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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Leah A. Platz and Cecilia Temponi

The purpose of this work is to identify commonalities that exist within the contracts between customer and vendor companies, the nature of the problems commonly associated…

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3675

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to identify commonalities that exist within the contracts between customer and vendor companies, the nature of the problems commonly associated with these contracts, and to provide a theoretical model that exists between customer and vendor companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses multiple sources of previous research to isolate the key elements and form a theoretical model for the ideal outsourcing contract. The common problems identified were also derived from previous research.

Findings

The paper finds that there is a common set of key contractual elements that exist between most outsourcing contracts. The nature of the particular industry the companies exist within and the specific needs within each customer‐vendor relationship can be accommodated within the contract by tailoring these key elements to fit each scenario. A set of common problems may arise when any of the key elements are not sufficiently addressed. These problems can greatly devalue the customer‐vendor relationship and supply chain as a whole.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine the theoretical model presented within the context of various industries. Each of the key elements presented and its implications for the customer‐vendor relationship should also be further examined.

Practical implications

This research may provide a better understanding of the importance of the outsourcing contract to the customer‐vendor relationship and/or the contract itself for management.

Originality/value

Previous research has not fully addressed the nature of the outsourcing contract and its associated problems. Where this research attempts to identify all key elements of the contract, previous research usually addresses a single contractual element at a time. There has also been little research that discusses the problems that commonly arise within the contractual relationship. The theoretical model within this research may be useful.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Joseph Fong, San Kuen Cheung, Herbert Shiu and Chi Chung Cheung

XML Schema Definition (XSD) is in the logical level of XML model and is used in most web applications. At present, there is no standard format for the conceptual level of…

Abstract

XML Schema Definition (XSD) is in the logical level of XML model and is used in most web applications. At present, there is no standard format for the conceptual level of XML model. Therefore, we introduce an XML Tree Model as an XML conceptual schema for representing and confirming the data semantics according to the user requirements in a diagram. The XML Tree Model consists of nodes representing all elements within the XSD. We apply reverse engineering from an XSD to an XML Tree Model to assist end users in applying an XML database for information highway on the Internet. The data semantics recovered for visualization include root element, weak elements, participation, cardinality, aggregation, generalization, categorization, and n‐ary association, and which can be derived by analyzing the structural constraints of XSD based on its key features such as key, keyref, minOccurs, maxOccurs, Choice, Sequence and extension. We use the Eclipse user interface for generating a graphical view for XML conceptual schema.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Jie Xu, P.Y. Mok, C.W.M. Yuen and R.W.Y. Yee

To better respond to today’s volatile and changing fashion market, the purpose of this paper is to develop a web-based design support system that enables users to design…

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2363

Abstract

Purpose

To better respond to today’s volatile and changing fashion market, the purpose of this paper is to develop a web-based design support system that enables users to design realistic and interesting skirts in the form of technical sketches over the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed system mainly consists of a sketch representation and composing method (SRCM), a graphic user interface (GUI) and a controller. The SRCM is implemented at the server end that generates technical sketches according to user defined parameters and features via the web-based GUI at the client side. The controller manages the workflows between the server and the clients.

Findings

To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a survey was conducted by inviting 30 subjects (professional designers or undergraduate students studying fashion design) to have trial run of the system in Hong Kong and in the USA. Positive comments and feedbacks were received, and valuable suggestions were also obtained in regard to the prototype system.

Originality/value

Compared with traditional computer-aided design (CAD) systems, the proposed system is more effective and easier to operate as users can create technical sketches in accurate proportions with simple computer operations in a few mouse clicks. Besides, the output sketches are fully compatible with most commercial CAD software. The system is developed based on web technologies, thus fashion sketches can be easily designed using any computer connected to the internet; it can be implemented on Android or iOS platform in the future.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

C.D. Simms and P. Trott

The paper aims to investigate the main aspects of perceptions of the Mini brand in the UK. Given that consumers' perceptions of a brand are represented by brand awareness…

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20477

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the main aspects of perceptions of the Mini brand in the UK. Given that consumers' perceptions of a brand are represented by brand awareness and brand image, this research undertakes an in‐depth investigation of the image of the BMW Mini brand in its most established market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consisted of 55 in‐depth interviews with a cross‐section of important stakeholders with high brand awareness and knowledge.

Findings

The research identifies the importance of the symbolic elements of the brand's image, in particular its fun, sporty, fashionable and stylish image. The study reveals that the brand's appeal is largely at an emotional level based on the brand's symbolic image and key associations. A model is developed to reflect these findings. The study concludes that associations are key to stakeholders' perceptions of the brand. In particular associations related to the brand's heritage and product‐related associations such as the car's aesthetics and handling.

Practical implications

The research identifies the importance of maintaining the brand's heritage, including its British origins, and the product's core appeal. In light of the importance of the brand's British origins, the research identifies possible challenges created through the brand's new German BMW ownership, and the launch of the new Mini.

Originality/value

The study develops a unique insight of this historic and valuable brand, as perceived by key stakeholders with high brand awareness and knowledge. In the light of these findings a model is developed that offers an improved understanding of how brand perceptions are developed.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Rory Francis Mulcahy, Rebekah Russell-Bennett, Nadia Zainuddin and Kerri-Ann Kuhn

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to extend transformative service and social marketing practitioners’ and academics’ understanding of how gamification and…

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1684

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to extend transformative service and social marketing practitioners’ and academics’ understanding of how gamification and serious m-games are designed, and second, to model the effects of game design elements on key transformative service and social marketing outcomes, satisfaction, knowledge, and behavioural intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted a two-study, mixed-method research design, encompassing focus groups (n=21) and online surveys (n=497), using four current marketplace serious m-games. Study 1 was qualitative and the data were analysed in two cycles using an inductive and deductive approach. Study 2 was quantitative and the data were analysed using PLS-SEM.

Findings

The qualitative results of Study 1 discovered a framework of five game design elements for serious m-games. In Study 2, a conceptual model and hypothesised relationships were tested at a full sample level and by each serious m-game. Results show different significant relationships for each serious m-game and moderate to high levels of explanation for satisfaction and knowledge, and low to high levels of explained variance for behavioural intentions. The findings are therefore not only robust across four different serious m-games, but also demonstrate the nuances of the relationships.

Originality/value

This research contributes to two service research priorities: leveraging technology to advance services, and improving well-being through transformative services. This research demonstrates that gamification through serious m-games is one form of technology that can be designed to create a satisfying and knowledge-creating service experience, which can also influence intentions to perform health and well-being behaviours.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Jukka Ojasalo

What is the nature of the key account management (KAM) approach? Various themes have been discussed under the title “key account management”, however, the approach seems…

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6977

Abstract

What is the nature of the key account management (KAM) approach? Various themes have been discussed under the title “key account management”, however, the approach seems to lack coherence and clearly requires further conceptualization. Based on an extensive literature analysis, this article identifies and describes the basic elements of KAM and offers a definition of it. What kind of managerial practices facilitate KAM at the company and individual levels? Although paying customers in the business‐to‐business market are organizations, they are always represented by individuals. Thus, successful KAM requires appropriate handling at both the organizational and the individual levels. This paper describes the nature of company‐ and individual‐level customer benefits in business‐to‐business relationships. As a synthesis, this paper suggests a framework for KAM practices deploying the main elements of KAM and the company and individual levels of business‐to‐business relationships.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Robert P. Wright

The psychological analysis of strategic management issues has gained a great deal of momentum in recent years. Much can be learned by entering the black box of strategic…

Abstract

The psychological analysis of strategic management issues has gained a great deal of momentum in recent years. Much can be learned by entering the black box of strategic thinking of senior executives and bring new insights on how they see, make sense of, and interpret their everyday strategic experiences. This chapter will focus on a powerful cognitive mapping tool called the Repertory Grid Technique and demonstrate how it has been used in the strategy literature along with how a new and more refined application of the technique can enhance the elicitation of complex strategic cognitions for strategy and Board of Directors research.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-339-6

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Howard Moskowitz, Samuel Rabino and Jacqueline Beckley

The purpose of this paper is to show how consumer researchers have used experimental design of ideas to understand emotions.

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1490

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how consumer researchers have used experimental design of ideas to understand emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was “quali‐quant,” mixing the insights of qualitative research with the numerical rigor of quantitative research. Consumers were presented with small, easy to understand test concepts created by experimental design to obtain their reactions. The paper looks at the impact of emotion‐language on acceptance, through individual‐level regression modeling.

Findings

Models were developed for each respondent. It was found that the emotion elements are not key drivers of interest in the product. The paper did, however, find individuals who were sensitive to some emotion elements, but not to others, leading to the conclusion that responses to emotion in concepts may emerge out of the interaction of individual respondents and the concept elements.

Research limitations/implications

The key limitation of this type of research is that it requires a specific internet‐based program (IdeaMap.Net) which does all the combinations, acquires the data, and then analyzes it.

Practical implications

The paper shows how to better understand the role of emotions in written concepts.

Originality/value

The paper presents a totally new treatment of emotion, by looking at emotion in terms of the stimulus and the respondent together. It shows that emotion is an emergent or new entity, not inherent in the predisposition of a group of individuals, nor in the nature of the stimulus.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Nikolay Andreevich Moldovyan and Dmitriy Nikolaevich Moldovyan

The practical purpose of this research is to propose a candidate for post-quantum signature standard that is free of significant drawback of the finalists of the NIST…

Abstract

Purpose

The practical purpose of this research is to propose a candidate for post-quantum signature standard that is free of significant drawback of the finalists of the NIST world competition, which consists in the large size of the signature and the public key. The practical purpose is to propose a fundamentally new method for development of algebraic digital signature algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is distinguished by the use of two different finite commutative associative algebras as a single algebraic support of the digital signature scheme and setting two different verification equation for a single signature. A single public key is computed as the first and the second public keys, elements of which are computed exponentiating two different generators of cyclic groups in each of the algebras.

Findings

Additionally, a scalar multiplication by a private integer is performed as final step of calculation of every element of the public key. The same powers and the same scalar values are used to compute the first and the second public keys by the same mathematic formulas. Due to such design, the said generators are kept in secret, providing resistance to quantum attacks. Two new finite commutative associative algebras, multiplicative group of which possesses four-dimensional cyclicity, have been proposed as a suitable algebraic support.

Originality/value

The introduced method is novel and includes new techniques for designing algebraic signature schemes that resist quantum attacks. On its base, a new practical post-quantum signature scheme with relatively small size of signature and public key is developed.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Arian Mahzouni

This paper aims to discuss the nexus between two societal (sub) systems of housing and energy supply to shed new light on the key institutional barriers to socio-technical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the nexus between two societal (sub) systems of housing and energy supply to shed new light on the key institutional barriers to socio-technical energy transition in the built environment. The key research question is to explore if and how key patterns of institutional elements associated with energy retrofit and energy supply are combined, co-evolved and played out in the housing system, leading to an alternative energy transition pathway in the built environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study of residential buildings in the Swiss cities of Basel and Sion is conducted to map retrofitting policies and practices in a wide range of buildings (e.g. multi-family and single family) that each requires a particular constellation of institutions, actors and artefacts.

Findings

The key finding is that the regulative institutions support energy transition in each urban form/housing type. However, the co-evolution with normative and cultural-cognitive institutions does not play out very clearly in the housing system. One reason is that the norms and cultures are deeply rooted in the practices exercised by business community and households and therefore they need a longer time frame to adapt to a new regulation.

Research limitations/implications

The policies and actions to increase the rate of housing retrofit are discussed in the specific socio-political context of Switzerland. Therefore, the results of this study might not be applied in other contexts with different conditions, limiting the possibility for analytical generalization. The case study can generate only context-specific knowledge, which might be valuable only to cities with similar conditions. This paper addresses theoretical, methodological and policy challenges in scaling-up retrofit projects by taking a holistic and integrated approach to the systems of housing and energy supply.

Practical implications

It would have been necessary to find out how the introduction and enforcement of new energy policies and regulations (regulative institutions) have changed the norms and building practices (normative institutions) used by actors from housing industry and the attitudes and energy consumption behaviour of the households (cultural-cognitive institutions). Nevertheless, information about normative and cultural-cognitive institutions require more primary data in the form of interviews with organizations and households, respectively, which goes beyond the scope and resources of this study.

Originality/value

Insights from different strands of literature (institutions and sustainability transition) are combined to understand if and how retrofitting practices go along with other elements of urban sustainability including architectural, technical, socio-cultural and economic factors.

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