consensual romance policies must stand alongside sexual harassment policies.

Originality/value

Sexual hubris and sexploitation are offered as novel concepts that provide a mechanism for conceptualizing the potential for abuse and manipulation from unbalanced power relations. These are original concepts derived from the arguments within this paper that help make the case for consensual workplace romance policies alongside sexual harassment policies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Lisa A. Mainiero and David M. Mangini

This article showcases how mobile app technology can enhance leadership education through a new mobile app called My Student Leader. My Student Leader represents a novel approach…

Abstract

This article showcases how mobile app technology can enhance leadership education through a new mobile app called My Student Leader. My Student Leader represents a novel approach to leadership education so that students may use smartphone technology to enhance student leadership development on campus. The app facilitates the creation of Leader Plans associatedwithservicelearningactivitiesandcampus eventswhichthencanbeemailedtoteam members, faculty and staff.There also is a section for students to write a Leadership Legacy reflection. This application brief addresses the stages of development of the app and the outcomes associated with mobile technology use for leadership education.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Sherry E. Sullivan and Lisa A. Mainiero

The major purpose of this paper is to examine how gender differences impact the enactment of careers. An additional goal is to examine whether, as suggested by recent…

7091

Abstract

Purpose

The major purpose of this paper is to examine how gender differences impact the enactment of careers. An additional goal is to examine whether, as suggested by recent conceptualizations, careers are indeed becoming more boundaryless.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the results of two in‐depth qualitative studies (n=52; n=27).

Findings

Two major patterns were found that describe the careers of professionals in the contemporary workplace. One pattern is called the alpha career pattern: over the life span, people with this pattern first focus on challenge, then authenticity, and then balance. The second pattern is called the beta career pattern: over the life span, people with this pattern first focus on challenge, then balance, and then authenticity.

Practical implications

This paper offers a framework that HR managers and other organizational leaders can use to increase the authenticity, balance and challenge experienced by their employees in order to enhance organizational effectiveness.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the numerous calls for the development of a model to explain the complexities of women's careers as well as to recognize gender differences in career enactment. It was found that, in general, men followed the alpha career pattern while women followed the beta career pattern. However, a limited number of women had career experiences that were more consistent with the alpha career pattern more closely aligned with men while some younger men consciously developed more family‐driven beta patterns.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Sherry E. Sullivan, Monica L. Forret, Shawn M. Carraher and Lisa A. Mainiero

The purpose of this paper is to examine, utilising the Kaleidoscope Career Model, whether members of the Baby Boom generation and Generation X differ in their needs for…

12140

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine, utilising the Kaleidoscope Career Model, whether members of the Baby Boom generation and Generation X differ in their needs for authenticity, balance, and challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were obtained from 982 professionals located across the USA. Correlations, t‐tests, and multiple regressions were performed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Members of Generation X have higher needs for authenticity and balance than Baby Boomers. There was no difference in needs for challenge between Baby Boomers and members of Generation X.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation in the study, as well as in most of the research on generational differences, is the use of cross‐sectional designs that fail to capture the influence of the aging process. A longitudinal, multi‐survey design over the lives of individuals would enable scholars to capture within‐ and between‐person differences and to permit a better understanding of whether differences are in fact due to generational effects or to aging.

Practical implications

Knowledge of the differences and similarities among the various generations in the workforce can help organizational leaders make important decisions about human resource policies and practices.

Originality/value

Many studies in the popular press stress the prevalence and importance of generational differences in the workplace. However, the little academic research that has been conducted has shown mixed results. The study uses the theoretical framework of the Kaleidoscope Career Model to examine generational differences in work attitudes.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1986

Lisa A. Mainiero

As organisational development (OD) matures into an identifiable profession, concerns about the adequacy of training processes for members of the profession have emerged. The…

Abstract

As organisational development (OD) matures into an identifiable profession, concerns about the adequacy of training processes for members of the profession have emerged. The apprenticeship period serves a critical function in helping the novice learner discover what is expected of him or her in the field. An analysis of this developmental period may be most helpful to both experienced OD practitioners serving as sponsors for young OD professionals, as well as for those individuals “learning the ropes” as emergent OD professionals in a rapidly changing field. The experience of an apprentice‐in‐training on a large‐scale feedback project is described. A model of the apprenticeship period is highlighted using the concepts of role theory. Its implications for the sponsor and apprentice are assessed.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Lisa A. Mainiero

Most psychologists are working in a consultancy capacity to facilitate improvement in individual and organisational performance. The skills of the consultant are an integral part…

Abstract

Most psychologists are working in a consultancy capacity to facilitate improvement in individual and organisational performance. The skills of the consultant are an integral part of the applied psychologist's work. This article provides some guidelines for action.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Sherry E. Sullivan, Monica L. Forret and Lisa A. Mainiero

The purpose of this paper is to explore the under‐examined topic of career regrets. Although much of the careers literature has examined factors that contribute to success, little…

1438

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the under‐examined topic of career regrets. Although much of the careers literature has examined factors that contribute to success, little research has been completed on the regrets individuals may experience as they enact their careers.

Design/methodology/approach

A large internet sample of 1,480 professionals was used to examine whether individuals who had been laid off in their careers experienced greater career regrets.

Findings

Individuals who had been laid off experienced greater regrets with regard to their political behavior (e.g. lack of networking, not being more politically savvy) and their career choices (e.g. not spending more time with their family, failing to pursue more meaningful work) than individuals who had not been laid off.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may have limited generalizability because of the use of a cross‐sectional, internet‐based survey design.

Practical implications

The regrets individuals have may influence their future career behaviors and choices, resulting in different approaches to their work and their lives. These findings may offer some insights to help individuals navigate their careers and make choices that they will be less likely to regret.

Originality/value

Although a great deal of research has focused on strategies for career success, relatively little research has examined career missteps or career regrets. It is hoped this exploratory research encourages further study as well as the development of a theory‐based model of career regrets.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Pamela L. Perrewé and Daniel C. Ganster

Occupational stress and the role of the family and other non-work activities continue to be an important area of research for organizational scientists. In our sixth volume of…

Abstract

Occupational stress and the role of the family and other non-work activities continue to be an important area of research for organizational scientists. In our sixth volume of Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, we offer seven intriguing chapters that examine several key issues in work and non-work stress research. The theme for this volume is exploring the work and non-work interface.

Details

Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1444-7

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

448

Abstract

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Tammy D. Allen, Ph.D., is a professor of psychology at the University of South Florida. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of…

Abstract

Tammy D. Allen, Ph.D., is a professor of psychology at the University of South Florida. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of Tennessee. Her research interests include work and family issues, occupational health psychology, mentoring relationships, career development, and organizational citizenship behavior. Her research has been published in journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Management, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. She is currently associate editor for Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Performance, and Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Details

Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1444-7

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