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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2022

Josefina Jonsson and Johan Gaddefors

This study aims to discuss how an online community interacts with a local community during the entrepreneurial process. By having a contextualized view of entrepreneurship, this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss how an online community interacts with a local community during the entrepreneurial process. By having a contextualized view of entrepreneurship, this study acknowledges the social and spatial dynamics of the process.

Design/methodology/approach

The inductive approach used in this study is empirically anchored in the case “the library revolt”. This paper analysed interviews conducted in a selected region in Sweden and followed a netnographic method to capture the social interactions online. By using qualitative modes of inquiry, this study attempts to illuminate the social aspects of the entrepreneurial process.

Findings

This study shows how social media works as a contextual element in entrepreneurship. By presenting interactions between an online community and a rural community, it is shown how entrepreneurial processes in rural areas can be shaped not only through local community relations but also by online interaction. It illustrates how an online context, where actors are located with their own unique set of resources, contributes to rural development. By being a part of an ongoing process of structuration, we can view the actors are gaining access to the resources online, which contributes to the change happening in a local community.

Originality/value

This study adds to the conversation of the role of context in entrepreneurship studies. Rural entrepreneurship largely discusses the local social bonds and actions, while this study includes the online social bonds as a part of the reality in which entrepreneurship is developed.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 June 2023

Erik Melin and Johan Gaddefors

The purpose of this article is to explore how agency is distributed between human actors and nonhuman elements in entrepreneurship.

1702

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to explore how agency is distributed between human actors and nonhuman elements in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

It is based on an inductive longitudinal case study of a garden in a rural community in northern Sweden. The methodology includes an ethnography of the garden, spanning the course of 16 years, and a careful investigation of the entrepreneurial processes contained within it.

Findings

This article identifies and describes different practices to explain how agency is distributed between human actors and nonhuman elements in the garden's context. Three different practices were identified and discussed, namely “calling”, “resisting”, and “provoking”.

Originality/value

Agency/structure constitutes a longstanding conundrum in entrepreneurship and context. This study contributes to the on-going debate on context in entrepreneurship, and introduces a posthumanist perspective—particularly that of distributed agency—to theorising in entrepreneurship. Rather than focussing on a human (hero)-driven change process, induced through the exploitation of material objects, this novel perspective views entrepreneurship as both a human and a nonhuman venture, occurring through interactions located in particular places and times. Coming from the agency/structure dichotomy, this article reaches out for elements traditionally established on the structure side, distributing them to the agency side of the dichotomy. As such, it contributes to an understanding of the agency of nonhuman elements, and how they direct entrepreneurship in context. This theoretical development prepares entrepreneurship theories to be better able to engage with nonhuman elements and provides example solutions for the ongoing climate crisis.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Johan Gaddefors and Alistair R. Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to explain how context shapes what becomes entrepreneurial.

4923

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how context shapes what becomes entrepreneurial.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is part of a longitudinal study over ten years, an ethnographic work including interviews, participating in meetings and shadowing. Texts and voices boiled down to transcripts and notes were sorted in NVivo. The empirical material was presented as a simple, short story, with the aim to question established assumptions and relations. The paper propose context as the unit for analysis, instead of entrepreneurs and outcomes. This opened up the scale from a narrow individualism to a much broader appreciation of the entrepreneurship as shaped by social factors.

Findings

The paper provides insights about how context determines entrepreneurship. It is not simply the context in itself, but the things that are going on in the context. What entrepreneurship does is to connect and thus create a raft of changes. The paper suggests that to depart from context as the unit of analysis will avoid the objectification of entrepreneurship and open up for discussing the becoming of entrepreneurship. The case illustrates how entrepreneurship is an event in a flow of changing circumstances. Entrepreneurship is formed from the context itself, rather than being individual or social; entrepreneurship appears simultaneously to be both. Entrepreneurship can and does exist in multiple states regardless of the observer and the observation.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to learn more about how entrepreneurship and context interact. It illustrates how context is more engaged in the entrepreneurial process than entrepreneurship theory acknowledges.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Hanna Astner and Johan Gaddefors

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of identities in entrepreneurial processes during the development of a new market. Two research questions are used: How do the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of identities in entrepreneurial processes during the development of a new market. Two research questions are used: How do the founder’s identity, corporate identity and market identity interact as a new market is developing, and what are the functions of identity in the entrepreneurial process?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research is grounded in a study of multiple cases, from which five Swedish start-ups have been selected. Interviews were conducted with the founders at several points in time and accompanied by observations of websites, media performance, policy documents and commercial material. Analysis was conducted in an iterative process between empirics and theory.

Findings

The findings show how identities develop in entrepreneurs, firms and the market and how the interactions between these three levels of identity affect the development of each. The authors recognize and discuss three functions of identity: a constructing function, in which identity is used to create a new firm and market; a guiding function, which navigates between identities by imposing identity work on founders, firms and markets; and a configuring function, which takes part in shaping contexts.

Research limitations/implications

This paper opens a space for future research on identities to advance understandings of how new firms and markets are developed. Investigating identity shows the importance of context to entrepreneurial processes. This points towards a need for researching different contexts, but also to the potential limited value of this study.

Practical implications

The paper offers guidance to founders and managers in understanding and navigating different identities. Founders and managers are provided with a set of critical questions, which aim to assist when managing identity-related concerns.

Originality/value

There is a vast amount of literature on the development of companies and markets, yet start-ups in new markets operate in different contexts and face different challenges that we know less about. This paper targets the latter and proposes identity as a useful lens for understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurs, start-ups and the new market.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Mohamed A. Semkunde, Tumsifu Elly, Goodluck Charles, Johan Gaddefors and Linley Chiwona-Karltun

This study aims to examine how women's groups help women to navigate context-related barriers to their engagement in rural entrepreneurship. The paper combines the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how women's groups help women to navigate context-related barriers to their engagement in rural entrepreneurship. The paper combines the contextualisation of entrepreneurship framework and the feminist separatist theory to describe how women's groups in patriarchal rural communities enable women to circumvent context-related barriers and actively engage in rural entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a case study of 12 women's groups engaged in paddy farming, rice processing and marketing in rural Tanzania, this study draws on semi-structured interviews with 46 women, four focus group discussions, four in-depth key informant interviews and non-participant observation.

Findings

Rural women face unique context-related challenges that hinder them from effectively participating in rural entrepreneurship. Specifically, limited access to farmlands and profitable markets, lack of business networks, limited time, poverty and insufficient financial resources constrain women's engagement in entrepreneurship. To overcome these contextual barriers, rural women have organised themselves into groups to gain access to business services, business-related training, grants and business networks.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the existing literature on contextualising entrepreneurship by focussing on how rural contexts may constrain women's entrepreneurial engagement while showing how women respond to contextual barriers that enable them to participate in rural entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

This study shows that women with low education can pursue rural entrepreneurship if they are supported through training and access to networks. This will support the performance of these groups of women.

Originality/value

This study offers new insights into the role of women's groups in navigating gender-related constraints that hinder women from participating in rural entrepreneurship within the patriarchal context of low-income countries. Thus, new perceptions for the gender and rural entrepreneurship theory and the policy implications thereof are proffered.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Steffen Korsgaard, Alistair Anderson and Johan Gaddefors

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of entrepreneurship that can help researchers, policymakers and practitioners develop entrepreneurial responses to the…

2002

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of entrepreneurship that can help researchers, policymakers and practitioners develop entrepreneurial responses to the current economic, environmental and socio-spatial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a conceptual approach. Hudson’s diagnosis of the current patterns of production is applied to the two dominant streams of theorising on entrepreneurship: the opportunistic discovery view and the resourcefulness view of, for example, effectuation.

Findings

The analysis indicates that the opportunistic discovery view and, to some extent, the resourcefulness view are both inadequate as conceptual platforms for entrepreneurial responses to the economic, environmental and socio-spatial crisis. Instead, an alternative perspective on entrepreneurship is developed: Entrepreneurship as re-sourcing. The perspective emphasises the importance of building regional-level resilience through entrepreneurial activity that sources resources from new places and uses these resources to create multiple forms of value.

Practical implications

The paper draws attention to dysfunctions in the current theorising on entrepreneurship in light of the economic, environmental and socio-spatial crisis. Instead, the authors offer an alternative. In doing so, the paper also points to the difficult trade-offs that exist between, for example, long-term resilience and short-term competitiveness and growth on a regional, as well as firm level.

Originality/value

This paper adds to research by offering an alternative view of entrepreneurship grounded – not in economics – but in economic geography, thus highlighting the importance of productions’ grounding in material reality and the importance of addressing non-economic concerns in our way of thinking about entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Johan Gaddefors and Alistair Anderson

The objective of this longitudinal ethnography of a rural small town in Northern Sweden, following the presence and identifying the processes associated with an incoming…

Abstract

The objective of this longitudinal ethnography of a rural small town in Northern Sweden, following the presence and identifying the processes associated with an incoming entrepreneur, was to better understand entrepreneurship in a rural context. The significant shaping of entrepreneurship by context is increasingly recognised, with entrepreneurship in depleted communities being an important part of this research movement. This chapter is positioned at the conjunction of these literatures. The authors have studied this community for 10 years; regularly interviewing the entrepreneur and residents; attending meetings and making observations. The authors found that the entrepreneurial creation of garden provoked a raft of change, such that entrepreneurship reverberated throughout the town. To explain these effects, the authors developed the concept of entrepreneurial energy. Entrepreneurial energy is a vitality produced in and by entrepreneurship. It works, in part, as a role model, holding up examples of what can be done. But much more, the presence of entrepreneurial energy serves to invigorate others. It becomes amplified in new ways of doing, new ways of being, yet calcified in the entrepreneurial actions of others. The authors saw how it unleashed the latent, promoted the possible, to entrepreneurially revive the town.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-372-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2008

Johan Gaddefors and Alistair R. Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to examine theories of marketing and entrepreneurship and compare these with entrepreneurial marketing practices.

1804

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine theories of marketing and entrepreneurship and compare these with entrepreneurial marketing practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a case study to explore the social constructions of narratives.

Findings

The paper reveals how interactions based around meanings, purpose and identities work to create products, customers, entrepreneurs and even the market. Here the emphasis on signs, symbols and images redirects attention to create space for expectations to grow.

Research limitations/implications

The paper develops its argument that merely modifying existing theory is conceptually inadequate; a new framework is introduced which enables the understanding of how entrepreneurship and marketing combine. The paper shows how this fertile dynamic produces not only new products, but also may actually create new markets.

Originality/value

This case study demonstrates how entrepreneurship and marketing become inseparable in the co‐production of identity and future.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Johan Gaddefors

The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate the use of metaphor in the entrepreneurial process. In particular, the paper focuses on how metaphors are used in the…

2874

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate the use of metaphor in the entrepreneurial process. In particular, the paper focuses on how metaphors are used in the construction of the environment, a precondition for the creation of business opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on a two‐day meeting between Light, a management consultancy firm, and Epsilon one of their clients. The data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study within Light. The consultants and their clients are followed in their daily work. The focus was on how metaphor use influenced their organisational practices.

Findings

Investigating the play of metaphors in Epsilon, it is shown how the firm's environment is created; a pre‐condition for understanding how entrepreneurial opportunities are created. It is shown how use of metaphor, understood as a mode of interpretation, is taking place over time, and how it is part of a relational, context‐dependent process.

Research limitations/implications

The present study provides new ways of understanding the use of metaphor in the entrepreneurial process. It also indicates the need for a continued focus on language use in the entrepreneurial process. One limitation is that not all aspects of metaphor use are investigated.

Practical implications

This research can help to influence practitioners to pay more attention to the use of metaphors, not only as a tool for creative thinking or the questioning of embedded assumptions, but also as a mode for interpreting, structuring and producing images of the environment and the organisation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to development of influences from the linguistic turn to entrepreneurship studies by exploring metaphor theory. One result of this focus on language is an increased sensitivity to metaphor use in the entrepreneurial process.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Abstract

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-372-8

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