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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Joseph Dumit

Using as an example the mental health mass screening and treatment programmes instituted in some US states, Joseph Dumit describes how the western world has arrived at a…

Abstract

Using as an example the mental health mass screening and treatment programmes instituted in some US states, Joseph Dumit describes how the western world has arrived at a state of ‘dependent normality’ in which being diagnosed and dependent on medication is rendered ordinary, largely through the marketing activities of the pharmaceutical industry, which seeks constantly to expand its market by defining at‐risk populations as broadly as possible, and through persuading the public that all risks must be combated with drugs.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Udhaya Sankar S.M., Ganesan R., Jeevaa Katiravan, Ramakrishnan M. and Ruhin Kouser R.

It has been six months from the time the first case was registered, and nations are still working on counter steering regulations. The proposed model in the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

It has been six months from the time the first case was registered, and nations are still working on counter steering regulations. The proposed model in the paper encompasses a novel methodology to equip systems with artificial intelligence and computational audition techniques over voice recognition for detecting the symptoms. Regular and irregular speech/voice patterns are recognized using in-built tools and devices on a hand-held device. Phenomenal patterns can be contextually varied among normal and presence of asymptotic symptoms.

Design/methodology/approach

The lives of patients and healthy beings are seriously affected with various precautionary measures and social distancing. The spread of virus infection is mitigated with necessary actions by governments and nations. Resulting in increased death ratio, the novel coronavirus is certainly a serious pandemic which spreads with unhygienic practices and contact with air-borne droplets of infected patients. With minimal measures to detect the symptoms from the early onset and the rise of asymptotic outcomes, coronavirus becomes even difficult for detection and diagnosis.

Findings

A number of significant parameters are considered for the analysis, and they are dry cough, wet cough, sneezing, speech under a blocked nose or cold, sleeplessness, pain in chests, eating behaviours and other potential cases of the disease. Risk- and symptom-based measurements are imposed to deliver a symptom subsiding diagnosis plan. Monitoring and tracking down the symptoms inflicted areas, social distancing and its outcomes, treatments, planning and delivery of healthy food intake, immunity improvement measures are other areas of potential guidelines to mitigate the disease.

Originality/value

This paper also lists the challenges in actual scenarios for a solution to work satisfactorily. Emphasizing on the early detection of symptoms, this work highlights the importance of such a mechanism in the absence of medication or vaccine and demand for large-scale screening. A mobile and ubiquitous application is definitely a useful measure of alerting the officials to take necessary actions by eliminating the expensive modes of tests and medical investigations.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

David K. Whynes, Katherine Clarke, Zoë Philips and Mark Avis

To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like…

Abstract

Purpose

To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources.

Design/methodology/approach

Logistic regression analysis of questionnaire data obtained from 408 screen‐eligible women resident in east central UK.

Findings

Programme documentation and the Pap consultation represent the main sources of information, although a sizeable proportion rely on other sources (e.g. mass media). The range and frequency of information services which women report receiving during their Pap consultations are variable, and around one‐sixth of women report never receiving information. “Always wanting information” is predictable from subject characteristics, which do not map precisely, owing to the variation in frequency of information being supplied. Age and women's main sources of information are significant predictors of perceived information shortfall, and such shortfalls are associated with dissatisfaction with the screening programme.

Originality/value

Covers all aspects of women's attitudes towards satisfactory or unsatisfactory availability of external information in the matter of screening for cervical cancer in the UK.

Details

Health Education, vol. 105 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Xiaoyue Wang, Zhanfu Li, Xin Tong and Xiaole Ge

The purpose of this study is to explore how particle shape influences the screening, including screening efficiency per unit time, and the relationship between vibration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how particle shape influences the screening, including screening efficiency per unit time, and the relationship between vibration parameters and screening efficiency per unit time in discrete element method (DEM) numerical simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a three-dimensional discrete element model of vibrating screen with composite vibration form of swing and translation was proposed to simulate the screening process. In total, 11 kinds of non-spherical particles whose shapes changed in a continuous regularity gradual process were established using a multi-sphere method. In the DEM simulations, vibration parameters, including vibration frequency, vibration amplitude and stroke angle, and swing parameters, including swing frequency and swing angle, were changed to perform parametric studies.

Findings

It shows that the effect of particle shape on screening efficiency is quantitative actually. However, the trends of different shape particles’ screening efficiency per unit time are mainly consistent.

Originality/value

Some simple particle shapes can be expected to be explored to do screening simulation studies reasonably with modification of the simulation data in DEM numerical simulations. That may improve the computational efficiency of numerical simulations and provide guidance to the study of the screening process.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Rebecca N. Warburton

The purpose of this article is to report preliminary outcome and cost‐benefit results for a patient safety quality improvement program intended to improve outcomes for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to report preliminary outcome and cost‐benefit results for a patient safety quality improvement program intended to improve outcomes for patients aged 75 or more visiting the Emergency Department (ED). The program uses the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) scale to screen, and refers patients at high risk for appropriate intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

The Plan‐Do‐Study‐Act improvement cycle was used as a framework. Simple outcomes have been assessed by comparing patient sub‐groups based on risk status and interventions received. Cost and benefits were assessed based on estimated program outcomes and average costs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test alternate assumptions.

Findings

The screening tool appears to be accurate, and screening and referral appears to have a positive impact, reducing length of stay, returns to the ED, and subsequent admissions to hospital. However, most results are not statistically significant at the 95 percent level. The value of avoided care exceeds program costs under most assumptions.

Originality/value

Screening and referring all eligible patients has still not been achieved; these are areas for future investigation and improvement. Screening and referral appear to be effective in improving outcomes but because program costs were low, net benefits may have been achieved; however given global budgeting for hospital care improvements in the use of resources (rather than budgetary savings) would be expected. The methods for improvement (the Plan‐Do‐Study‐Act framework; process evaluation; multidisciplinary working group meetings; outcome assessment) are practical and useful for improving quality and safety in a small community hospital with limited resources.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Jim Slattery

To evaluate various designs for a quality assurance system to detect and control human errors in a national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy.

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate various designs for a quality assurance system to detect and control human errors in a national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy.

Design/methodology/approach

A computer simulation was performed of some possible ways of sampling the referral decisions made during grading and of different criteria for initiating more intensive QA investigations. The effectiveness of QA systems was assessed by the ability to detect a grader making occasional errors in referral.

Findings

Substantial QA sample sizes are needed to ensure against inappropriate failure to refer. Detection of a grader who failed to refer one in ten cases can be achieved with a probability of 0.58 using an annual sample size of 300 and 0.77 using a sample size of 500.

Originality/value

An unmasked verification of a sample of non‐referrals by a specialist is the most effective method of internal QA for the diabetic retinopathy screening programme. Preferential sampling of those with some degree of disease may improve the efficiency of the system.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Shibaji Gupta and Arup Chakraborty

India has over half a million diabetics, with many others at risk. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) is a simple and validated tool used for mass screening of diabetes…

Abstract

Purpose

India has over half a million diabetics, with many others at risk. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) is a simple and validated tool used for mass screening of diabetes mellitus type 2 at the community level. This study assessed the vulnerability of developing diabetes in adults of a rural community of West Bengal using the IDRS and finds out the relationship of the risk of developing diabetes with socioclinical variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-stage sampling was employed to select one eligible nondiabetic adult from selected families residing in the rural field practice area of a medical college in West Bengal. They were interviewed with a predesigned and pretested data collection schedule and examined.

Findings

Among 197 participants, 83.8% were female, 51.8% were illiterate and 57.4% came from Class IV of Prasad's socioeconomic scale. Of participants, 22.8% had existing known morbidities, and 23.9% had some form of substance addiction. In total, 46.8% of the participants on whom the IDRS could be applied (n = 175) were at high risk of developing diabetes (Score = 60). Gender and existing comorbidities significantly predicted a high risk of diabetes.

Originality/value

A large proportion of the Indian population yet to be diagnosed with diabetes are at a high risk of having the disease. Early detection of the disease can help curtail its complications and reduce its clinical, social and economic burden. Mass screening tools like the IDRS thus become a very important tool in India's attempts to fight diabetes.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

K. Ball

Known good die (KGD) have been available, primarily for use in hybrids, for many years. The MCM industry is now becoming the driving force for new standards of die quality…

Abstract

Known good die (KGD) have been available, primarily for use in hybrids, for many years. The MCM industry is now becoming the driving force for new standards of die quality that may only be achieved by individual die test and burn‐in. High yielding MCM designs will depend on fully tested die being available. This paper examines the progress of known good die from its beginnings over 15 years ago to the methods now available for screening of die including various types of temporary die carrier. The survey also looks at the future of mass KGD using wafer level burn‐in and test. The success of KGD depends on choosing the correct screening option for a particular product to balance quality and cost. Selection criteria are therefore included for five main levels of KGD, each using a different screening technique. Also included is an overview of the temporary die carriers from TI/MMS and from National Semiconductors.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Andreas Buttimer

The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a generic value chain and customer focused system as demonstrated by the Scottish and Irish breast screening programmes can…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a generic value chain and customer focused system as demonstrated by the Scottish and Irish breast screening programmes can be used to provide a high quality health service.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature relevant to aligning the entire operating model – the companies' culture, business processes, management systems to serve one value discipline, i.e. customer intimacy, is reviewed and considered in the context of the NHS Scottish Breast Screening Programme in Edinburgh and BreastCheck – the National Breast Screening Programme in Ireland.

Findings

This paper demonstrates how an emphasis on customer focus and operational excellence, as used in other service industries, can help to provide a better health service. It uses the Scottish and Irish breast screening programmes as illustrative examples. The paper applies the key requirements in the delivery of a quality service including an understanding of the characteristics of a service industry, the management of discontinuities involved in its delivery and the environment in which it operates.

Originality/value

System failure is commonly the cause of quality failure in the health system. Breast screening programmes are designed to prevent such a failure. This paper promotes and describes the use of the generic value chain by using the knowledge gained in delivering a mammography‐screening programme.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Garry Forrest, Leng Boonwaat, Jenny Douglas and Niyi Awofeso

Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison…

Abstract

Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison settings are sparse, but studies from the United Kingdom and the United States indicate relatively high chlamydia prevalence among young incarcerated individuals. This article reports on findings from an enhanced chlamydia surveillance programme in NSW prisons between 2005 and 2007. The authors report a relatively low chlamydia prevalence among the general population of NSW prisoners (compared with figures from the United Kingdom and United States), which by the end of 2007 was 4%. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for the NSW prison population during the review period was about four times that of the general NSW community ‐ 716/100,000 during the review period compared with 175/100,000 in the NSW general community. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for Aboriginal prisoners during the review period was 1262/100,000, compared with 1470/100,000 in the general Australian Aboriginal population. The authors grapple with the dilemma of expanding chlamydia screening and treatment services for the sexual health benefits of prison populations with static prison health budgets on one hand, and limited evidence of cost‐effectiveness of such an expensive intervention on the other.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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