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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2020

Kristina Elizabeth Dunkley and Sharareh Hekmat

The purpose of this paper is to assess the growth and viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (L. rhamnosus GR-1) in carrot juice (CJ), carrot apple juice (CAJ), carrot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the growth and viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (L. rhamnosus GR-1) in carrot juice (CJ), carrot apple juice (CAJ), carrot orange juice (COJ) and carrot beet juice (CBJ) over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C. The secondary objective is to evaluate sensory properties.

Design/methodology/approach

Four vegetable juice samples were inoculated with the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus GR-1 and fermented for 72 h. To observe the samples’ storage ability, the samples were refrigerated for 30 days. Microbial enumeration was conducted throughout the fermentation and storage periods to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1. Sensory evaluation with 106 participants was also conducted to assess the consumer acceptability of the vegetable juices.

Findings

All tested samples achieved mean microbial counts of at least 109 CFU/ml. During the 72-h fermentation period significant differences in microbial counts in juices CJ (p = 0.001), CAJ (p = 0.031), COJ (p = 0.047) and CBJ (p = 0.001) were observed. Over the 30-day storage period, significant differences in microbial counts were only found in juices CJ (p = 0.001) and COJ (p = 0.019). A significant decline in pH (p = 0.001) was also observed during 72 h of fermentation and 30-days of cold storage. Sensory evaluation of all juices showed significant differences in sensory attributes such as appearance (p = 0.001), flavour (p = 0.001), texture (p = 0.001) and overall acceptability (p = 0.001). Sensory results showed that the probiotic CBJ and CJ had the highest hedonic scores for flavour, texture and overall acceptability (p = 0.001) among participants. This study demonstrated that non-dairy vegetable juices could be an alternative to dairy-based probiotic products.

Originality/value

Commercially available probiotic dairy-based foods make up a large sector of the consumer market. However, the growing consumer interest in healthful eating has led to an increased demand for plant-based products. The probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 provides numerous therapeutic benefits, such as reducing the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis, yeast and urinary tract infections. The results of this study may have a significant influence on the health of individuals, especially in less economically developed countries.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Toby Le and Sharareh Hekmat

This study aims to determine the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 from Fiti sachets, in four widely consumed pulses, namely, black-eyed pea, pigeon pea…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 from Fiti sachets, in four widely consumed pulses, namely, black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea. The secondary objective was to determine the viability of the fermented pulses during 21 days of storage at 4°C.

Design/methodology/approach

Each pulse sample was mixed with a Fiti sachet (one gram of freeze-dried consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106) and fermented for up to 120 h. To assess the samples’ storage potential, they were refrigerated at 4°C for 21 days. Microbial enumerations and pH measurements were collected during fermentation and storage to determine the viability and fermentation potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Fiti, respectively.

Findings

There was a significant (p = 0.01) difference in mean microbial counts in all pulse samples throughout fermentation. At 24 h of fermentation, the mean bacterial count of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea were 1.32 × 109 ± 0.11, 1.01 × 109 ± 0.16, 1.52 × 109 ± 0.14 and 0.80 × 109 ± 0.05 CFU/mL, respectively. Fermentation of pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea at 48 h yielded the highest bacterial count for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 while black-eyed pea reached its highest bacterial count at 72 h of fermentation. The bacterial concentration of all pulse samples remained at around 109 CFU/mL during the refrigeration period of 21 days at 4°C. Furthermore, the pH of all pulse samples were below 4.6 during both fermentation and refrigerated storage.

Originality/value

Since 2004, the Fiti initiative has economically empowered hundreds of women in East Africa by teaching them how to produce and sell probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1. As a result, Fiti probiotic yogurt was made accessible to vulnerable populations in East Africa who face malnutrition, infectious diseases and environmental toxins. Because of recent climatic changes, milk has become more expensive and inaccessible for local communities. Furthermore, this study found that black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea can be viable and non-diary probiotic alternatives to the Fiti probiotic yogurt in Eastern Africa. This is also the first study of its kind to provide preliminary evidence showing pulses as non-dairy alternatives to Fiti probiotic yogurt.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

S. Sarkar

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective…

Abstract

Purpose

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective substitute for drugs have led application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent and are rapidly moving in clinical usage. In this context, this article attempts to highlight the potential of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent.

Design/methodology/approach

Endeavor has been made to explore the significance of probiotics for the modulation of gut ecology and their action. Potentiality of probiotics for their exploitation as a pharmaceutical agent has also been justified. Limitations of probiotic therapy and the various considerations for probiotic therapy have also been delineated.

Findings

Probiotic organisms influence the physiological and pathological process of the host by modifying the intestinal microbiota, thereby affecting human health. Beneficial effects of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent seem to be strain and dose dependent and more efficacious with their early introduction. Combination of various probiotics proved to be more efficacious than single strain for exhibiting prophylactic activities.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that it is difficult to generalize for the beneficial effect of all probiotics for all types of diseases as efficacy of probiotics is strain-dependent and dose-dependent and its clinical application needs long-term investigations.

Practical implications

Clinical trials have displayed that probiotics may alleviate certain disorders or diseases in humans especially those related to gastro-intestinal tract.

Originality/value

Ingestion of fermented dairy products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits in certain clinical conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, allergenic diseases, cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection and lactose-intolerance. Application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent is recommended.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

S. Sarkar

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic…

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Abstract

Purpose

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic properties and can be the most suitable probiotic carrier. Key factors for consumer’s inclination towards functional foods are increased awareness for healthy foods because of health deterioration resulting from busy lifestyles, growing healthcare cost and the aspiration for an improved quality life in later years. Yoghurt is still not consumed in certain parts of the world because of a lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt and further people are not aware of the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption. In this study an attempt has been to project probiotic yoghurt as a functional food in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and their behavior in association with diverse probiotic cultures. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures in association with probiotics and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with fortification of minerals and vitamins or inclusion of probiotic cultures. Diversity in biochemical behavior yoghurt cultures in association with different probiotic cultures has been reported. Conjugated application of probiotics with yoghurt cultures would result in a product with enhanced functional properties to extend health benefits.

Originality/value

Inclusion of probiotic cultures in yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt, thus providing necessary nutrients, improving health and preventing or reducing nutrition-related diseases. Regular intake of probiotic yoghurt is suggested for healthy lifestyles, as it will help in retaining their health and reduce the potentially long-term risk of disease. Food industries can have profit-driven business by projecting the probiotic yoghurt as a functional food.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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