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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Barbara J Stewart–Knox, Audrey Rankin, Brendan P Bunting, Lynn J Frewer, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Arnout R.H. Fischer, Rui Poínhos, Sharron Kuznesof, Mike J Gibney and John C. Mathers

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors assessed at…

Abstract

Purpose

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors assessed at baseline influenced response to personalised nutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

Web-based, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across seven European countries. Volunteers, both male and female, aged over 18 years were randomised to either a non-personalised (control) or a personalised (treatment) dietary advice condition. Linear mixed model analysis with fixed effects was used to compare associations between internal and external health locus of control (HLoC), nutrition self-efficacy (NS-E) and self-report habit index (S-RHI) at baseline (N = 1444), with healthy eating index (HEI) and Mediterranean diet index (MDI) scores between conditions post-intervention (N = 763).

Findings

An increase in MDI scores was observed between baseline and six months in the treatment group which was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001), S-RHI (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p < 0.001). Increase in HEI between baseline and six months in the treatment group was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p = 0.009). Interaction between time and condition indicated increased HEI scores (p < 0.001), which were associated with higher S-RHI scores in the treatment than control group (p = 0.032). Internal HLoC had no effect on MDI or HEI.

Originality/value

Psychological factors associated with behaviour change need consideration when tailoring dietary advice. Those with weaker habit strength will require communication focussed upon establishing dietary habits and support in integrating advised changes into daily routine. Information on habit strength can also be used to inform how progress towards dietary goals is monitored and fed back to the individual. Those with stronger habit strength are more likely to benefit from personalised nutrition.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

J.R. Wooldridge and J.C. Mather

There is at present much industry activity related to solderability testing. Test methods, test parameters, and accelerated ageing conditions are among the items being studied…

Abstract

There is at present much industry activity related to solderability testing. Test methods, test parameters, and accelerated ageing conditions are among the items being studied, but the bulk of the activity relates to component terminations, and not to printed wiring boards (PWBs). At Rockwell International's Collins Defense Communications, test programmes related to PWB ageing and solderability have been ongoing for several years. Data from natural ageing and from a variety of accelerated test methods have been compared. Results from several solderability test methods have also been compared. Recommendations are made for an accelerated ageing method and for solderability testing of PWBs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

J.K. Hagge and J.C. Mather

Machining operations on multilayer circuit boards play the two major roles of establishing the finished geometry of the board and leading to the interconnection of the various…

Abstract

Machining operations on multilayer circuit boards play the two major roles of establishing the finished geometry of the board and leading to the interconnection of the various conductor layers and it is likely that for some considerable time carbide cutting tools will continue to be used in the machining process. Fundamental and detailed considerations of the parameters influencing machining are presented prior to analysing the two predominant areas of use. Mention is made of some advanced machining techniques, involving mechanical, chemical and laser methods.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

J.K. Hagge and G.J. Davis

The paper presents the results of extensive studies on circuit board solderability comparing wetting balance and IPC test methods through performance in vapour phase and wave…

Abstract

The paper presents the results of extensive studies on circuit board solderability comparing wetting balance and IPC test methods through performance in vapour phase and wave soldering operations. The effects on solderability of key parameters are examined and compared with storage times of one year, and accelerated ageing using damp heat, dry heat and steam oxygen. An evaluation is made of tin‐lead alloys from 40/60 to 70/30 in solder coating thicknesses from 0·1 to 1·0 mil.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

J.K. Hagge and J.C. Mather

Drilling is the first process step in creating a plated‐through hole (PTH). The purpose of the PTH is for electrically interconnecting two or more circuit locations and/or…

Abstract

Drilling is the first process step in creating a plated‐through hole (PTH). The purpose of the PTH is for electrically interconnecting two or more circuit locations and/or providing a means for electrical and mechanical connection of components to the MLCB.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2009

A.A. Lake, R.M. Hyland, A.J. Rugg‐Gunn, J.C. Mathers and A.J. Adamson

The purpose of this paper is to focus specifically on the benefits of using mixed methods to investigate dietary change from adolescence to adulthood exemplified using the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus specifically on the benefits of using mixed methods to investigate dietary change from adolescence to adulthood exemplified using the findings from the ASH30 longitudinal study. The ASH30 study is a longitudinal dietary survey which provided quantitative evidence of dietary change and investigated factors influencing dietary change from adolescence to adulthood.

Design/methodology/approach

Two three‐day food diaries were collected both in 1980 (aged 11‐12 years) and 2000 (aged 31‐32 years) from the same 198 respondents in North East England. In 2,000 questionnaires were used to collect perceptions of, and attributions for, dietary change and open‐ended responses were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

The use of mixed methods brings added breadth and depth to the research which cannot be achieved by a single discipline or method. Determining what has influenced change in dietary behaviour from adolescence to adulthood is a complex and multifaceted task. Eating habits are influenced by multiple factors throughout the life course. Change in food intake between adolescence and adulthood related to life‐course events and trajectories. The qualitative findings highlighted relevant contextual information such as themes of moral panics, the concept of “convenience” and “fresh” foods.

Practical implications

Adopting mixed method approaches to exploring dietary change should offer a rich perspective from which to base realistic interventions.

Originality/value

Longitudinal dietary surveys present an opportunity to understand the complex process of dietary change throughout the life course in terms both of how diets have changed but also of why they have changed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

J.C. Mather and G.R. Minogue

The advent of novel advanced packaging technologies such as multilayer thin‐film interconnect, combined with continuous improvements in IC clock speed and circuit performance, has…

Abstract

The advent of novel advanced packaging technologies such as multilayer thin‐film interconnect, combined with continuous improvements in IC clock speed and circuit performance, has placed extreme demands on electronics packaging and package materials. Aluminium nitride (AIN) ceramic offers significant opportunities and advantages for package design, particularly where the effective thermal management and overall reliability of large devices are a high priority. AIN has already been successfully employed at the substrate level for the enhanced thermal relief of power devices. Examples of these applications include heat sinks and device mounts for thyristor modules, power transistors, solid state relays, power SCRs, switching modules, LEDs and various RF package configurations. Both bare and metallised AIN substrates are beginning to find application as a substitute for beryllia (BeO) in mass market and high reliability automotive electronics applications. Successfully implementing AIN in a high level electronics packaging application requires a systems approach in which the intrinsic properties of AIN are considered as ‘first principles’ in shaping the package design process. The unique physicochemical and mechanical properties of AIN require the development of specialised metallisation and co‐firing processes to fabricate the advanced components necessary for hermetic packaging of complex devices and multichip modules. This paper presents a practical and mass manufacturable AIN‐based package tailored to these high level applications. The package design is unique in that it provides for the total separation of the electrical‐signal conduction from the mechanical support/mounting functions of the package. Such a separation of the functions improves both the package durability and reliability relative to currently available electronics packages of conventional designs.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Book part
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Christy Freadreacea Brady

Using a Constrained Choice Theory framework, this paper will identify variation in choosing the constraint-reflective priorities of budget, taste, or health by sociodemographic…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a Constrained Choice Theory framework, this paper will identify variation in choosing the constraint-reflective priorities of budget, taste, or health by sociodemographic group, familial status, and weight category. Identifying which groups experience unique constraints will allow for customized healthy eating programs to address barriers specific to each group.

Methodology/approach

Data are derived from a paper survey of families with children in Lexington, KY and analyzed using logistic regression.

Findings

The results of this study confirm that some sociodemographic groups are more likely to choose priorities that reflect contextual constraints in their lives than others. In particular, having a higher income reduces likelihood of prioritizing budget and increases chances of prioritizing taste. Being married or cohabitating is correlated with choosing health, but having more children reduces the likelihood of prioritizing health. Being obese correlates with increased likelihood of prioritizing budget. Membership in each of these categories reflects constraints on which foods are purchased for the home.

Social implications

Families are encouraged to improve their diets by eating at home, but families face many constraints when choosing healthy foods at the grocery store. Understanding the constraints experienced by various groups when shopping for food will lead to health policy that more fully addresses barriers to healthy eating for groups with disproportionately high incidence of diet-related disease.

Originality/value

This paper extends Constrained Choice Theory by applying it to a new aspect of health, purchasing groceries, and also by examining a wider variety of sociodemographic groups than previous research.

Details

Food Systems and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-092-3

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-808-7

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Amelia A. Lake, Robert M. Hyland, John C. Mathers, Andrew J. Rugg‐Gunn, Charlotte E. Wood and Ashley J. Adamson

The paper aims to explore the food shopping and preparation responsibility in a sample of adults, average age 32.5 years.

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore the food shopping and preparation responsibility in a sample of adults, average age 32.5 years.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 198 adults (81 men and 117 women) who were involved in a longitudinal dietary study self‐completed a questionnaire about their food habits. Chi‐squared analysis explored relationships between variables using SPSS (version 10). Open‐ended responses were analysed in QSR NUD*IST using a content analysis framework.

Findings

The majority of respondents were married or co‐habiting (79 per cent), 6 per cent were lone parents, 9 per cent lived alone and the remainder lived with parents and others. Significantly more women than men were responsible for food shopping and preparation (both p<0.001). Within shared households food responsibility was predominately a female dominated area, with a considerably higher proportion of women responsible for food shopping and preparation compared with men. Reasons given for this included aspects of time and work as well as women being more skilled in this task.

Research limitations/implications

The study was a relatively small and homogenous sample, not necessarily representative of the wider UK population.

Practical implications

Identifies the enduring gender divide in food responsibility. Findings will be useful to health educators, policy planners and researchers.

Originality/value

In light of the recent focus on diet and health, this paper describes the reported shopping and food preparation behaviours in a sample of adults in their 30s at the beginning of a new century.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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