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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Anne Hogden, David Greenfield, Mark Brandon, Deborah Debono, Virginia Mumford, Johanna Westbrook and Jeffrey Braithwaite

Quality of care in the residential aged sector has changed over the past decade. The purpose of this paper is to examine these changes from the perspectives of staff to…

Abstract

Purpose

Quality of care in the residential aged sector has changed over the past decade. The purpose of this paper is to examine these changes from the perspectives of staff to identify factors influencing quality of residential aged care, and the role and influence of an aged care accreditation programme.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus groups were held with 66 aged care staff from 11 Australian aged care facilities. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed to capture categories representing participant views.

Findings

Participants reported two factors stimulating change: developments in the aged care regulatory and policy framework, and rising consumer expectations. Four corresponding effects on service quality were identified: increasing complexity of resident care, renewed built environments of aged care facilities, growing focus on resident-centred care and the influence of accreditation on resident quality of life. The accreditation programme was viewed as maintaining minimum standards of quality throughout regulatory and social change, yet was considered to lack capacity of itself to explicitly promote or improve resident quality of life.

Research limitations/implications

For an increasingly complex aged care population, regulatory and societal change has led to a shift in service provision from institutional care models to one that is becoming more responsive to consumer expectations. The capacity of long-established and relatively static accreditation standards to better accommodate changing consumer needs comes into question.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the relationship between accreditation and residential aged care service quality from the perspectives of staff, and offers a nuanced view of “quality” in this setting.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Chiara Pomare, Kate Churruca, Janet C. Long, Louise A. Ellis and Jeffrey Braithwaite

Hospitals are constantly redeveloping to improve functioning and modernise the delivery of safe and high-quality care. In Australia, it is expected that different…

Abstract

Purpose

Hospitals are constantly redeveloping to improve functioning and modernise the delivery of safe and high-quality care. In Australia, it is expected that different stakeholders have the opportunity to contribute to the design and planning of hospital redevelopment projects. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential for misalignment between policy (“work as imagined”) and staff experiences of a hospital redevelopment (“work as done”).

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a large Australian hospital in a capital city undergoing redevelopment. Forty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital staff. Staff experiences were identified in corroboration with additional data: key-informant discussions with members of the hospital executive; document analysis (e.g. hospital and government documents) and survey responses about experiences of the hospital redevelopment.

Findings

A disjuncture was identified between policy and the experiences of hospital staff. Over one in every three (36.0%) staff felt uninformed about the redevelopment and 79.4% were not involved in decisions throughout the process of design and redevelopment, which contradicted the procedure laid out in policy for hospital development.

Originality/value

Despite the seemingly “good news story” of allocating billions of dollars to redeveloping and modernising health services in Australia, the experiences of staff on the front lines suggest a lack of consultation. Rectifying these concerns may be integral to avoid fragmentation during the challenging circumstances of hospital redevelopment.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Søren Bie Bogh, Ane Blom, Ditte Caroline Raben, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Bettina Thude, Erik Hollnagel and Christian von Plessen

The purpose of this paper is to understand how staff at various levels perceive and understand hospital accreditation generally and in relation to quality improvement (QI…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how staff at various levels perceive and understand hospital accreditation generally and in relation to quality improvement (QI) specifically.

Design/methodology/approach

In a newly accredited Danish hospital, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews to capture broad ranging experiences. Medical doctors, nurses, a quality coordinator and a quality department employee participated. Interviews were audio recorded and subjected to framework analysis.

Findings

Staff reported that The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme affected management priorities: office time and working on documentation, which reduced time with patients and on improvement activities. Organisational structures were improved during preparation for accreditation. Staff perceived that the hospital was better prepared for new QI initiatives after accreditation; staff found disease specific requirements unnecessary. Other areas benefited from accreditation. Interviewees expected that organisational changes, owing to accreditation, would be sustained and that the QI focus would continue.

Practical implications

Accreditation is a critical and complete hospital review, including areas that often are neglected. Accreditation dominates hospital agendas during preparation and surveyor visits, potentially reducing patient care and other QI initiatives. Improvements are less likely to occur in areas that other QI initiatives addressed. Yet, accreditation creates organisational foundations for future QI initiatives.

Originality/value

The authors study contributes new insights into how hospital staff at different organisational levels perceive and understand accreditation.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Jeffrey Braithwaite, Kristiana Ludlow, Kate Churruca, Wendy James, Jessica Herkes, Elise McPherson, Louise A. Ellis and Janet C. Long

Much work about health reform and systems improvement in healthcare looks at shortcomings and universal problems facing health systems, but rarely are accomplishments…

Abstract

Purpose

Much work about health reform and systems improvement in healthcare looks at shortcomings and universal problems facing health systems, but rarely are accomplishments dissected and analyzed internationally. The purpose of this paper is to address this knowledge gap by examining the lessons learned from health system reform and improvement efforts in 60 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 60 low-, middle- and high-income countries provided a case study of successful health reform, which was gathered into a compendium as a recently published book. Here, the extensive source material was re-examined through inductive content analysis to derive broad themes of systems change internationally.

Findings

Nine themes were identified: improving policy, coverage and governance; enhancing the quality of care; keeping patients safe; regulating standards and accreditation; organizing care at the macro-level; organizing care at the meso- and micro-level; developing workforces and resources; harnessing technology and IT; and making collaboratives and partnerships work.

Practical implications

These themes provide a model of what constitutes successful systems change across a wide sample of health systems, offering a store of knowledge about how reformers and improvement initiators achieve their goals.

Originality/value

Few comparative international studies of health systems include a sufficiently wide selection of low-, middle- and high-income countries in their analysis. This paper provides a more balanced approach to consider where achievements are being made across healthcare, and what we can do to replicate and spread successful examples of systems change internationally.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2018

Peter Nugus, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Josianne Lamothe, David Greenfield, Joanne Travaglia, Kendall Kolne, Julia Kryluk and Jeffrey Braithwaite

Health service effectiveness continues to be limited by misaligned objectives between policy makers and frontline clinicians. While capturing the discretion workers…

Abstract

Purpose

Health service effectiveness continues to be limited by misaligned objectives between policy makers and frontline clinicians. While capturing the discretion workers inevitably exercise, the concept of “street-level bureaucracy” has tended to artificially separate policy makers and workers. The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of social-organizational context in aligning policy with practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This mixed-method participatory study focuses on a locally developed tool to implement an Australia-wide strategy to engage and respond to mental health services for parents with mental illness. Researchers: completed 69 client file audits; administered 64 staff surveys; conducted 24 interviews and focus groups (64 participants) with staff and a consumer representative; and observed eight staff meetings, in an acute and sub-acute mental health unit. Data were analyzed using content analysis, thematic analysis and descriptive statistics.

Findings

Based on successes and shortcomings of the implementation (assessment completed for only 30 percent of clients), a model of integration is presented, distinguishing “assimilist” from “externalist” positions. These depend on the degree to which, and how, the work environment affords clinicians the setting to coordinate efforts to take account of clients’ personal and social needs. This was particularly so for allied health clinicians and nurses undertaking sub-acute rehabilitative-transitional work.

Originality/value

A new conceptualization of street-level bureaucracy is offered. Rather than as disconnected, it is a process of mutual influence among interdependent actors. This positioning can serve as a framework to evaluate how and under what circumstances discretion is appropriate, and to be supported by managers and policy makers to optimize client-defined needs.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2021

Mitchell Sarkies, Suzanne Robinson, Teralynn Ludwick, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Per Nilsen, Gregory Aarons, Bryan J. Weiner and Joanna Moullin

As a discipline, health organisation and management is focused on health-specific, collective behaviours and activities, whose empirical and theoretical scholarship…

Abstract

Purpose

As a discipline, health organisation and management is focused on health-specific, collective behaviours and activities, whose empirical and theoretical scholarship remains under-utilised in the field of implementation science. This under-engagement between fields potentially constrains the understanding of mechanisms influencing the implementation of evidence-based innovations in health care. The aim of this viewpoint article is to examine how a selection of theories, models and frameworks (theoretical approaches) have been applied to better understand phenomena at the micro, meso and macro systems levels for the implementation of health care innovations. The purpose of which is to illustrate the potential applicability and complementarity of embedding health organisation and management scholarship within the study of implementation science.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors begin by introducing the two fields, before exploring how exemplary theories, models and frameworks have been applied to study the implementation of innovations in the health organisation and management literature. In this viewpoint article, the authors briefly reviewed a targeted collection of articles published in the Journal of Health Organization and Management (as a proxy for the broader literature) and identified the theories, models and frameworks they applied in implementation studies. The authors then present a more detailed exploration of three interdisciplinary theories and how they were applied across three different levels of health systems: normalization process theory (NPT) at the micro individual and interpersonal level; institutional logics at the meso organisational level; and complexity theory at the macro policy level. These examples are used to illustrate practical considerations when implementing change in health care organisations that can and have been used across various levels of the health system beyond these presented examples.

Findings

Within the Journal of Health Organization and Management, the authors identified 31 implementation articles, utilising 34 theories, models or frameworks published in the last five years. As an example of how theories, models and frameworks can be applied at the micro individual and interpersonal levels, behavioural theories originating from psychology and sociology (e.g. NPT) were used to guide the selection of appropriate implementation strategies or explain implementation outcomes based on identified barriers and enablers to implementing innovations of interest. Projects aiming to implement change at the meso organisational level can learn from the application of theories such as institutional logics, which help elucidate how relationships at the macro and micro-level have a powerful influence on successful or unsuccessful organisational action. At the macro policy level, complexity theory represented a promising direction for implementation science by considering health care organisations as complex adaptive systems.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates the utility of a range of theories, models and frameworks for implementation science, from a health organisation and management standpoint. The authors’ viewpoint article suggests that increased crossovers could contribute to strengthening both disciplines and our understanding of how to support the implementation of evidence-based innovations in health care.

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Stephanie Best, Janet C. Long, Clara Gaff, Jeffrey Braithwaite and Natalie Taylor

Clinical genomics is a complex, innovative medical speciality requiring clinical and organizational engagement to fulfil the clinical reward promised to date. Focus thus…

Abstract

Purpose

Clinical genomics is a complex, innovative medical speciality requiring clinical and organizational engagement to fulfil the clinical reward promised to date. Focus thus far has been on gene discovery and clinicians’ perspectives. The purpose of this study was to use implementation science theory to identify organizational barriers and enablers to implementation of clinical genomics along an organizations’ implementation journey from Preadoption through to Adoption and Implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

We used a deductive qualitative approach study design drawing on implementation science theory - (1) Translation Science to Population Impact Framework, to inform semi structured interviews with organizational decision-makers collaborating with Australian and Melbourne Genomics, alongside and (2) Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), to guide data analysis.

Findings

We identified evolving organizational barriers across the implementation journey from Preadoption to Implementation. Initially the organizational focus is on understanding the value of clinical genomics (TDF code: belief about consequences) and setting the scene (TDF code: goals) before organizational (TDF codes: knowledge and belief about consequences) and clinician (TDF codes: belief about capability and intentions) willingness to adopt is apparent. Once at the stage of Implementation, leadership and clarity in organizational priorities (TDF codes: intentions, professional identity and emotion) that include clinical genomics are essential prerequisites to implementing clinical genomics in practice. Intuitive enablers were identified (e.g. ‘providing multiple opportunities for people to come on board) and mapped hypothetically to barriers.

Originality/value

Attention to date has centred on the barriers facing clinicians when introducing clinical genomics into practice. This paper uses a combination of implementation science theories to begin to unravel the organizational perspectives of implementing this complex health intervention.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Zeyad Mahmoud, Nathalie Angelé-Halgand, Kate Churruca, Louise A Ellis and Jeffrey Braithwaite

Millions around the world still cannot access safe, timely and affordable surgery. Considering access as a function of efficiency, this paper examines how the latter can…

Abstract

Purpose

Millions around the world still cannot access safe, timely and affordable surgery. Considering access as a function of efficiency, this paper examines how the latter can be improved within the context of operating theatres. Carried out in France and Australia, this study reveals different types of waste in operating theatres and a series of successful tactics used to increase efficiency and eliminate wastefulness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this qualitative study were collected through 48 semi-structured interviews with operating theatre staff in France (n = 20) and Australia (n = 28). Transcripts were coded using a theory-driven thematic analysis to characterise sources of waste in operating theatres and the tactics used to address them.

Findings

The study confirmed the prominence of seven types of waste in operating theatres commonly found in industry and originally identified by Ohno, the initiator of lean: (1) underutilised operating rooms; (2) premature or delayed arrival of patients, staff or equipment; (3) need for large onsite storage areas and inventory costs; (4) unnecessary transportation of equipment; (5) needless staff movements; (6) over-processing and (7) quality defects. The tactics used to address each of these types of waste included multiskilling staff, levelling production and implementing just-in-time principles.

Originality/value

The tactics identified in this study have the potential of addressing the chronic and structurally embedded problem of waste plaguing health systems' operating theatres, and thus potentially improve access to surgical care. In a global context of resource scarcity, it is increasingly necessary for hospitals to optimise the ways in which surgery is delivered.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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