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Article

Euan Sadler, Jane Sandall, Nick Sevdalis and Dan Wilson

The purpose of this paper is to discuss three potential contributions from implementation science that can help clinicians and researchers to design and evaluate more…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss three potential contributions from implementation science that can help clinicians and researchers to design and evaluate more effective integrated care programmes for older people with frailty.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint paper focuses on three contributions: stakeholder engagement, using implementation science frameworks, and assessment of implementation strategies and outcomes.

Findings

Stakeholder engagement enhances the acceptability of interventions to recipients and providers and improves reach and sustainability. Implementation science frameworks assess provider, recipient and wider context factors enabling and hindering implementation, and guide selection and tailoring of appropriate implementation strategies. The assessment of implementation strategies and outcomes enables the evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation of integrated care programmes for this population.

Research limitations/implications

Implementation science provides a systematic way to think about why integrated care programmes for older people with frailty are not implemented successfully. The field has an evidence base, including how to tailor implementation science strategies to the local setting, and assess implementation outcomes to provide clinicians and researchers with an understanding of how their programme is working. The authors draw out implications for policy, practice and future research.

Originality/value

Different models to deliver integrated care to support older people with frailty exist, but it is not known which is most effective, for which individuals and in which clinical or psychosocial circumstances. Implementation science can play a valuable role in designing and evaluating more effective integrated care programmes for this population.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article

Lee E. Nordstrum, Paul G. LeMahieu and Elaine Berrena

This paper is one of seven in this volume elaborating upon different approaches to quality improvement in education. This paper aims to delineate a methodology called…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is one of seven in this volume elaborating upon different approaches to quality improvement in education. This paper aims to delineate a methodology called Implementation Science, focusing on methods to enhance the reach, adoption, use and maintenance of innovations and discoveries in diverse education contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study showing an application of Implementation Science in education, namely, in promoting school–community–university partnerships to enhance resilience (PROSPER).

Findings

Implementation Science is concerned with understanding and finding solutions to the causes of variation in a program’s outcomes relating to its implementation. The core phases are: initial considerations about the host context; creating an implementation structure; sustaining the structure during implementation; and improving future applications.

Originality/value

Few theoretical treatments and demonstration cases are currently available on commonly used models of quality improvement in other fields that might have potential value in improving education systems internationally. This paper fills this gap by elucidating one promising approach. The paper also derives value, as it permits a comparison of the Implementation Science approach with other quality improvement approaches treated in this volume.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article

John Ovretveit, Brian Mittman, Lisa Rubenstein and David A. Ganz

The purpose of this paper is to enable improvers to use recent knowledge from implementation science to carry out improvement changes more effectively. It also highlights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enable improvers to use recent knowledge from implementation science to carry out improvement changes more effectively. It also highlights the importance of converting research findings into practical tools and guidance for improvers so as to make research easier to apply in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This study provides an illustration of how a quality improvement (QI) team project can make use of recent findings from implementation research so as to make their improvement changes more effective and sustainable. The guidance is based on a review and synthesis of improvement and implementation methods.

Findings

The paper illustrates how research can help a quality project team in the phases of problem definition and preparation, in design and planning, in implementation, and in sustaining and spreading a QI. Examples of the use of different ideas and methods are cited where they exist.

Research limitations/implications

The example is illustrative and there is little limited experimental evidence of whether using all the steps and tools in the one approach proposed do enable a quality team to be more effective. Evidence supporting individual guidance proposals is cited where it exists.

Practical implications

If the steps proposed and illustrated in the paper were followed, it is possible that quality projects could avoid waste by ensuring the conditions they need for success are in place, and sustain and spread improvement changes more effectively.

Social implications

More patients could benefit more quickly from more effective implementation of proven interventions.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to describe how improvement and implementation science can be combined in a tangible way that practical improvers can use in their projects. It shows how QI project teams can take advantage of recent advances in improvement and implementation science to make their work more effective and sustainable.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part

Hewitt B. Clark, Alexia Jaouich and Kim Baker

Youth and young adults with emotional and/or behavioral difficulties (EBD) face particularly difficult challenges in their efforts to fit into adult roles and functions…

Abstract

Youth and young adults with emotional and/or behavioral difficulties (EBD) face particularly difficult challenges in their efforts to fit into adult roles and functions. The purpose of this chapter is to assist providers, educators, and administrators from the mental health, education, child welfare, justice/corrections, and adult service system sectors understand (a) a practice for improving the progress and outcomes for young people in transition, and (b) how this practice model is implemented in communities to impact the lives of youth in transition to adulthood. This is accomplished in two major parts in this chapter. The first part provides an overview of the Transition to Independence Process (TIP) model, a description of its status as an evidence-supported practice, and tools and strategies that support its implementation in communities and regions across North America. The TIP model is further illustrated through a description of how it is applied with a young person. The second part of the chapter provides an overview of implementation science, a description of how its strategies and tools can guide the implementation of an intervention or model; and an illustration of a large-scale TIP implementation initiative with collaboratives of agencies and schools. This chapter concludes with implications regarding the importance of having effective transition-to-adulthood models; and ensuring the implementation and sustainability of these to improve the progress and outcomes of youth and young adults with EBD.

Details

Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article

Lara M. Gunderson, Cathleen E. Willging, Elise M. Trott Jaramillo, Amy E. Green, Danielle L. Fettes, Debra B. Hecht and Gregory A. Aarons

Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for human services unfold within complicated social and organizational circumstances and are influenced by the attitudes and behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for human services unfold within complicated social and organizational circumstances and are influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of diverse stakeholders situated within these environments. Coaching is commonly regarded as an effective strategy to support service providers in delivering EBIs and attaining high levels of fidelity over time. The purpose of this paper is to address a lacuna in research examining the factors influencing coaching, an important EBI support component.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework to consider inner- and outer-context factors that affect coaching over time. This case study of coaching draws from a larger qualitative data set from three iterative investigations of implementation and sustainment of a home visitation program, SafeCare®. SafeCare is an EBI designed to reduce child neglect.

Findings

The authors elaborate on six major categories of findings derived from an iterative data coding and analysis process: perceptions of “good” and “bad” coaches by system sustainment status; coach as peer; in-house coaching capacity; intervention developer requirements vs other outer-context needs; outer-context support; and inner-context support.

Practical implications

Coaching is considered a key component for effective implementation of EBIs in public-sector systems, yet is under-studied. Understanding inner- and outer-context factors illuminates the ways they affect the capacity of coaches to support service delivery.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that coaching can accomplish more than provision of EBI fidelity support. Stakeholders characterized coaches as operating as boundary spanners who link inner and outer contexts to enable EBI implementation and sustainment.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article

Angeliki Kallitsoglou

Despite their documented benefits, evidence-based practices (EBPs) for early childhood social learning are not systematically implemented. Teachers are key players in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite their documented benefits, evidence-based practices (EBPs) for early childhood social learning are not systematically implemented. Teachers are key players in the implementation process of intervention programs and instructional practices. This is a viewpoint about teachers’ attitudes towards EBPs and their role in the successful implementation of EBPs for early childhood social learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The viewpoint draws on theoretical models of intervention implementation and innovation adoption to explore the importance of individual factors for EBPs implementation and to inform the understanding of the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and EBPs implementation in the context of early childhood social learning. Additionally, it is informed by the literature on research-informed teaching to identify novel opportunities of cultivating positive views towards EBPs for early childhood social learning.

Findings

According to implementation science, in addition to macro-level social and organisation factors, micro-level individual factors that pertain to professionals’ attitudes towards EBPs are related to successful adoption and implementation of EBPs in organisations. Hence, it is important that the investigation of the adoption and implementation of EBPs for early childhood social learning considers the role of teachers’ attitudes towards EBPs. A conceptual model is proposed to explain that research-informed teaching could contribute to fostering positive attitudes towards EBPs for early childhood social learning by raising awareness of the value and potential of research to transform pedagogy.

Originality/value

This viewpoint draws on EBPs implementation science to identify important factors of EBPs adoption and implementation for early childhood social learning that have not been considered extensively and offers a conceptual framework to help understand how research-informed teaching could be an innovative avenue of promoting EBPs implementation in education.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article

Kushal Ajaybhai Anjaria

The progress of life science and social science research is contingent on effective modes of data storage, data sharing and data reproducibility. In the present digital…

Abstract

Purpose

The progress of life science and social science research is contingent on effective modes of data storage, data sharing and data reproducibility. In the present digital era, data storage and data sharing play a vital role. For productive data-centric tasks, findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR) principles have been developed as a standard convention. However, FAIR principles have specific challenges from computational implementation perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges related to computational implementations of FAIR principles. After identification of challenges, this paper aims to solve the identified challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper deploys Petri net-based formal model and Petri net algebra to implement and analyze FAIR principles. The proposed Petri net-based model, theorems and corollaries may assist computer system architects in implementing and analyzing FAIR principles.

Findings

To demonstrate the use of derived petri net-based theorems and corollaries, existing data stewardship platforms – FAIRDOM and Dataverse – have been analyzed in this paper. Moreover, a data stewardship model – “Datalection” has been developed and conversed about in the present paper. Datalection has been designed based on the petri net-based theorems and corollaries.

Originality/value

This paper aims to bridge information science and life science using the formalism of data stewardship principles. This paper not only provides new dimensions to data stewardship but also systematically analyzes two existing data stewardship platforms FAIRDOM and Dataverse.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

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Book part

Joseph Calvin Gagnon and Brian R. Barber

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve…

Abstract

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve youth with complicated and often serious academic and behavioral needs. The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practices with Best Available Evidence are necessary to increase the likelihood of long-term success for these youth. In this chapter, we define three primary categories of AES and review what we know about the characteristics of youth in these schools. Next, we discuss the current emphasis on identifying and implementing EBPs with regard to both academic interventions (i.e., reading and mathematics) and interventions addressing student behavior. In particular, we consider implementation in AES, where there are often high percentages of youth requiring special education services and who have a significant need for EBPs to succeed academically, behaviorally, and in their transition to adulthood. We focus our discussion on: (a) examining approaches to identifying EBPs; (b) providing a brief review of EBPs and Best Available Evidence in the areas of mathematics, reading, and interventions addressing student behavior for youth in AES; (c) delineating key implementation challenges in AES; and (d) providing recommendations for how to facilitate the use of EBPs in AES.

Details

Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article

Steve Gillard, Rhiannon Foster and Constantina Papoulias

Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly central to the delivery of health services research. However, it has proved challenging to evaluate the impact of PPI…

Abstract

Purpose

Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly central to the delivery of health services research. However, it has proved challenging to evaluate the impact of PPI on the implementation of research into clinical practice and health service delivery. The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a conceptual model explaining how PPI in the research process might impact on implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review of knowledge translation and implementation science literature was performed to develop a conceptual model of the impact of PPI in research on implementation. A retrospective case study of a research project was used to illustrate the model.

Findings

The authors identified five domains in which PPI can impact on the implementation of research into practice. The review demonstrated that successful implementation depends on developing relational models of knowledge production, valuing experiential knowledge, engaging in collaborative practice, making use of knowledge brokers or tools for knowledge facilitation and embedding these factors into the implementation context. In the case study the authors were able to find examples that illustrated each of the five domains of the model.

Originality/value

The paper builds on existing endeavour to evaluate the impact of PPI in research, demonstrating that it is possible to model, conceptually, the processes whereby PPI in research might impact on practice and service delivery. By illustrating those processes through the exemplar case the authors also demonstrate the potential for the model to be “operationalised”, allowing the impacts, on practice, of PPI in research to be systematically and directly evidenced.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article

Louise D. Denne, Nick J. Gore, J. Carl Hughes, Sandy Toogood, Edwin Jones and Freddy Jackson Brown

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours that challenge. We suggest, is a problem of implementation. The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons why this might be the case: a failure to recognise the collective works of successive generations of research and practice; and a failure to address the macro-systems involved and systems changes needed to support implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the consensus that exists in respect of best practice. Drawing upon ideas from implementation science the paper highlights the complexities involved in the implementation of all evidence-based practices and uses this as a framework to propose ways in which an infrastructure that facilitates the delivery of services in the learning disabilities field might be built.

Findings

This paper highlights core recommended practices that have been consistent over time and across sources and identifies the systems involved in the implementation process. This paper demonstrates that many of the necessary building blocks of implementation already exist and suggests areas that are yet to be addressed. Critically, the paper highlights the importance of, and the part that all systems need to play in the process.

Originality/value

In the absence of any generalised implementation frameworks of evidence-based practice in the learning disabilities field, the paper suggests that the findings may provide the basis for understanding how the gap that exists between best practice and service delivery in the support of people with a learning disability at risk of behaviours that challenge might be closed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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