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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Karim Sidaoui, Matti Jaakkola and Jamie Burton

While customer experience (CE) is recognized as a critical determinant of business success, both academics and managers are yet to find a means to gain a comprehensive…

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Abstract

Purpose

While customer experience (CE) is recognized as a critical determinant of business success, both academics and managers are yet to find a means to gain a comprehensive understanding of CE cost-effectively. The authors argue that the application of relevant AI technology could help address this challenge. Employing interactively prompted narrative storytelling, and the authors investigate the effectiveness of sentiment analysis (SA) on extracting valuable CE insights from primary qualitative data generated via chatbot interviews.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a granular and semantically clear framework for studying CE feelings, an artificial intelligence (AI) augmented chatbot was designed. The chatbot interviewed a crowdsourced sample of consumers about their recalled service experience feelings. By combining free-text and closed-ended questions, the authors were able to compare extracted sentiment polarities against established measurement scales and empirically validate our novel approach.

Findings

The authors demonstrate that SA can effectively extract CE feelings from primary chatbot data. This findings also suggest that further enhancement in accuracy can be achieved via improvements in the interplay between the chatbot interviewer and SA extraction algorithms.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed customer-centric approach can help service companies to study and better understand CE feelings in a cost-effective and scalable manner. The AI-augmented chatbots can also help companies to foster immersive and engaging relationships with customers. This study focuses on feelings, warranting further research on AI's value in studying other CE elements.

Originality/value

The unique inquisitive role of AI-infused chatbots in conducting interviews and analyzing data in realtime, offers considerable potential for studying CE and other subjective constructs.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Jamie Burton, Linda Nasr, Thorsten Gruber and Helen L. Bruce

This paper aims to outline the purpose, planning, development and delivery of the “1st Academic-Practitioner Research with Impact workshop: Customer Experience Management…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the purpose, planning, development and delivery of the “1st Academic-Practitioner Research with Impact workshop: Customer Experience Management (CEM) and Big Data” held at Alliance Manchester Business School on 18th and 19th January 2016, at which four subsequent papers were initially developed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper sets out a summary of the importance and significance of the four papers developed at the workshop and how the co-creative dialogue between managerial practitioners, presenting key problems and issues that they face, and carefully selected teams of academics was facilitated.

Findings

To develop richer and more impactful understanding of current problems challenging customer-focused managers, there is a need for more dialogue and engagement between academics and practitioners.

Practical implications

The paper serves as a guideline for developing future workshops that aim at strengthening the links between academia and the business world.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the value of academic–practitioner workshops for focusing academic research on areas of importance for practitioners to generate impact. The innovative format of the workshop and the resulting impactful papers should serve as a call and motivation for future academic–practitioner workshop development.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Scott Wagstaff, Jamie Burton and Judith Zolkiewski

This paper focusses on the darker side of the dynamics of servitization by exploring the tensions and territoriality that emerge between manufacturers and customers during…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focusses on the darker side of the dynamics of servitization by exploring the tensions and territoriality that emerge between manufacturers and customers during the servitization process in the oil industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The Delphi method is used to explore the perspectives of three management tiers in oil organisations and the manufacturers who work with them. The views of these managers were synthesized over three iterations: semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and resolution/explanation, where consensus was not obtained.

Findings

The findings of the study highlight perceptions of change, resulting tensions and territoriality and the impact of management commitment, resources and strategy. They reveal significant differences between customers and their suppliers and different management levels and highlight territorial behaviour and the negative impact this has on buyer supplier relationships during the implementation of servitization.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to explore why there is a variation in understanding and commitment at different managerial levels and the causes of tensions and territoriality.

Practical implications

Servitization is not a “quick fix” and management support is essential. A fundamental element of this planning is to anticipate and plan for tensions and territoriality caused by the disruption servitization creates.

Originality/value

The research provides empirical evidence of tensions and territoriality relating to servitization that potentially can damage supplier–buyer relationships and suggest that there is a darker side to servitization. It also shows that differences in strategic intent across organizations and between different managerial layers impedes to servitization efforts.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2018

Edward Crowley, Jamie Burton and Judith Zolkiewski

This paper aims to investigate the role of servitization intent in the servitization process, and specifically the role dissonance (at an organizational level) in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the role of servitization intent in the servitization process, and specifically the role dissonance (at an organizational level) in servitization intent can play in creating barriers to the servitization effort. Servitization intent is defined as the desire to achieve a future state of increased servitization.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses elite interviews and secondary data to explore servitization intent and its role during the servitization process. It examines the resistance to change resulting from a misalignment of the executive intent to servitize, and the organizational intent to retain the existing manufacturing business model. By encompassing data from companies representing a significant portion of the total industry (as measured by revenue), the study provides an industry level perspective of servitization intent and alignment.

Findings

Servitization intent and three key managerial challenges related to servitization intent that act as barriers to servitization were identified: lack of servitization intent, overcoming the manufacturing mindset associated with the organizational intent and the constraints resulting from managerial experience. Servitization intent and its associated managerial challenges were present at an industry level with consistent findings being shown across the major firms in the industry studied. A number of managerial strategies for overcoming these barriers were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on a single industry; the findings, potentially, have application across a broad range of industries.

Practical implications

A key management implication from these findings is the need for a clear understanding of the organizational intent in relation to servitization in addition to the need to bring this organizational intent in alignment with the executives’ servitization intent.

Originality/value

This research makes a contribution by identifying the misalignment between servitization intent in different levels of the organization during the servitization process and the mechanisms that can improve alignment and help effect servitization.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Chris Raddats, Judy Zolkiewski, Vicky Mary Story, Jamie Burton, Tim Baines and Ali Ziaee Bigdeli

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the focal firm perspective of much resource/capability research, identifying how a dyadic perspective facilitates identification…

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1513

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the focal firm perspective of much resource/capability research, identifying how a dyadic perspective facilitates identification of capabilities required for servitization.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory study consisting of seven dyadic relationships in five sectors.

Findings

An additional dimension of capabilities should be recognised; whether they are developed independently or interactively (with another actor). The following examples of interactively developed capabilities are identified: knowledge development, where partners interactively communicate to understand capabilities; service enablement, manufacturers work with suppliers and customers to support delivery of new services; service development, partners interact to optimise performance of existing services; risk management, customers work with manufacturers to manage risks of product acquisition/operation. Six propositions were developed to articulate these findings.

Research limitations/implications

Interactively developed capabilities are created when two or more actors interact to create value. Interactively developed capabilities do not just reside within one firm and, therefore, cannot be a source of competitive advantage for one firm alone. Many of the capabilities required for servitization are interactive, yet have received little research attention. The study does not provide an exhaustive list of interactively developed capabilities, but demonstrates their existence in manufacturer/supplier and manufacturer/customer dyads.

Practical implications

Manufacturers need to understand how to develop capabilities interactively to create competitive advantage and value and identify other actors with whom these capabilities can be developed.

Originality/value

Previous research has focussed on relational capabilities within a focal firm. This study extends existing theories to include interactively developed capabilities. The paper proposes that interactivity is a key dimension of actors’ complementary capabilities.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Scott Wagstaff, Jamie Burton and Judy Zolkiewski

An abundance of literature suggests that organisations adopting a cooperative approach achieve greater rewards than those that act in opposition or isolation. An emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

An abundance of literature suggests that organisations adopting a cooperative approach achieve greater rewards than those that act in opposition or isolation. An emerging body of work also highlights the multiple actors involved in servitization. Despite this, in some contexts the benefits of servitization are not apparent. This paper examines business relationships in the oil industry and how they affect levels of servitization.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method study employing qualitative and quantitative methods was used to fully explore the context. In the quantitative phase, 48 oil industry specialists responded to a scenario based on game theory. This aimed to determine if the relationships between their respective organisations are cooperative or adversarial. Abduction drove a second qualitative phase. This consisted of a series of semi-structured interviews used to explore the servitization level and influence of servitization on relationships and vice versa.

Findings

The statistical results suggest that all parties used adversarial strategies despite the publicised intent to work cooperatively. The interviews suggested that increasing (decreasing) servitization could increase (decrease) cooperation and, in turn, value co-creation but revealed nuances to this effect. It also adds to our understanding of the darker side of servitization by illustrating the impact of mimetic isomorphism.

Originality/value

The findings add to understanding of the complex dynamics around servitization by showing that it is only at advanced levels of servitization that cooperative behaviour is observed, and base and intermediate levels result in non-cooperative behaviour and thus illustrate the importance of adopting a multi-actor lens to explore servitization.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Judith Zolkiewski, Vicky Story and Jamie Burton

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477

Abstract

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Judy Zolkiewski, Victoria Story, Jamie Burton, Paul Chan, Andre Gomes, Philippa Hunter-Jones, Lisa O’Malley, Linda D. Peters, Chris Raddats and William Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to critique the adequacy of efforts to capture the complexities of customer experience in a business-to-business (B2B) context using…

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6626

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critique the adequacy of efforts to capture the complexities of customer experience in a business-to-business (B2B) context using input–output measures. The paper introduces a strategic customer experience management framework to capture the complexity of B2B service interactions and discusses the value of outcomes-based measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a theoretical paper that reviews extant literature related to B2B customer experience and asks fresh questions regarding B2B customer experience at a more strategic network level.

Findings

The paper offers a reconceptualisation of B2B customer experience, proposes a strategic customer experience management framework and outlines a future research agenda.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is conceptual and seeks to raise questions surrounding the under-examined area of B2B customer experience. As a consequence, it has inevitable limitations resulting from the lack of empirical evidence to support the reconceptualisation.

Practical implications

Existing measures of customer experience are problematic when applied in a B2B (services) context. Rather than adopting input- and output-based measures, widely used in a business-to-consumer (B2C) context, a B2B context requires a more strategic approach to capturing and managing customer experience. Focussing on strategically important issues should generate opportunities for value co-creation and are more likely to involve outcomes-based measures.

Social implications

Improving the understanding of customer experience in a B2B context should allow organisations to design better services and consequently enhance the experiences of their employees, their customers and other connected actors.

Originality/value

This paper critiques the current approach to measuring customer experience in a B2B context, drawing on contemporary ideas of value-in-use, outcomes-based measures and “Big Data” to offer potential solutions to the measurement problems identified.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Linda Nasr, Jamie Burton and Thorsten Gruber

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance and extend the understanding of the underresearched concept of personal positive customer feedback (PCF). By…

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2536

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance and extend the understanding of the underresearched concept of personal positive customer feedback (PCF). By comparing and contrasting front-line employees’ (FLEs) and customers’ perspectives, this study aims to develop a deeper understanding of the main elements, characteristics of PCF, its various impacts and the perceived importance of this phenomenon for both parties.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory research study was conducted using a novel integrated methodological approach combining two well-established qualitative techniques: structured Laddering interviews and various elements of the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique. In total, personal interviews with 40 participants consisting of 20 customers and 20 FLEs were conducted.

Findings

This study conceptualizes personal PCF in the service literature by identifying the various PCF elements and characteristics. The authors extend PCF understanding beyond what the current literature shows (i.e. gratitude, compliments) by identifying nine characteristics of PCF. This study also proposes a number of impacts on both customers and FLEs. While both customers and FLEs have a similar understanding of the various elements and characteristics of PCF, the significance of the various elements and the subsequent impacts vary between the two groups. Finally, three key themes in PCF handling that help position PCF within the extant customer management literature are identified and discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to a well-rounded understanding of customer feedback by counter-balancing the prevailing focus on customer complaining behaviour and proposing a complimentary look at the positive valence of personal feedback. It also provides managerial implications concerning the management of positive service encounters, an emerging topic within service research.

Originality/value

This multidisciplinary study is the first to extend the understanding of personal PCF by comparing and contrasting customers’ and FLEs’ perspectives. The findings of this study highlight the need to explore the positive side of service interactions to create positive service experiences.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Jamie Burton, Christopher Easingwood and John Murphy

Describes a qualitative research project involving a “narrowing” research process. The first stage involved initial, highly exploratory qualitative work. The findings led…

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4255

Abstract

Describes a qualitative research project involving a “narrowing” research process. The first stage involved initial, highly exploratory qualitative work. The findings led to a second stage that involved a review of relevant literature and secondary sources of data, followed by more focussed, focus group research into the issues uncovered. The problem investigated was how to measure customers’ evaluations of quality for an industry in which the service/product offering is dominated by the tangible product. The initial fear was that traditional process‐oriented measurement models for customer perceptions of quality, might not offer full and comprehensive measurement of all the antecedents of customer quality evaluations and their subsequent satisfaction with, and attitude towards, product‐dominated service providers. In attempting to answer the research question, the qualitative work undertaken suggests that consumers’ evaluations of quality will depend on product quality, process quality and additional external factor quality based on evaluations of image.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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