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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Fan‐qi Zeng, Xiang‐zhi Bu and Li Su

The purpose of this paper is to find the characteristic of entrepreneurial process for the student in free enterprise (SIFE) team in China, and to provide theoretical…

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5922

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the characteristic of entrepreneurial process for the student in free enterprise (SIFE) team in China, and to provide theoretical guidance for the entrepreneurial process of SIFE student team through a new Timmons model.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking an entrepreneurial project of Shantou University SIFE team as example, a Timmons model was proposed describing the SIFE student team entrepreneurial process based on the famous entrepreneurial process model established by Jeffry A. Timmons. The application value of the new Timmons model was proved by case analysis.

Findings

The paper summarized the main characteristics of the entrepreneurial model for the SIFE student team as: the nature of creation free enterprises, the excellent entrepreneurship networks, and the spirit of social entrepreneurship orientation. By case study, the paper proved the practical value of the new Timmons model by analysis of the key factors such as business opportunities, resources and entrepreneurial team, and their dynamic balance process.

Practical implications

The new model proposed in the paper will have theoretical value to provide a direction for student entrepreneurial practice, the analysis of the characteristics of the new model will also enrich the research on entrepreneurship theory.

Originality/value

This paper is the first research on SIFE student entrepreneurial process in China. In the past two years, the authors observed dozens of successful worldwide SIFE students' practical projects, but few of them appeared in the literature. It is hoped that this paper can offer some constructive advice to the entrepreneurial process of the SIFE student team and enrich the theory of general entrepreneurial education.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2007

Suna Sørensen, Astrid Heidemann Lassen and Robert Hinson

In this paper we rethink the conventional ways of explaining the change process of new company formation. We base our analysis on two well established and dominating…

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684

Abstract

In this paper we rethink the conventional ways of explaining the change process of new company formation. We base our analysis on two well established and dominating categories of entrepreneurship models, stages inspired models and interactive contingency models, and we argue that these do not sufficiently conspire to capture the entrepreneurial start‐up process as an everyday phenomenon of multi‐dimensional individual, social, and environmental interaction. In an effort to address this hypothesized theoretical gap, we apply ideas origination from Symbolic Interactionism to suggest a complementary conceptual model for comprehending the entrepreneurial process as an interactive construct. From here the idea of entrepreneurship as an ongoing “Social Journey of Opportunity Construction” arises. We argue that this idea has a potential impact on the practice of research, since it encourages scholars to step out of predictable zones of positivist research and enter a riskier research zone in which it is everyday interaction that makes the entrepreneurial process emerge.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Yufeng SU, Nengquan WU and Xiang Zhou

Entrepreneurial process strongly relies on context. The previous entrepreneurship research in developed countries over-emphasizes on its economic impact, but ignores its…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial process strongly relies on context. The previous entrepreneurship research in developed countries over-emphasizes on its economic impact, but ignores its social impact, which leads to the slow development of entrepreneurship theories. Transitioning China provides entrepreneurs with a typical environment where opportunities and constraints coexist, which is a new research area in the field of entrepreneurship study.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the grounded theory approach, this paper generalizes a local entrepreneurial process model from a multiple case study.

Findings

The paper states that the interaction among entrepreneurs, opportunities and institutional context is the core of the process. To be specific, entrepreneurial process includes an inner and an outer mechanism. The inner mechanism is based on the relations among institutional constraints, entrepreneurs and opportunities: nascent entrepreneurs, forced by institutional constraints to start a business, undergo a psychological process with entrepreneurial angst, reflective learning and effectuation and finally create business opportunities. The outer mechanism is grounded in the relations among new ventures, institutional evolution and opportunity development: new ventures facilitate institutional evolution through institutional entrepreneurship strategies, which in turn supports the ventures in the sustainable development of opportunities.

Originality/value

This study illuminates the social and institutional impact of entrepreneurial behavior, which is gradually fading and forgotten in modern society. The findings of the study enrich the research on entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurial cognition and institutional entrepreneurship and also provide implications for entrepreneurs.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Jeff Vanevenhoven, Doan Winkel, Debra Malewicki, William L. Dougan and James Bronson

We offer a theoretical account of how two types of bricolage influence the entrepreneurial process. The first type involves social relationships or physical or functional…

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1838

Abstract

We offer a theoretical account of how two types of bricolage influence the entrepreneurial process. The first type involves social relationships or physical or functional assets, and thus pertains to an entrepreneurʼs external resources used in the instantiation of operations of a new venture. The second type pertains to an entrepreneurʼs internal resources‐experiences, credentials, knowledge, and certifications‐which the entrepreneur appropriates, assembles, modifies and deploys in the presentation of a narrative about the entrepreneurial process. We argue that both types of bricolage are essential to the success of a venturing attempt.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Matthew S. Wood, David W. Williams and Denis A. Grégoire

Studies of entrepreneurial action often distinguish between different phases such as opportunity identification, evaluation, and exploitation. Yet, the richness of past…

Abstract

Studies of entrepreneurial action often distinguish between different phases such as opportunity identification, evaluation, and exploitation. Yet, the richness of past contributions masks the absence of an integral framework to organize, in a theoretically consistent ensemble, the different kinds of cognitive processes that underpin entrepreneurial action. In this chapter, we draw from research on human action and cognition to offer an integrative model of the cognitive processes that foster entrepreneurial action. By presenting a more specific articulation of when, how, and why different cognitive processes operate, we provide theorists and empiricists with a more complete picture of how entrepreneurs’ thinking evolves from the emergence of an opportunity idea to the initiation of concrete entrepreneurial acts. In addition, our framework draws attention to cognitive inflection points that entrepreneurs must navigate in their journey toward entrepreneurship. By explicitly locating these inflection points and specifying the changes in mental processing that occurs at each point, we highlight that for entrepreneurial action to ensue, entrepreneurs must shift from one type of cognitive processing to another. Along this line, our model draws attention to the entire set of cognitive “skills” entrepreneurs must master for successful completion of each phase and successful transitions between phases.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Cina van Zyl

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to launch a new venture in the tourism field. The main purpose of this chapter is to explain what the entrepreneurial process is, the steps/phases to transit from idea to enterprise and the risks involved.

Methodology/approach

General review was conducted on conceptual issues and managerial aspects of the entrepreneurial process and legal issues.

Findings

This chapter highlights that the entrepreneurial process undergone by entrepreneurs is dual in nature, both in terms of action and thinking process. Given that the failure rate of new ventures is high, there is a need to focus on the importance of understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurship, the action process of the prospective entrepreneur and the potential risk impact.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter is explorative in nature because the discussion is based on a general review.

Practical implications

Prospective entrepreneurs should follow specific steps, a rational process to establish their business venture and to protect its operations against any event. Thus, any new business should manage risks appropriately, as well as record insurance to cover for unforeseen events.

Originality/value

This chapter provides an overview of the entrepreneurial process and legal risk issues that may affect the success of a new venture. The hands-on approach is particularly useful in dealing with the entrepreneurial mind when exploring new business ventures in the tourism field.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-529-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Qingyan Ye, Duanxu Wang and Kai Zeng

Employee entrepreneurship has recently become an emerging area of investigation. However, due to the fragmentation of the turnover and entrepreneurship literature, no…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee entrepreneurship has recently become an emerging area of investigation. However, due to the fragmentation of the turnover and entrepreneurship literature, no coherent theoretical framework has been developed to provide an adequate description of the employee entrepreneurial process. The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of why and how an employee in an established organization progresses toward starting a new venture by exploring the key decision-making processes during the initial stages of employee entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study addresses the following research questions: What are the key decision-making processes during the initial stages of employee entrepreneurship? How are these decisions made, and how do they interact? This study employed a multiple case study approach, which enabled the authors to gain valuable insight into these “what” and “how” questions. The data consist of 28 in-depth employee entrepreneurship cases.

Findings

Based on an in-depth study of 28 cases, this study constructs a comprehensive model of the dynamic and interactive decision-making processes that lead to employee entrepreneurship. In particular, the findings reveal that rather than being a linear staged activity, employee entrepreneurship is an inherently iterative process that involves a set of interrelated subdecision-making processes related to turnover, team entrepreneurship and partner recruitment that entail multiple iterations and feedback loops based on an individual's cognitive judgment.

Originality/value

By illustrating and clarifying the importance of the effects of different initial motivations and the attributes of the network in the course of the employee entrepreneurship decision-making process, this study integrates the turnover and entrepreneurship literature and makes significant contributions to the current literature on employee entrepreneurship. Moreover, this study complements research investigating entrepreneurial team formation by providing a detailed understanding of how the lead entrepreneur and the prospective partner make mutual choices during the entrepreneurial team formation process.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2016

Richard Tunstall, Lenita Nieminen, Lin Jing and Rasmus Hjorth

Educators are increasingly required to develop creativity and entrepreneurial capabilities amongst students, yet within the fields of entrepreneurship and innovation these…

Abstract

Purpose

Educators are increasingly required to develop creativity and entrepreneurial capabilities amongst students, yet within the fields of entrepreneurship and innovation these are presented as separate processes. We explore the theoretical and conceptual similarities and differences between these processes, and relate this to a range of experiential and digitally enhanced learning activities in formal education settings.

Methodology/approach

We present a conceptual model of the iterative nature of creativity and entrepreneurship as separate cognitive and social processes leading to aesthetic or sense-making outcomes. This leads to a discussion of how these processes may be experienced by students within an educational setting.

Findings

We propose a framework of learning activities which support the development of creativity through teaching entrepreneurially, at primary, secondary, and tertiary education levels. A range of different approaches is critically evaluated according to their relevance, including business planning, simulations, roleplay, co-creation, and flashmobs. Flashmobs are proposed to be most suitable and an outline learning activity design is mapped in detail against creative and entrepreneurial processes.

Research and Practical implications

This chapter supports educational practice and research on learning through entrepreneurship in allowing educators and researchers to evaluate how learning activities may directly contribute to students’ learning through experience and the development of their creative and entrepreneurial mind-set.

Originality/value

This chapter is of value to educators as it explains how creative and entrepreneurial processes may be experienced by students through different forms of learning activity. It is of further value to research on entrepreneurial learning in considering how the creative process may inform entrepreneurial action.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Richard Hanage, Pekka Stenholm, Jonathan M. Scott and Mark A.P. Davies

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by McMullen and Dimov (2013) for a clearer understanding of entrepreneurial journeys by investigating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by McMullen and Dimov (2013) for a clearer understanding of entrepreneurial journeys by investigating the entrepreneurial capitals and micro-processes of seven young early stage entrepreneurs who all exited their businesses within 3 years of start-up.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed empirical data from concurrent in-depth interviews which generated rich longitudinal case studies. Theory-building then led to a proposed “Longitudinal Dynamic Process Framework” of entrepreneurial goals, processes and capitals.

Findings

The framework builds on prior studies by integrating entrepreneurial processes and decisions into two feedback loops based on continuous review and learning. It thereby enhances understanding of the dynamics of new business development and unfolds the early stage ventures entrepreneurs' business exits.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on a small purposive sample. However, the main implication for research and theory is showing how the entrepreneurial capitals are dynamic and influenced by entrepreneurs' environment, and also separating entrepreneurs' personal issues from their business issues.

Practical implications

The findings challenge some assumptions of policymakers and offer new insights for practitioners and early stage entrepreneurs. These include having more realistic case-studies of the entrepreneurial journey, recognizing the need to be agile and tenacious to cope with challenges, understanding how capitals can interact in complementary ways and that entrepreneurial processes can be used to leverage them at appropriate stages of the start-ups.

Originality/value

The concurrent longitudinal analysis and theory-building complements extant cross-sectional studies by identifying and analysing the detailed processes of actual business start-ups and exits. The proposed framework thereby adds coherence to earlier studies and helps to explain early stage entrepreneurial development, transformation of capitals and business exit.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Wolfgang Lattacher and Malgorzata Anna Wdowiak

Failure plays a pivotal role in entrepreneurial learning. Knowledge of the learning process that enables an entrepreneur to re-emerge stronger after a failure, though…

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Abstract

Purpose

Failure plays a pivotal role in entrepreneurial learning. Knowledge of the learning process that enables an entrepreneur to re-emerge stronger after a failure, though considerable, is fragmented. This paper systematically collects relevant literature, assigns it to the stages of the experiential learning process (concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation; Kolb, 1984), evaluates the research coverage of each stage and identifies promising avenues for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This systematic literature review follows the guidelines articulated by Short (2009) and Tranfield et al. (2003), using Web of Science and EBSCO as primary data sources. Kolb’s (1984) experiential learning theory provides a basis for organizing the identified material into a framework of entrepreneurial learning from failure.

Findings

The literature provides insights on all stages of the process of entrepreneurial learning from failure. Particularly well elaborated are the nature of failure and its triggering effect for reflection, the factors influencing reflection, the contents of the resulting learning and their application in entrepreneurial re-emergence. Other topics remain under-researched, including alternative modes of recovery, the impact of personal attributes upon reflection, the cognitive processes underlying reflection, the transformation of failure-based observations into logically sound concepts and the application of this learning in non-entrepreneurial contexts.

Originality/value

This review provides the most complete overview of research into the process of entrepreneurial learning from failure. The systematic, theory-based mapping of this literature takes stock of current knowledge and proposes areas for future research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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