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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1900

A pæan of joy and triumph which speaks for itself, and which is a very true indication of how the question of poisonous adulteration is viewed by certain sections of “the…

Abstract

A pæan of joy and triumph which speaks for itself, and which is a very true indication of how the question of poisonous adulteration is viewed by certain sections of “the trade,” and by certain of the smaller and irresponsible trade organs, has appeared in print. It would seem that the thanks of “the trade” are due to the defendants in the case heard at the Liverpool Police Court for having obtained an official acknowledgment that the use of salicylic acid and of other preservatives, even in large amounts, in wines and suchlike articles, is not only allowable, but is really necessary for the proper keeping of the product. It must have been a charming change in the general proceedings at the Liverpool Court to listen to a “preservatives” case conducted before a magistrate who evidently realises that manufacturers, in these days, in order to make a “decent” profit, have to use the cheapest materials they can buy, and cannot afford to pick and choose; and that they have therefore “been compelled” to put preservatives into their articles so as to prevent their going bad. He was evidently not to be misled by the usual statement that such substances should not be used because they are injurious to health— as though that could be thought to have anything to do with the much more important fact that the public “really want” to have an article supplied to them which is cheap, and yet keeps well. Besides, many doctors and professors were brought forward to prove that they had never known a case of fatal poisoning due to the use of salicylic acid as a preservative. Unfortunately, it is only the big firms that can manage to bring forward such admirable and learned witnesses, and the smaller firms have to suffer persecution by faddists and others who attempt to obtain the public notice by pretending to be solicitous about the public health. Altogether the prosecution did not have a pleasant time, for the magistrate showed his appreciation of the evidence of one of the witnesses by humorously rallying him about his experiments with kittens, as though any‐one could presume to judge from experiments on brute beasts what would be the effect on human beings—the “lords of creation.” Everyone reading the evidence will be struck by the fact that the defendant stated that he had once tried to brew without preservatives, but with the only result that the entire lot “went bad.” All manufacturers of his own type will sympathise with him, since, of course, there is no practicable way of getting over this trouble except by the use of preservatives; although the above‐mentioned faddists are so unkind as to state that if everything is clean the article will keep. But this must surely be sheer theory, for it cannot be supposed that there can be any manufacturer of this class of article who would be foolish enough to think he could run his business at a profit, and yet go to all the expense of having the returned empties washed out before refilling, and of paying the heavy price asked for the best crude materials, when he has to compete with rival firms, who can use practically anything, and yet turn out an article equal in every way from a selling point of view, and one that will keep sufficiently, by the simple (and cheap) expedient of throwing theory on one side, and by pinning their faith to a preservative which has now received the approval of a magistrate. Manufacturers who use preservatives, whether they are makers of wines or are dairymen, and all similar tradesmen, should join together to protect their interests, for, as they must all admit, “the welfare of the trade” is the chief thing they have to consider, and any other interest must come second, if it is to come in at all. Now is the time for action, for the Commission appointed to inquire into the use of preservatives in foods has not yet given its decision, and there is still time for a properly‐conducted campaign, backed up by those “influential members of the trade” of whom we hear so much, and aided by such far‐reaching and brilliant magisterial decisions, to force these opinions prominently forward, in spite of the prejudice of the public; and to insure to the trades interested the unfettered use of preservatives,—which save “the trade” hundreds of thousands of pounds every year, by enabling the manufacturers to dispense with heavily‐priced apparatus, with extra workmen and with the use of expensive materials,—and which are urgently asked for by the public,—since we all prefer to have our foods drugged than to have them pure.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Júlio Emílio Diniz-Pereira

Narrative inquiry and life history are privileged methods for studying people's lives, experiences, and identity construction. In this article, I argue that critical life…

Abstract

Narrative inquiry and life history are privileged methods for studying people's lives, experiences, and identity construction. In this article, I argue that critical life history inquiry is especially suitable for studies of those, who have actively involved in progressive social and cultural movements and have developed an identity as activist educators.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-931-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Gary D. Wolfe, Barbara Cole, John Emerick, James S. Fogerty, Larry Olson and Ann Witmer

Over the past two years, Commonwealth Libraries, the State Library of Pennsylvania, has extended Internet access to 220 school, public, academic, and special libraries…

Abstract

Over the past two years, Commonwealth Libraries, the State Library of Pennsylvania, has extended Internet access to 220 school, public, academic, and special libraries. Using a text‐based interface, access has been provided through library staff, who attended basic and advance training workshops. The goals of the project are to

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Brendan Clark, Susan Martin, Sarah Dalton, June Cole, Neil Marsden and Charles G. Newstead

The paper is targeted to health service management teams as an aid to understanding the relationship between investment in process redesign in a clinical laboratory…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is targeted to health service management teams as an aid to understanding the relationship between investment in process redesign in a clinical laboratory environment and improved quality of service/increased clinical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

An audit of the unit's serum screening capability was performed against the standards of the current UK allocation scheme for cadaveric kidneys. Based on findings of this audit the laboratory's serum screening protocol was redesigned involving development of a new testing strategy and introduction of novel methods. A concurrent review of the effects of this initiative in terms of cadaveric kidney offers received/transplant numbers was undertaken and a cost‐benefit analysis made.

Findings

An improved eligibility of the patient cohort for cadaveric kidney offers was obtained together with a reduced unexpected positive crossmatch rate. These factors have together contributed to an increase in transplant numbers at the centre. Significant cost benefits have been achieved

Research limitations/implications

The relevance of the findings relating to patient eligibility for available cadaveric grafts is limited to organ‐sharing schemes in which recipient sensitisation is considered as part of the allocation process.

Originality/value

The experience reported demonstrates the necessity of assessing the clinical impact of changes in practice when judgements are being made regarding the costs of laboratory services. In this respect the paper is the first from within this discipline to make this association.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Kieran Walshe, Cynthia Lyons, James Coles and Jennifer Bennett

CASPE Research and Brighton Health Authority have been working together to test a series of approaches to quality assurance in healthcare. In this paper, they give an…

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102

Abstract

CASPE Research and Brighton Health Authority have been working together to test a series of approaches to quality assurance in healthcare. In this paper, they give an account of the results of the quality assurance techniques used; discuss the key requirements for successful quality assurance in the NHS environment; and consider the need for systematic evaluation of quality assurance programmes.

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International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

James Anthony Swaim, Michael Maloni, Patrick Bower and John Mello

Sales and Operations Planning (S & OP) serves as the essential cross-functional process for organizations to match supply in the form of production, inventory, and…

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1870

Abstract

Purpose

Sales and Operations Planning (S & OP) serves as the essential cross-functional process for organizations to match supply in the form of production, inventory, and procurement with customer demand. Given recent studies revealing that S & OP is ineffective for most firms, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the critical antecedents of effective S & OP.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on agency theory and stewardship theory, the authors develop and test a conceptual model that includes organizational integration, organizational priorities, standardized processes, and organizational engagement. The authors apply partial least squares structural equation modeling of survey data from S & OP practitioners to test the model.

Findings

The results confirm the relationships among S & OP antecedents. Organizational integration positively influences a standardized S & OP process, and both the S & OP process and prioritization lead to stronger organizational S & OP engagement. Ultimately, organizational S & OP engagement is positively linked to enhanced operational, market, and profitability outcomes.

Practical implications

The findings create a strong practical foundation for executing S & OP. The results also reveal a formal process for operationalizing the link between organizational integration and firm performance that is espoused but not detailed in existing literature.

Originality/value

Existing research supports the potential performance impacts of S & OP but has yet to validate how to specifically operationalize S & OP.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Tom Blickman

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General…

Abstract

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session era with an eye on the next High Level Ministerial Segment (HLMS) at the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2019, and beyond. From a policy analysis perspective, the author meanders through the increasing tendency to legally regulate recreational cannabis markets notwithstanding the obligation enshrined in the UN drug control conventions to limit cannabis exclusively for ‘medical and scientific’ purposes. Taking into account relevant national and international developments, the chapter describes how the growing discomfort with the status of cannabis and the prohibitive and punitive approach stemming from the international drug control regime went through a process from soft to hard defections of the treaty obligations. The case of the Netherlands demonstrates the difficulty faced by reform-minded states in reconciling their wish for a different cannabis control mechanism with their obligations under international law, resulting in an incomplete regulation of its coffee-shop system, where small amounts of cannabis are tolerated for sale, but where the illicit supply to the shops remained unregulated. Subsequent more wide-ranging reforms to regulate cannabis from seed to sale in Uruguay, several US States and – in 2018 – in Canada, are clearly violating the obligations of the UN drug control conventions. Nevertheless, the HLMS will likely leave the elephant in the room untouched. The emerging paradigm shift regarding cannabis shows that a modernisation of the UN drug control regime is long overdue. This chapter discusses some of the options available.

Details

Collapse of the Global Order on Drugs: From UNGASS 2016 to Review 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-488-6

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

James S. Cole and Ali Korkmaz

Surveys that collect data regarding behavior estimates are found in many fields including, but not limited to, those that conduct consumer research, health studies, sexual…

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1044

Abstract

Purpose

Surveys that collect data regarding behavior estimates are found in many fields including, but not limited to, those that conduct consumer research, health studies, sexual behavior, drug use, political polls, and many types of education studies. These studies typically use either vague behavioral quantifiers as the response set, or enumerated response sets where the respondent needs to select or tally the target behavior, or a combination of both types. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between these two methods of estimating educationally related behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study was taken from the 2010 administration of Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement (BCSSE), which is administered to incoming first‐year students. Respondents included 30,964 first‐year entering students from 81 higher education institutions in the USA. Data analysis was then carried out.

Findings

This study found that the more frequent the behavior, the shorter the time frame the respondent uses when estimating the behavior using enumerated strategies. In addition, this study showed that for many educationally relevant behaviors vague quantifiers are associated with increasing enumerated responses for the same behavior showing that two behavioral estimates are providing consistent estimations of the same behavior. Another equally important finding is that there were few meaningful group differences regarding these estimates.

Originality/value

Overall, the results from this study shed new light on interpreting behavior estimations using vague and enumerated responses.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Binshan Lin, James Collins and Robert K. Su

The purpose of this research paper is to help managers improve their understanding of logistics costs and the accounting for those costs in order to optimize use of the…

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8009

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper is to help managers improve their understanding of logistics costs and the accounting for those costs in order to optimize use of the total cost approach to managing logistics processes. This paper will discuss the history and evolution of logistics management and activity‐based costing (ABC), the driving cost factors affecting the key logistics activities, and the use of ABC systems to help improve the allocation of logistics costs to specific cost objects. This paper also includes several important managerial implications and implementation techniques for an ABC system.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2017

Daniel Deak

The essence of the ecological crisis is not that resources are out of reach, but that the relationship between living beings has deteriorated. For this reason, ecology…

Abstract

The essence of the ecological crisis is not that resources are out of reach, but that the relationship between living beings has deteriorated. For this reason, ecology cannot simply be seen as a scientific matter but rather as a genuine social problem that requires social actions.

The law in its present form falls short of managing ecological problems despite the fact that the right to a natural environment is recognized in most jurisdictions as a basic one and that international covenants have been created to protect the natural environment. Environmental law ought to bring about a reverence for life and promote the cooperation of biotic communities. A legal system given to innovation could offer foresight-based regulation, integration of the ensemble of living beings, and cooperation in the living world. One of the main challenges the law has to meet is the exploration of a theoretically established and practically viable basis for extending its influence to address the problems of future generations.

Details

Integral Ecology and Sustainable Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-463-7

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