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Book part
Publication date: 9 April 2003

Ellen S Podgor

This article begins by exploring the development of extraterritoriality in the United States. It notes the expansion of extraterritorial provisions within federal criminal…

Abstract

This article begins by exploring the development of extraterritoriality in the United States. It notes the expansion of extraterritorial provisions within federal criminal legislation and how these provisions permit prosecutors to proceed with criminal actions for conduct occurring outside this country. It also reflects on the use of an “objective territorial principle” by the judiciary, that permits criminal prosecutions whenever the conduct of the actor has a substantial effect in the United States. As an alternative to using “objective territoriality,” this article advocates for using a “defensive territoriality” approach. This article stresses the benefits of using a “defensive territoriality” approach to decide whether to prosecute an extraterritorial crime.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-209-2

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Xianmiao Li, Zhenting Xu and Chenghao Men

This study aims to explore the transmission mechanism of individual idea generation on team idea implementation and elucidate the relationships among team knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the transmission mechanism of individual idea generation on team idea implementation and elucidate the relationships among team knowledge territoriality, team information exchange and team trust, which can better improve team knowledge sharing, decrease individual knowledge hiding or territoriality and assist the team in solving the predicament of idea implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected by the paired method from 56 Chinese companies’ R&D teams, which comprised 356 valid samples. Besides, structure equitation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Team knowledge territoriality had a significant positive impact on individual idea generation, team information exchange and team idea implementation. Team information exchange mediated the relationship between team knowledge territoriality and team idea implementation. Moreover, team information exchange positively moderated the relationship between team knowledge territoriality and individual idea generation. Furthermore, the relationship between individual idea generation and team idea implementation was mediated by team trust.

Originality/value

This study augments the theoretical research of territoriality and innovation process. From the viewpoint of knowledge territoriality to describe the coexistence of knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding in the organization, this study reveals the influence mechanism of team knowledge territoriality on team innovation process. Overall, this study provides empirical support that team territoriality can weaken the adverse impact of individual territoriality on innovation to a certain extent.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Weiwei Huo, Zhenyao Cai, Jinlian Luo, Chenghao Men and Ruiqian Jia

The purpose of this paper is to examine why employees hide knowledge and how organizations intervene and influence the negative effects of knowledge hiding. This study…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why employees hide knowledge and how organizations intervene and influence the negative effects of knowledge hiding. This study builds and tests a theoretical model at both individual and team level.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from universities, research institutes and enterprises’ research and development (R&D) teams in China via a two-wave survey. The final sample contained 417 cases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that territoriality plays a mediating role between psychological ownership and knowledge hiding, and that organizational result justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and knowledge hiding. Procedure justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and rationalized hiding, and that between territoriality and evasive hiding. Interactive justice negatively moderated the relationship between territoriality and rationalized hiding, and that between territoriality and evasive hiding. There were thus interactive effects among territoriality, perceived knowledge value and psychological ownership; the relationship between individual psychological ownership and territoriality was weaker when perceived knowledge value was lower and task interdependence was higher, and stronger with higher perceived knowledge value and lower task interdependence.

Research limitations/implications

Territorial behaviors, such as knowledge hoarding and misleading within R&D teams, are the primary challenges for organizations’ positive activities, including internal sharing, teamwork and organizational goal accomplishment. Researching knowledge territoriality in the Chinese cultural context will help to distinguish territorial behaviors and to take preventive measures. In addition, this study not only enables managers to understand clearly the precipitating factors of knowledge territoriality and the relationships among them but also provides constructive strategies for reducing the negative effect of organizational intervention in knowledge territoriality.

Originality/value

This study adopts a multilevel modeling method and not only reveals the “black box” of interaction among psychological ownership, territoriality and knowledge hiding at the individual level but also probes the three-way interaction of perceived knowledge value, team task dependency and psychological ownership with territoriality at both individual and team levels, and then discusses the mediation effect of organizational justice on the relationship between territoriality and knowledge hiding. The conclusion of this study not only enriches the literature on knowledge hiding in the field of knowledge management but also helps to elucidate the function and intervention mechanism of knowledge hiding.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

He Peng

The purpose of this paper is to examine why and when employees hide knowledge. Individuals may tend to hide knowledge when they have strong psychological ownership

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why and when employees hide knowledge. Individuals may tend to hide knowledge when they have strong psychological ownership feelings over knowledge. Therefore, this research builds and tests a theoretical model linking knowledge‐based psychological ownership with knowledge hiding via territoriality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from knowledge workers in China via a three‐wave web‐based survey. The final sample was 190 cases. Hierarchical regression models and a bootstrapping approach were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that knowledge‐based psychological ownership positively affects knowledge hiding. Territoriality fully mediates the link between knowledge‐based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding. Moreover, organization‐based psychological ownership moderates the positive link between territoriality and knowledge hiding. Specifically, territoriality will mediate the indirect effect of knowledge‐based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding when organization‐based psychological ownership is low, but not when it is high.

Research limitations/implications

The research reflects that to reduce knowledge hiding, organizations should focus on practices that can decrease employees' self‐perception of possession of knowledge and territoriality and that can strengthen employees' psychological ownership for organizations.

Originality/value

Although many actions have been adopted to foster knowledge management in companies, knowledge hiding is still prevalent in work settings. This paper highlights the predictive power of knowledge‐based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding, and the mediating role of territoriality in the link between knowledge‐based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Zhenting Xu and Xianmiao Li

Building on the territoriality perspective and innovation process theory, to the purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of transmission and influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the territoriality perspective and innovation process theory, to the purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of transmission and influence of knowledge territorial behavior congruence on innovation process, which provides theoretical implications for innovative teams to execute territoriality management and create a constructive knowledge sharing climate and platform for sustainable innovation of individuals and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected by the paired method from 311 creative R&D members. In addition, polynomial regressions and response surface method were adopted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The more congruent the marking behavior and defensive behavior were, the higher the creative idea generation and idea implementation became. The congruence of “high marking high defensive behavior” was more conducive to triggering creative idea generation and promoting idea implementation. Compared with the incongruence of “low marking high defensive behavior,” the incongruence of “high marking low defensive behavior” was more conducive to stimulating creative idea generation. However, there was no significant difference in the incongruence effect of marking defensive behavior on idea implementation. In addition, creative idea generation mediated the relationship between knowledge territorial behavior congruence and idea implementation. Furthermore, team territorial climate moderated the relationship between knowledge territorial behavior congruence and creative idea generation.

Originality/value

The study highlights the theoretical research of territoriality and innovation process. By deconstructing the relationship between the territorial behavior congruence and the innovation process, this study establishes that the congruence and incongruence of the marking defensive behavior in knowledge territoriality exerts different effects on creative idea generation and idea implementation.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Ronit Yitshaki

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in explaining high-tech entrepreneurs' psychological ownership (PO) and, in turn, how their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in explaining high-tech entrepreneurs' psychological ownership (PO) and, in turn, how their PO influences venture growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on data collected from 106 high-tech Israeli entrepreneurs.

Findings

The findings indicate that using emotions for problem-solving is positively associated with PO sense of efficacy, and that appraisal of emotions of others is negatively associated with PO sense of territoriality. Moreover, PO sense of efficacy is positively associated with growth, whereas sense of territoriality is negatively associated with growth. Finally, sense of territoriality has a curvilinear effect on venture growth.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurs' PO and its influence on firms' growth is scant. The findings contribute to the psychology of entrepreneurship and PO literature by showing the influence of affective-based processes on high-tech start-up growth.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest the entrepreneurs' EI indirectly affects other affective behaviors such as PO, which in turn influence venture growth. It highlights the need of entrepreneur to regulate their emotions and manage the emotional- and cognitive-based processes for the sake of firms' growth.

Originality/value

The findings expand the knowledge pertaining to the psychology of entrepreneurship by showing how EI as an affective dimension is interrelated with affective-based process and entrepreneurial firms' growth.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2019

Natalya Monaghan and Oluremi Bolanle Ayoko

Research on the physical work environment and employee territorial behavior in the field of organizational behavior is limited. In particular, while the prevalence of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Research on the physical work environment and employee territorial behavior in the field of organizational behavior is limited. In particular, while the prevalence of territorial behaviors in organizations is not new, little is known about how the physical work environment (e.g. open-plan offices) may influence the enactment, interpretation and reactions to territoriality. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the physical environment of work (e.g. open-plan office), employee territorial behaviors (including infringement) and affective environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by means of in-depth-interviews from 27 participants from two large Australian public organizations involved in recruitment, marketing, consulting and education.

Findings

Results revealed that employees’ personalization in the open-plan office is driven by the nature of their tasks, appointment, duration of time spent on their desk, level of adaptation to the open-plan office configurations and the proximity of desks to senior managers, hallways and passers-by. Additionally, affective environment has a critical effect on employee personalization and the enactment and perception of territoriality and infringements in open-plan offices. Additionally, the authors found that the affective environment is dynamic and that employees in open-plan offices experienced emotional contagion (positive and negative).

Research limitations/implications

Due to the demographic make-up of one of the participating organizations, less than a third of participants were male. While the data did not suggest any disparity in the territorial behaviors of male and female, future research should include an even representation of male and female participants. Similarly, the authors did not examine the impact of ethnicity and cultural background on employees’ territoriality. However, given that the workforce is increasingly becoming multicultural, future research should explore how ethnicity might impact the use of space, work processes and productivity in open-plan office. Additionally, scholars should continue to tease out the impact of affective environment (positive and negative) on team processes (e.g. conflict, communication, collaboration and the development of team mental models) in the open-plan office.

Practical implications

The results indicate some practical implications. Noise and distraction are indicated in the results. Therefore, human resource managers and organizational leaders should work with employees to develop some ground rules and norms to curb excessive noise in the open-plan office. Additionally, the authors found in the current study that the affective environment is dynamic and that employees in open-plan offices experienced emotional contagion (positive and negative). Managers should watch out for how individuals react to the prevailing emotions and moods in the open-plan office with the intention of diffusing negative emotions as quickly as possible, for example, by changing the topic under discussion in the open-plan office. The results speak to the need for more active collaboration and engagement between policy makers, workspace architects, designers and employees especially prior to the building of such workspaces.

Social implications

The results suggest that effective employee interactions in open-plan office may be enhanced by positive emotional contagion and office affective environment.

Originality/value

So far, little is known about the impact of the physical work context (e.g. open-plan offices) on the enactment, interpretation and reactions to territoriality. The current paper explores the connection between the physical environment of work (e.g. open-plan office), employee territorial behaviors (including infringement) and affective environment. The findings demonstrate for the first time and especially in an open-plan office that ownership and personalization of objects and workspaces are more likely to be driven by the amount of time spent at one’s desk, the nature of employees’ appointments and tasks. Additionally, the present research is one of the first to report on affective environment dynamism in the open-plan office.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Scott Wagstaff, Jamie Burton and Judith Zolkiewski

This paper focusses on the darker side of the dynamics of servitization by exploring the tensions and territoriality that emerge between manufacturers and customers during…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focusses on the darker side of the dynamics of servitization by exploring the tensions and territoriality that emerge between manufacturers and customers during the servitization process in the oil industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The Delphi method is used to explore the perspectives of three management tiers in oil organisations and the manufacturers who work with them. The views of these managers were synthesized over three iterations: semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and resolution/explanation, where consensus was not obtained.

Findings

The findings of the study highlight perceptions of change, resulting tensions and territoriality and the impact of management commitment, resources and strategy. They reveal significant differences between customers and their suppliers and different management levels and highlight territorial behaviour and the negative impact this has on buyer supplier relationships during the implementation of servitization.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to explore why there is a variation in understanding and commitment at different managerial levels and the causes of tensions and territoriality.

Practical implications

Servitization is not a “quick fix” and management support is essential. A fundamental element of this planning is to anticipate and plan for tensions and territoriality caused by the disruption servitization creates.

Originality/value

The research provides empirical evidence of tensions and territoriality relating to servitization that potentially can damage supplier–buyer relationships and suggest that there is a darker side to servitization. It also shows that differences in strategic intent across organizations and between different managerial layers impedes to servitization efforts.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Rikke Brinkoe and Susanne Balslev Nielsen

Shared space is a design and engineering concept that gains attention in the context of both regeneration of, for example, former production sites and in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

Shared space is a design and engineering concept that gains attention in the context of both regeneration of, for example, former production sites and in the context of designing new building complex(es) with a multifunction strategy. But the practicalities of realising shared space are generally overlooked, despite its importance for the user experience and the degree of success with shared space initiatives. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of shared space and the complex processes involved in realising multiple use of space.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the purpose stated, the paper presents a study of current literature and four cases of shared space, including a commercial building, a public sport facility, a public health centre and an educational building. The study draws on theory from the fields of property management, space management, urban design and architecture, as well as from the social sciences and geography, to provide an as complete picture as possible of the challenges related to shared spaces in practice.

Findings

The result of the study presented is increased knowledge of the processes involved in sharing space in a facilities management context, supported by specific recommendations regarding attention to issues of territoriality, involvement and practicalities.

Originality/value

Not much scientific work has been conducted on the topic of shared space in a facilities management context, and this study adds to the so far limited knowledge within the area.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Neha Garg, Asim Talukdar, Anirban Ganguly and Chitresh Kumar

This study aims to investigate the role of knowledge hiding (KH) on academic performance, using three antecedents – relatedness with peers, territoriality of knowledge and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the role of knowledge hiding (KH) on academic performance, using three antecedents – relatedness with peers, territoriality of knowledge and performance motivation. It also looked into the moderating role of academic self-efficacy upon student’s KH behavior and academic performance. The research was grounded on the theory of reasoned action.

Design/methodology/approachx

Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the five hypotheses. The data was collected through a primary survey based on a structured questionnaire with a sample size of 324 students from the Indian higher education institutions.

Findings

The study found that performance motivation and territoriality are positively associated with KH, which is further positively related to students’ academic performance. Sense of relatedness had no influence upon KH behavior, implying that proximity of social relationships does not predict KH behavior among students. Additionally, it was also observed that while evasive (a situation where the knowledge hider deliberately provides incorrect, partial or misleading information) and rationalized KH (a situation where the knowledge hider tries to provide a rational justification for not sharing the knowledge) had a significant influence on the academic performance of the students, the effect of “playing dumb” was not significant. The study did not reveal any moderating effect of academic self-efficacy on all three forms of KH and academic performance.

Practical implications

The findings of the study are expected to be valuable for instructors, administrative authorities and policymakers at the higher education level, to create a more conducive teaching and learning environment. Out of the three hiding strategies, students indulge more often in rationalized KH. Based on the outcomes of this research, management may focus toward the creation of an institutional environment conducive toward knowledge sharing interdependency among students.

Originality/value

One of the novel contributions of this study is that it analyzes Indian higher education, providing a developing country perspective, thereby contributing to the body of knowledge in knowledge management and hiding. The study also intends to understand the interplay of constructs such as KH, territoriality, sense of relatedness and academic performance, which have not been discussed previously within the higher education context, thus making the research work original. The study was done among the students and hence, brings in the academic perspective in the KH literature, which has seen limited research impetus.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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