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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Toby Le and Sharareh Hekmat

This study aims to determine the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 from Fiti sachets, in four widely consumed pulses, namely, black-eyed pea, pigeon pea

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 from Fiti sachets, in four widely consumed pulses, namely, black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea. The secondary objective was to determine the viability of the fermented pulses during 21 days of storage at 4°C.

Design/methodology/approach

Each pulse sample was mixed with a Fiti sachet (one gram of freeze-dried consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106) and fermented for up to 120 h. To assess the samples’ storage potential, they were refrigerated at 4°C for 21 days. Microbial enumerations and pH measurements were collected during fermentation and storage to determine the viability and fermentation potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Fiti, respectively.

Findings

There was a significant (p = 0.01) difference in mean microbial counts in all pulse samples throughout fermentation. At 24 h of fermentation, the mean bacterial count of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea were 1.32 × 109 ± 0.11, 1.01 × 109 ± 0.16, 1.52 × 109 ± 0.14 and 0.80 × 109 ± 0.05 CFU/mL, respectively. Fermentation of pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea at 48 h yielded the highest bacterial count for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 while black-eyed pea reached its highest bacterial count at 72 h of fermentation. The bacterial concentration of all pulse samples remained at around 109 CFU/mL during the refrigeration period of 21 days at 4°C. Furthermore, the pH of all pulse samples were below 4.6 during both fermentation and refrigerated storage.

Originality/value

Since 2004, the Fiti initiative has economically empowered hundreds of women in East Africa by teaching them how to produce and sell probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1. As a result, Fiti probiotic yogurt was made accessible to vulnerable populations in East Africa who face malnutrition, infectious diseases and environmental toxins. Because of recent climatic changes, milk has become more expensive and inaccessible for local communities. Furthermore, this study found that black-eyed pea, pigeon pea, kabuli chickpea and desi chickpea can be viable and non-diary probiotic alternatives to the Fiti probiotic yogurt in Eastern Africa. This is also the first study of its kind to provide preliminary evidence showing pulses as non-dairy alternatives to Fiti probiotic yogurt.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1954

This Bill was read a second time without a division in the House of Commons on July 23rd after a debate lasting nearly five hours. Opposition speakers, including…

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Abstract

This Bill was read a second time without a division in the House of Commons on July 23rd after a debate lasting nearly five hours. Opposition speakers, including particularly Dr. Edith Summerskill and Mr. Willey (former Parliamentary Secretaries to the Ministry of Food between 1945 and 1951), attacked the Government for having whittled down, very extensively, the contemplated Regulations (to be made when the Bill is on the statute book) dealing with cleanliness in the handling of food. As is generally known, the draft regulations have for several months been the subject of many discussions between trade organisations and the Ministry of Food. As a result, the Minister has decided to modify or drop several of the proposals which he had at first intended to carry into effect by regulations, and to substitute for some of them “codes of practice.”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Sherri‐Ann P. Butterfield

Engages in debate regarding immigrants and ethnicity in the USA. Research, based on second‐generation West Indian immigrants, shows ethnicity has very real implications…

Abstract

Engages in debate regarding immigrants and ethnicity in the USA. Research, based on second‐generation West Indian immigrants, shows ethnicity has very real implications for immigrants’ life experience. Suggests that black immigrants complicate the slight understanding of blackness in general, but also the understanding of identity development.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Damien Arthur

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects that local interpretation and the glocalisation of the Australian Hip Hop culture have on the consumption practices…

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4228

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects that local interpretation and the glocalisation of the Australian Hip Hop culture have on the consumption practices of members, exploring the reasons for such effects, and drawing marketing implications.

Design/methodology/approach

Three principal methods of ethnographic research were used: participant observation, informal conversations, and semi‐structured in‐depth interviews.

Findings

The findings suggest that symbolic representation within the Australian Hip Hop culture takes the form of consumption of brands congruent with the values of authenticity and self‐expression at the core of the Australian Hip Hop culture. Many mass‐produced Hip Hop brands originating in the USA were not perceived as authentic as their meanings were associated with commercialisation and artificiality by cultural members. Furthermore, members of the Australian Hip Hop culture appear to express authenticity by being true to themselves, refusing to imitate African‐American Hip Hop style and rejecting what they perceived as “black” Hip Hop brands. Finally, members of the Australian Hip Hop culture also represented their geographical place via consumption, and used symbolic consumption as a form of subcultural capital.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing a detailed analysis on the effects of interpretation and the glocalisation of the Australian Hip Hop culture on consumption.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Book part
Publication date: 30 January 2014

Ashley Gromis

Campaign songs have been staples of U.S. presidential elections for more than 200 years, but have undergone important changes in not only structure over time, but who uses…

Abstract

Campaign songs have been staples of U.S. presidential elections for more than 200 years, but have undergone important changes in not only structure over time, but who uses them and why. Following a discussion of the concentration of the American popular music industry and the shift from party-based to ideology-driven electoral politics, a two-dimension typology and hypotheses are formulated to help discern the distinct roles of these institutions in the transformation of the U.S. presidential campaign song. Data was systematically collected on the most prominent songs associated with each presidential campaign from 1788 to the present. In order to provide greater context for the use of songs in presidential campaigns over time, additional newspaper articles were collected for four elections. Results suggest that changes in the structure of the American music industry and the organization of presidential campaigns significantly affect the form of U.S. presidential campaign songs.

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Voices of Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-546-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Regulations which will introduce a stricter date marking system for foods from 1st January 1991 have recently been proposed by MAFF. These will improve consumer…

Abstract

Regulations which will introduce a stricter date marking system for foods from 1st January 1991 have recently been proposed by MAFF. These will improve consumer protection. ‘Use by’ dates will be introduced to provide a clear final date for the use of microbiologically highly perishable foods while ‘best before’ dates will remain the principle system for the majority of foods. The ‘sell by’ date will no longer be permitted. Two new offences will be introduced relating to the sale of food after its ‘use by’ date and to the re‐dating of food by anyone other than the person originally responsible for the labelling.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 90 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Arch G. Woodside

The long interview is an intensive questioning of informants selected for their special knowledge, experiences and insights (or ignorance) of the topic under study. The…

Abstract

Synopsis

The long interview is an intensive questioning of informants selected for their special knowledge, experiences and insights (or ignorance) of the topic under study. The objectives of the long interview include learning the thinking, feeling, and doing processes of the informants, including an understanding of the informants' worldviews of the topic under study in their own language. The chapter compares the strengths and weaknesses of the long interview to other primary data collection methods. The chapter describes a research application of the long interview in integrated marketing. The study was designed to (a) learn about the rich complexities in the lives of household gardeners buying and using seeds plants after responding to direct marketing appeals and (b) resolve two conflicting “theories-in-use” of how and why different customer types purchase products. These competing theories were proposed by different executives in the firm sponsoring the study. The development and critical testing of competing theories-in-use are described. This chapter reports a study to learn the behavior of five customer types. The results include thick descriptions of the processes of buying and using seeds and plants purchased through direct marketing offers and store visits.

Details

Case Study Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-461-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Georgiann Davis and Chris Wakefield

Historically, it has been common practice for doctors and parents to withhold the diagnosis from their minor intersex patients. This study seeks to integrate intersex…

Abstract

Purpose

Historically, it has been common practice for doctors and parents to withhold the diagnosis from their minor intersex patients. This study seeks to integrate intersex youth experiences into the growing body of literature on diagnosis disclosure for intersex patients.

Methodology/approach

Using gender structure theory as a model, 16 intersex youth were given in-depth surveys regarding their experiences with their intersex identity in individual, interactional, and institutional contexts.

Findings

Participants more positively experience intersex than the earlier generations of intersex people. They were not deeply troubled by their diagnosis as doctors have historically feared, and they are open about their diagnosis with their non-intersex peers and teachers. They also find peer support valuable.

Research limitations/implications

Data was collected from a single event and cannot represent all intersex youth. Future research must continue to engage with intersex youth experiences both inside of and beyond activist and support group networks.

Practical implications

These findings are strong exploratory evidence for the importance of diagnosis disclosure for intersex youth. Policies of withholding intersex diagnoses in clinical and familial contexts should be reevaluated in light of the experiences of intersex youth.

Social implications

Diagnosis disclosure for intersex youth creates the potential for increased medical decision-making participation and increased capacity for activism and community building around intersex issues.

Originality/value

Our results encourage future studies that center the experiences of intersex youth, for we conclude that theorizing the lived experiences of intersex people is incomplete without their perspectives.

Details

Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-613-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Jen Abrams and Tim Kindseth

Describes Poetry in the Branches, a multi‐layered, replicable program model, devised by Poets House, New York, to foster the link between librarians, the public and the…

Abstract

Describes Poetry in the Branches, a multi‐layered, replicable program model, devised by Poets House, New York, to foster the link between librarians, the public and the living tradition of poetry. Provides a comprehensive list of titles of contemporary poetry collections by single authors and anthologies.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Leo Paul Dana

This case is about Korean Air Lines’ innovative idea to adopt a policy of vertical integration in catering. Rather than out‐source its in‐flight catering, this airline has…

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3182

Abstract

This case is about Korean Air Lines’ innovative idea to adopt a policy of vertical integration in catering. Rather than out‐source its in‐flight catering, this airline has moved away from industry norms, and is doing its own thing – literally.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 101 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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