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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

Accurate perception of the environment using range sensors such as laser scanner, SONAR, infrared, vision, etc., for the application, such as path planning, localization…

Abstract

Purpose

Accurate perception of the environment using range sensors such as laser scanner, SONAR, infrared, vision, etc., for the application, such as path planning, localization, autonomous navigation, simultaneously localization and mapping, is a highly challenging area. The reliability of the perception by range sensors relies on the sensor accuracy, precision, sensor model, sensor registration, resolution, etc. Laser scanner is even though accurate and precise but still the efficient and consistent mapping of the environment is yet to be attained because laser scanner gives error as the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters varied which cause specular reflection, refraction, absorption, etc., of the laser beam. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an error analysis in sensory information of laser scanner due to the effect of varying the scanning angle with respect to the optical axis and surface reflectivity or refractive index of the targets. Uncertainties caused by these parameters are reduced by proposing a new technique, tilt mounting system (TMS) with designed filters of tilting the angular position of a laser scanner with the best possible selection of range and scanning angle for the robust occupancy grid mapping. Various experiments are performed in different indoor environments, and the results are validated after the implementation of the TMS approach with designed filters.

Findings

After the implementation of the proposed TMS approach with filters, the errors in the laser grid map are reduced by 15.6 percent, which results in 62.5 percent reduction in the collision of a mobile robot during autonomous navigation in the laser grid map.

Originality/value

The TMS approach with designed filter reduces the effect of variation in intrinsic and extrinsic parameters to generate efficient laser occupancy grid map to achieve collision-free autonomous navigation.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Cihan Altuntas and Ferruh Yildiz

Laser scanning is increasingly used in many three‐dimensional (3‐D) measurement and modeling applications. It is the latest technique used in 3‐D measurement, and is…

Abstract

Purpose

Laser scanning is increasingly used in many three‐dimensional (3‐D) measurement and modeling applications. It is the latest technique used in 3‐D measurement, and is becoming increasingly important within a number of applications. However, many applications require photogrammetric data in addition to laser scanning data. The purpose of this paper is to present a range and image sensor combination for three‐dimensional reconstruction of objects or scenes.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a Nikon D80 camera was mounted on an Ilris 3D laser scanner and CPP was estimated according to the laser scanner coordinate system. The estimated CPP was controlled using three different methods which were developed in this study and a sample application as coloring of point cloud using image taken by the camera mounted on the laser scanner was performed.

Findings

It was found that when a high‐resolution camera is mounted on laser scanners, camera position parameters (CPP) should be estimated very accurately with respect to the laser scanner coordinate system.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the combination of high‐resolution camera and laser scanners should be used for more accurate and efficient results in 3D modeling applications.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

Modern service robots are designed to work in a complex indoor environment, in which the robot has to interact with the objects in different ambient light intensities (day…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern service robots are designed to work in a complex indoor environment, in which the robot has to interact with the objects in different ambient light intensities (day light, tube light, halogen light and dark ambiance). The variations in sudden ambient light intensities often cause an error in the sensory information of optical sensors like laser scanner, which reduce the reliability of the sensor in applications such as mapping, path planning and object detection of a mobile robot. Laser scanner is an optical sensor, so sensory information depends upon parameters like surface reflectivity, ambient light condition, texture of the targets, etc. The purposes of this research are to investigate and remove the effect of variation in ambient light conditions on the laser scanner to achieve robust autonomous mobile robot navigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ambient light condition (dark ambiance, tube light and halogen bulb) on the accuracy of the laser scanner for the robust autonomous navigation of mobile robot in diverse illumination environments. A proposed AIFA (Adaptive Intensity Filter Algorithm) approach is designed in robot operating system (ROS) and implemented on a mobile robot fitted with laser scanner to reduce the effect of high-intensity ambiance illumination of the environment.

Findings

It has been experimentally found that the variation in the measured distance in dark is more consistent and accurate as compared to the sensory information taken in high-intensity tube light/halogen bulbs and in sunlight. The proposed AIFA approach is implement on a laser scanner fitted on a mobile robot which navigates in the high-intensity ambiance-illuminating complex environment. During autonomous navigation of mobile robot, while implementing the AIFA filter, the proportion of cession with the obstacles is reduce to 23 per cent lesser as compared to conventional approaches.

Originality/value

The proposed AIFA approach reduced the effect of the varying ambient light conditions in the sensory information of laser scanner for the applications such as autonomous navigation, path planning, mapping, etc. in diverse ambiance environment.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Abdul Fatah Firdaus Abu Hanipah and Khairul Nizam Tahar

Laser scanning technique is used to measure and model objects using point cloud data generated laser pulses. Conventional techniques to construct 3D models are time…

Abstract

Purpose

Laser scanning technique is used to measure and model objects using point cloud data generated laser pulses. Conventional techniques to construct 3D models are time consuming, costly and need more manpower. The purpose of this paper is to assess the 3D model of the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque’s main dome using a terrestrial laser scanner.

Design/methodology/approach

A laser scanner works through line of sight, which indicates that multiple scans need to be taken from a different view to ensure a complete data set. Targets must spread in all directions, and targets should be placed on fixed structures and flat surfaces for the normal scan and fine scan. After the scanning operation, point cloud data from the laser scanner were cleaned and registered before a 3D model could be developed.

Findings

As a result, the reconstruction of the 3D model was successfully developed. The samples are based on the triangle dimension, curve line, horizontal dimension and vertical dimension at the dome. The standard deviation and accuracy are calculated based on the comparison of the 21 samples taken between the high-resolution and low-resolution scanning data.

Originality/value

There are many ways to develop the 3D model and based on this study, the less complex ways also produce the best result. The authors implement the different types of dimensions for the 3D model assessment, which have not yet been considered in the past.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Abdul Rahman Ahsan Usmani, Abdalrahman Elshafey, Masoud Gheisari, Changsaar Chai, Eeydzah Binti Aminudin and Cher Siang Tan

Three dimensional (3 D) laser scanner surveying is widely used in many fields, such as agriculture, mining and heritage documentation and can be of great benefit for…

Abstract

Purpose

Three dimensional (3 D) laser scanner surveying is widely used in many fields, such as agriculture, mining and heritage documentation and can be of great benefit for as-built documentation in construction and facility management domains. However, there is lack of applied research and use cases integrating 3 D laser scanner surveying with building information modeling (BIM) for existing facilities in Malaysia. This study aims to develop a scan to as-built BIM workflow to use 3 D laser scanner surveying and create as-built building information models of an existing complex facility in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was followed to develop a scan to as-built BIM workflow through four main steps: 3 D laser scanning, data preprocessing, data registration and building information modeling.

Findings

This case study proposes a comprehensive scan to as-built BIM workflow which illustrates all the required steps to create a precise 3 D as-built building information model from scans. This workflow was successfully implemented to the Eco-Home facility at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Originality/value

Scan to as-built BIM is a digital alternative to manual and tedious process of documentation of as-built condition of a facility and provides a detail process using laser scans to create as-built building information models of facilities.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2009

Maurice Murphy, Eugene McGovern and Sara Pavia

The purpose of this research is to outline in detail the procedure of remote data capture using laser scanning and the subsequent processing required in order to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to outline in detail the procedure of remote data capture using laser scanning and the subsequent processing required in order to identify a new methodology for creating full engineering drawings (orthographic and 3D models) from laser scan and image survey data for historic structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Historic building information modelling (HBIM) is proposed as a new system of modelling historic structures; the HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital cameras. A range of software programs is then used to combine the image and scan data.

Findings

Meshing of the point cloud followed by texturing from the image data creates a framework for the creation of a 3D model. Mapping of BIM objects onto the 3D surface model is the final stage in the reverse engineering process, creating full 2D and 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material makeup, this new process is described as HBIM.

Originality/value

The future research within this area will concentrate on three main stands. The initial strand is to attempt improve the application of geometric descriptive language to build complex parametric objects. The second stand is the development of a library of parametric based on historic data (from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books). Finally, while it is possible to plot parametric objects onto the laser scan data, there is need to identify intermediate software platforms to accelerate this stage within the HBIM framework.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Lars Lindner, Oleg Sergiyenko, Julio C. Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Moises Rivas-Lopez, Daniel Hernandez-Balbuena, Wendy Flores-Fuentes, Fabian Natanael Murrieta-Rico and Vera Tyrsa

The purpose of this paper is the presentation and research of a novel robot vision system, which uses laser dynamic triangulation, to determine three-dimensional (3D…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the presentation and research of a novel robot vision system, which uses laser dynamic triangulation, to determine three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an observed object. The previously used physical operation principle of discontinuous scanning method is substituted by continuous method. Thereby applications become possible that were previously limited by this discretization.

Design/methodology/approach

The previously used prototype No. 2, which uses stepping motors to realize a discontinuous laser scan, was substituted by the new developed prototype No. 3, which contains servomotors, to achieve a continuous laser scan. The new prototype possesses only half the width and turns out to be significantly smaller and therefore lighter than the old one. Furthermore, no transmissions are used, which reduce the systematic error of laser positioning and increase the system reliability.

Findings

By using a continuous laser scan method instead of discontinuous laser scan method, dead zones in the laser scanner field can be eliminated. Thereby, also by changing the physical operation principle, the implementation of applications is allowed, which previously was limited by the fixed step size or by the object distance under observation. By using servomotors instead of stepping motors, also a significant reduced positioning time can be accomplished maintaining the relative positioning error less than 1 per cent.

Originality/value

The originality is based on the substitution of the physical operation principle of discontinuous by continuous laser scan. The previously used stepping motors discretized the laser scanner field and thereby produced dead zones, where 3D coordinates cannot be detected. These stepping motors were substituted by servomotors to revoke these disadvantages and provide a continuous laser scan, where dead zones in the field of view get eliminated and the step response of the laser scanner accelerated.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Satish Kumar Reddy and Prabir K. Pal

– The purpose of this paper is to detect traversable regions surrounding a mobile robot by computing terrain unevenness using the range data obtained from a single 3D scan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect traversable regions surrounding a mobile robot by computing terrain unevenness using the range data obtained from a single 3D scan.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometry of acquiring range data from a 3D scan is exploited to probe the terrain and extract traversable regions. Nature of terrain under each scan point is quantified in terms of an unevenness value, which is computed from the difference in range of scan point with respect to its neighbours. Both radial and transverse unevenness values are computed and compared with threshold values at every point to determine if the point belongs to a traversable region or an obstacle. A region growing algorithm spreads like a wavefront to join all traversable points into a traversable region.

Findings

This simple method clearly distinguishes ground and obstacle points. The method works well even in presence of terrain slopes or when the robot experiences pitch and roll.

Research limitations/implications

The method applies on single 3D scans and not on aggregated point cloud in general.

Practical implications

The method has been tested on a mobile robot in outdoor environment in our research centre.

Social implications

This method, along with advanced navigation schemes, can reduce human intervention in many mobile robot applications including unmanned ground vehicles.

Originality/value

Range difference between scan points has been used earlier for obstacle detection, but no methodology has been developed around this concept. The authors propose a concrete method based on computation of radial and transverse unevenness at every point and detecting obstacle edges using range-dependent threshold values.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Heber Sobreira, A. Paulo Moreira, Paulo Costa and José Lima

This paper aims to address a mobile robot localization system that avoids using a dedicated laser scanner, making it possible to reduce implementation costs and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address a mobile robot localization system that avoids using a dedicated laser scanner, making it possible to reduce implementation costs and the robot’s size. The system has enough precision and robustness to meet the requirements of industrial environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an algorithm for artificial beacon detection combined with a Kalman Filter and an outlier rejection method, it was possible to enhance the precision and robustness of the overall localization system.

Findings

Usually, industrial automatic guide vehicles feature two kinds of lasers: one for navigation placed on top of the robot and another for obstacle detection (security lasers). Recently, security lasers extended their output data with obstacle distance (contours) and reflectivity. These new features made it possible to develop a novel localization system based on a security laser.

Research limitations/implications

Once the proposed methodology is completely validated, in the future, a scheme for global localization and failure detection should be addressed.

Practical implications

This paper presents a comparison between the presented approach and a commercial localization system for industry. The proposed algorithms were tested in an industrial application under realistic working conditions.

Social implications

The presented methodology represents a gain in the effective cost of the mobile robot platform, as it discards the need for a dedicated laser for localization purposes.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel approach that benefits from the presence of a security laser on mobile robots (mandatory sensor when considering industrial applications), using it simultaneously with other sensors, not only to guarantee safety conditions during operation but also to locate the robot in the environment. This paper is also valuable because of the comparison made with a commercialized system, as well as the tests conducted in real industrial environments, which prove that the approach presented is suitable for working under these demanding conditions.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Mikael Fridenfalk and Gunnar Bolmsjö

This paper presents the design and validation of a universal 6D seam tracking system that reduces the need of accurate robot trajectory programming and geometrical…

Abstract

This paper presents the design and validation of a universal 6D seam tracking system that reduces the need of accurate robot trajectory programming and geometrical databases in robotic laser scanning. The 6D seam tracking system was developed in the flexible unified simulation environment, integrating software prototyping with mechanical virtual prototyping, based on physical experiments. The validation experiments showed that this system was both robust and reliable and should be able to manage a radius of curvature less than 200 mm. In the pre‐scanning mode, a radius of curvature down to 2 mm was managed for pipe intersections at 3 scans/mm, using a laser scanner with an accuracy of 0.015 mm.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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