Search results

1 – 9 of 9
Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Lalita A. Manrai, Ajay K. Manrai and Stefanie Friedeborn

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and develop a model of the determinants, indicators and effects of destination competitiveness…

8172

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and develop a model of the determinants, indicators and effects of destination competitiveness (DC), as well as several propositions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study thoroughly reviewed extant literature to develop a conceptual model and propositions.

Findings

Two key findings are listed below. First, 12 different environmental factors are identified and 12 propositions are developed linking these environmental factors to DC. Second, a new indicator of DC is developed, namely, Tourism Attractions-Basics-Context (TABC) model. The TABC model is simple and directly taps into the benefits tourists seek in a destination.

Research limitations/implications

Directions for future research are discussed in detail in the paper.

Practical implications

Managerial implications are discussed in detail in the paper.

Originality/value

The extant research on the topic of DC has been rather fragmented and incomplete in scope. The research presented in this paper addresses these limitations.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 25 no. 50
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Lalita A. Manrai, Ajay K. Manrai and Allison Gan

Natural and cultural tourism are important motivators for international tourism. Spain has impressive tourist attractions that are outstanding on the natural and cultural tourism…

10975

Abstract

Purpose

Natural and cultural tourism are important motivators for international tourism. Spain has impressive tourist attractions that are outstanding on the natural and cultural tourism dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to identify traits of the most attractive destinations in Spain and to understand the relative importance of natural, cultural, and dual (natural and cultural) attractions to target consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compare the level of tourism in the 17 major regions of Spain and identify the key natural, cultural, and dual attractions using a two-step cluster analysis to ascertain the relative importance of the three types of attractions.

Findings

The findings of the cluster analysis suggest that natural attractions had the highest importance, followed by dual attractions, with cultural attractions having the lowest importance in affecting the level of tourism in a region. The study identified four categories of regions resulting from “high vs low” total number of attractions by “high vs low” levels of tourism (operationalized via the number of tourist-nights). The regions with high levels of tourism were either located in the bodies of water (a group of islands) or on ocean/sea(s) surrounding Spain. The study suggests placing greater emphasis on promoting cultural attractions in Spain.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that there is a need to put more emphasis on promoting the cultural attractions in Spain. Spain is a diverse country with huge potential for tourism from people all over the world, due to its diverse geography and rich history.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes 17 regions of Spain in relation to their tourism characteristics, identifying attractions that are not sufficiently leveraged, and suggesting strategies for identifying opportunities for the tourism industry in Spain.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8494

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1993

Dana‐Nicoleta Lascu, Lalita A. Manrai and Ajay K. Manrai

Describes the contrast between the state of marketing in Romaniabefore and after the fall of communism. Specifically evaluates thechanges in the marketing mix components from 1989…

Abstract

Describes the contrast between the state of marketing in Romania before and after the fall of communism. Specifically evaluates the changes in the marketing mix components from 1989 to 1993. Presents details of a survey in Bucharest examining how Romanian consumers perceive the changes taking place in the market in terms of product, price, promotion and distribution. Gives recommendations for marketing in Romania in the future.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Lalita A. Manrai, Dana‐Nicoleta Lascu, Ajay K. Manrai and Harold W. Babb

Torn between socially‐mandated dress conformity and the glitter of Western designers, consumers in Eastern Europe have always been interested in Western style. After the fall of…

4605

Abstract

Torn between socially‐mandated dress conformity and the glitter of Western designers, consumers in Eastern Europe have always been interested in Western style. After the fall of Communism, fashion, led by Western brands, quickly conquered consumers, while local manufacturers started to offer quality goods. Exposure to Western brands and advertising affected consumer values: former collectivist values are gradually being replaced by individualism. These changes are occurring at different rates and vary in different market segments. Under these conditions, a study was conducted in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania, comparing respondents on two dimensions of style: fashion‐consciousness (capturing individualism) and dress‐conformity (capturing collectivism). The findings support the hypothesis that fashion consciousness is highest for Westernized Hungarian respondents, who have the highest income and can afford fashionable clothing. Dress conformity was highest for Bulgarian respondents, who had setbacks in adopting a market economy and are less Westernized. The findings support demographic differences predictions: younger individuals are more fashion conscious than older individuals, whereas dress conformity is higher for older than for younger individuals. Finally, men are more fashion conscious than women. The findings on gender differences in dress conformity are mixed. Marketing implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Dana‐Nicoleta Lascu, Ajay K. Manrai, Lalita A. Manrai and Fabienne Brookman Amissah

The marketing of food products to children through online media has grown rapidly in recent years, particularly in high‐income countries, where children spend considerable amounts…

4492

Abstract

Purpose

The marketing of food products to children through online media has grown rapidly in recent years, particularly in high‐income countries, where children spend considerable amounts of time on computers. Most food products marketed to children online are obesity‐causing, and childhood obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, with harmful effects on society. Marketers use creative methods to engage children online, entertaining them, offering rewards and promoting products through interactive activities. Online media is monitored much less than conventional media and little is known about online marketing of food to children. This study seeks to examine policies related to food marketing in three high‐income countries, France, Spain, and the USA, and their impact on the methods marketers use to engage children.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a conceptual framework linking several aspects of the policies and the socio‐cultural environments in these countries with the design of the food companies' web sites. Six hypotheses are advanced based on this framework and tested using content analysis.

Findings

The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences in online marketing of food products to children in the three countries studied in the authors' research, France, Spain, and the USA, and these differences are largely attributable to these countries' policies. The web sites of French food companies placed greater emphasis on nutrition‐related and interactions‐related features compared to the web sites of US and Spanish food companies. On the other hand, the web sites of US and Spanish food companies placed greater emphasis on games‐related, rewards‐related, attributes‐related, and brand‐related features compared to the web sites of French food companies. These differences in the web sites were conceptualized to result from the differences in the socio‐cultural and policy/regulatory environments of the three countries.

Originality/value

The study provides several useful insights related to understanding of consumer behavior, consumer policy, and design of food companies' web sites in the three countries. The design of food companies' web sites in terms of their emphasis on different categories of features reflects the companies' understanding of consumers in the respective country and government policy and enforcement of online communications. The article provides a conceptual framework that identifies six factors hypothesized to influence the design of food companies' web sites, three related to the socio‐cultural environment, namely attitudes toward health and nutrition, food and nutrition communication, and brand building, and three related to the policy/regulatory environment, namely, government regulatory agencies, self‐regulation by companies, and enforcement and compliance.

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Tao (Tony) Gao and Talin E. Sarraf

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in emerging…

1070

Abstract

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in emerging markets. Favorable changes in the host government policies, market demand, firm strategy, and infrastructural conditions are hypothesized to influence the MNCs’ decision to increase resource commitments during a crisis. The hypotheses are tested with data collected in a survey of 82 MNCs during the recent Argentine financial crisis (late 2002). While all the above variables are considered by the respondents as generally important reasons for increasing resource commitments during a crisis, only favorable changes in government policies significantly influence MNCs’ decisions to change the level of resource commitments during the Argentine financial crisis. The research, managerial implications, and policy‐making implications are discussed.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Noel Murray, Ajay K. Manrai and Lalita Ajay Manrai

This paper aims to present an analysis of the role of financial incentives, moral hazard and conflicts of interests leading up to the 2008 financial crisis.

6380

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an analysis of the role of financial incentives, moral hazard and conflicts of interests leading up to the 2008 financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s analysis has identified common structural flaws throughout the securitization food chain. These structural flaws include inappropriate incentives, the absence of punishment, moral hazard and conflicts of interest. This research sees the full impact of these structural flaws when considering their co-occurrence throughout the financial system. The authors address systemic defects in the securitization food chain and examine the inter-relationships among homeowners, mortgage originators, investment banks and investors. The authors also address the role of exogenous factors, including the SEC, AIG, the credit rating agencies, Congress, business academia and the business media.

Findings

The study argues that the lack of criminal prosecutions of key financial executives has been a key factor in creating moral hazard. Eight years after the Great Recession ended in the USA, the financial services industry continues to suffer from a crisis of trust with society.

Practical implications

An overwhelming majority of Americans, 89 per cent, believe that the federal government does a poor job of regulating the financial services industry (Puzzanghera, 2014). A study argues that the current corporate lobbying framework undermines societal expectations of political equality and consent (Alzola, 2013). The authors believe the Singapore model may be a useful starting point to restructure regulatory agencies so that they are more responsive to societal concerns and less responsive to special interests. Finally, the widespread perception is that the financial services sector, in particular, is ethically challenged (Ferguson, 2012); perhaps there would be some benefit from the implementation of ethical climate monitoring in firms that have been subject to deferred prosecution agreements for serious ethical violations (Arnaud, 2010).

Originality/value

The authors believe the paper makes a truly original contribution. They provide new insights via their analysis of the role of financial incentives, moral hazard and conflicts of interests leading up to the 2008 financial crisis.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 22 no. 43
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Ajay Manrai

2508

Abstract

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Charlotte Gaston‐Breton and Oscar Martín Martín

The purpose of this paper is to present a two‐stage international market selection and segmentation model addressed to help decision makers such as foreign institutions and…

18294

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a two‐stage international market selection and segmentation model addressed to help decision makers such as foreign institutions and market‐seeking multinational enterprises (MNEs) identify and select the most suitable European countries and groups of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The first stage is conceived as a macro‐segmentation screening process based on market attractiveness. The second is a micro‐segmentation process addressed to identify which groups of people are most similar across Europe in terms of social and personal values. The authors' model is rooted in previous assumptions and findings from international market selection (IMS) and Inglehart's theory of material and post‐material values.

Findings

The model is applied to the current 27 European Union (EU) member states and is validated through the groups of countries empirically obtained. The model allows us to cluster the European countries by market attractiveness, group the European consumers by personal and social values and describe the value orientation of the resulting clusters.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used cross‐sectional data to validate their model. Among the implications, they encourage international marketing and business scholars to make use of Inglehart's framework.

Practical implications

Institutional decision makers and market‐seeking MNEs can follow or adapt the prescribed model in order to identify the most promising and similar European countries and groups of consumers. Public policy makers can gain an in‐depth understanding of specific personal and social values allowing them to shape public policy agendas.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature on IMS and segmentation in three ways: it proposes an original and parsimonious two‐stage IMS and segmentation integrative model for both country‐level and consumer‐related analyses (suitable to handle and reduce the European diversity that decision makers have to face when dealing with the general public or consumer products); it applies theoretically grounded general segmentation bases and an alternative established framework of consumer values (Inglehart's value system), and it adopts an updated and pan‐European perspective over the enlarged EU.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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