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Book part
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Hannah Andrews, Terrence D. Hill and William C. Cockerham

In this chapter, we draw on health lifestyle, human capital, and health commodity theories to examine the effects of educational attainment on a wide range of individual…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, we draw on health lifestyle, human capital, and health commodity theories to examine the effects of educational attainment on a wide range of individual dietary behaviors and dietary lifestyles.

Methodology/approach

Using data from the 2005-2006 iteration of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 2,135), we employ negative binomial regression and binary logistic regression to model three dietary lifestyle indices and thirteen healthy dietary behaviors.

Findings

We find that having a college degree or higher is associated with seven of the thirteen healthy dietary behaviors, including greater attention to nutrition information (general nutrition, serving size, calories, and total fat) and consumption of vegetables, protein, and dairy products. For the most part, education is unrelated to the inspection of cholesterol and sodium information and consumption of fruits/grains/sweets, and daily caloric intake. We observe that having a college degree is associated with healthier dietary lifestyles, the contemporaneous practice of multiple healthy dietary behaviors (label checking and eating behaviors). Remarkably, household income and the poverty-to-income ratio are unrelated to dietary lifestyles and have virtually no impact on the magnitude of the association between education and dietary lifestyles.

Originality/value

Our findings are consistent with predictions derived from health lifestyle and human capital theories. We find no support for health commodity theory, the idea that people who are advantaged in terms of education live healthier lifestyles because they tend to have the financial resources to purchase the elements of a healthy lifestyle.

Details

Food Systems and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-092-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Amanda M Brouwer and Katie E. Mosack

This paper aims to test whether overall and specific healthy eating behaviors and intentions could be better predicted by expanding the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to…

9279

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test whether overall and specific healthy eating behaviors and intentions could be better predicted by expanding the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to include a healthy eater identity. Major health organizations suggest increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains to address the growing number of overweight and obese individuals, yet researchers have questioned the degree to which existing behavioral intervention programs sufficiently explain healthy eating behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Adult women (N = 79) completed questionnaires related to TPB components and healthy eater identity. Participants then recorded food consumption for four days using food diaries and food frequency questionnaires.

Findings

Using hierarchical multiple regressions, the authors demonstrated that identity as a healthy eater was a significant predictor of healthy eating intentions beyond the TPB components and a significant predictor of fruit and low-fat dairy consumption and overall healthy eating behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the limitation of correlational data from a homogenous population, results support previous research and add to existing literature by demonstrating the unique contribution identity has in predicting specific healthy diet behaviors of fruit and low-fat dairy consumption.

Originality/value

Findings advance our understanding of how young women think about nutrition and underscore which healthy eating behaviors might need to be directly targeted in interventions if such behaviors fall outside of the scope of common conceptions of what it means to be a “healthy eater”.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Naeimeh Heidari, Masoumeh Jabbari, Mina Babashahi, Reza Nabie, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi and Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini

Studies conducted on association between diet and cataract, found conflicting results. This paper aims to investigate the association between healthy eating index (HEI…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies conducted on association between diet and cataract, found conflicting results. This paper aims to investigate the association between healthy eating index (HEI) and serum antioxidant and oxidant indices in patients with different degrees of cataract compared to the healthy subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

Ninety volunteers (aged > 50 years) were divided into the cataract (n = 45) and healthy control (n = 45) groups in this case-control study. Anthropometric variables, HEI score, serum total oxidant capacity (TOC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), blood pressure, physical activity and stress measurements were done for all participants.

Findings

There was a significant difference in stress level between subgroup of first-degree cataract and healthy controls (16.6 ± 2.3 vs 42.5 ± 29.0, p < 0.001) as well as third-degree cataract (16.6 ± 2.3 vs 75.2 ± 22.6, p < 0.001). Serum TAC was significantly higher in healthy people compared to the first-degree (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 1 ± 0.2, p = 0.002) and third-degree cataract patients (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2, p = 0.013). Also, serum TOC was significantly lower in healthy controls compared to the first-degree (8.2 ± 1.1 vs 9.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.006) and third-degree cataract patients (8.2 ± 1.1 vs 9.1 ± 1.2, p = 0.015). There was a significant direct correlation between moderation (r = 0.61, p = 0.019) and total score of HEI (r = 0.57, p = 0.031) with serum TAC only in the first-degree cataract patients. Also there was a significant negative correlation between moderation score of HEI with serum TOC in the first-degree cataract patients (r = −0.60, p = 0.025), and there was a significant negative correlation between moderation (r = −0.36, p = 0.017) and total score (r=−0.35, p = 0.021) of HEI and TOC in the total cataract patients.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the assessment of the relationship between components of HEI and serum antioxidant indicators in different types of cataract compared to healthy individuals. It could be a start point for more detailed and large-scaled studies, even intervention studies, in this field.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Barbara J Stewart–Knox, Audrey Rankin, Brendan P Bunting, Lynn J Frewer, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Arnout R.H. Fischer, Rui Poínhos, Sharron Kuznesof, Mike J Gibney and John C. Mathers

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors assessed at baseline influenced response to personalised nutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

Web-based, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across seven European countries. Volunteers, both male and female, aged over 18 years were randomised to either a non-personalised (control) or a personalised (treatment) dietary advice condition. Linear mixed model analysis with fixed effects was used to compare associations between internal and external health locus of control (HLoC), nutrition self-efficacy (NS-E) and self-report habit index (S-RHI) at baseline (N = 1444), with healthy eating index (HEI) and Mediterranean diet index (MDI) scores between conditions post-intervention (N = 763).

Findings

An increase in MDI scores was observed between baseline and six months in the treatment group which was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001), S-RHI (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p < 0.001). Increase in HEI between baseline and six months in the treatment group was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p = 0.009). Interaction between time and condition indicated increased HEI scores (p < 0.001), which were associated with higher S-RHI scores in the treatment than control group (p = 0.032). Internal HLoC had no effect on MDI or HEI.

Originality/value

Psychological factors associated with behaviour change need consideration when tailoring dietary advice. Those with weaker habit strength will require communication focussed upon establishing dietary habits and support in integrating advised changes into daily routine. Information on habit strength can also be used to inform how progress towards dietary goals is monitored and fed back to the individual. Those with stronger habit strength are more likely to benefit from personalised nutrition.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2018

Ana Cristina Ferrão, Raquel P.F. Guiné, Paula Correia, Manuela Ferreira, Ana Paula Cardoso, João Duarte and João Lima

A healthy diet has been recognized as one of the most important factors associated with maintaining human health and helping in preventing the development of some chronic…

Abstract

Purpose

A healthy diet has been recognized as one of the most important factors associated with maintaining human health and helping in preventing the development of some chronic diseases. Therefore, this paper aims to study the perceptions of a sample of university people regarding a healthy diet.

Design/methodology/approach

It was undertaken a descriptive cross-sectional study on a non-probabilistic sample of 382 participants. The data were collected among a sample of Portuguese university people and measured whether people’s perceptions were compliant with a healthy diet.

Findings

The results revealed that the participants’ perceptions were, in general, compliant with a healthy diet (scores between 0.5 and 1.5, on a scale from −2 to +2). However, significant differences were found between age groups (p = 0.004), with a higher average score for young adults, and also between groups with different levels of education (p = 0.025), with a higher score for university degree. The variable chronic diseases also showed significant differences (p = 0.017), so that people who did not have any chronic diseases obtained a higher score.

Originality/value

This study is considered important because it provides evidences about the relation between nutrition knowledge and the perceptions towards a healthy diet. The study allowed concluding that the participants were aware about some nutritional aspects of their diets and, therefore, their perceptions were compliant with a healthy diet. This finding is very relevant because it could be a support for health policy initiatives directed at promoting healthy eating behaviours.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Greyce Luci Bernardo, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença, Maria Cristina Marino Calvo, Giovanna M.R. Fiates and Heather Hartwell

– The purpose of this paper is to present a first proposal of a healthy dietary diversity index to evaluate meals in self-service restaurants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a first proposal of a healthy dietary diversity index to evaluate meals in self-service restaurants.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study in a Brazilian buffet-style restaurant. The study group was selected by systematic sampling and consisted of 678 individuals aged 16-81 years, who were regular diners at a selected restaurant during lunchtime. Photographs were used to assess food choices and a sociodemographic questionnaire was administered to the subjects. A healthy dietary diversity model was created following WHO recommendations and the Brazilian Food Guide. A consensus workshop was conducted with experts to discuss and classify certain dishes as more or less healthy (high/low energy density). The model attributed negative (−3.0-0.0) and positive (0.0-12.0) scores to different food groups. Higher scores meant greater diversity on the plate, and therefore a greater chance of a healthy meal (=9.0), while a lower score reflected a higher variety of energy-dense foods, such as fried dishes (=6.0).

Findings

Most diner’s plates (65.3 per cent) obtained low diversity score indexes (=6) and were considered inadequate, represented the dishes where intake should be controlled from a nutritional viewpoint (over caloric meal). There was a significant association between healthy diversity scores (=9.0) and low variety of high energy density dishes on the plates.

Originality/value

This method of assessing the healthy dietary diversity of a main meal could be tested as an innovative model for investigating the food choices of individuals who eat away from home.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Maryam Safabakhsh, Sakineh Shab-Bidar and Hossein Imani

Recently, evidences have suggested that healthy eating index (HEI), an index-based dietary pattern, may be a predictor for the risk of cancer. This paper aims to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, evidences have suggested that healthy eating index (HEI), an index-based dietary pattern, may be a predictor for the risk of cancer. This paper aims to examine the association of HEI-2015 and its all components scores with the risk of breast cancer (BC), separately, among Iranian women.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present hospital-based, case-control study, 150 age-matched of cases (newly diagnosed female) and 150 controls were recruited. Data of dietary habits and anthropometric measures were obtained, and eventually, the HEI-2015 score was calculated. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship between the risk of BC across tertiles (Ts) of total HEI-2015 and its all component scores.

Findings

The results presented that in adjusted model, there was no significant difference between total HEI-2015 (p = 0.14) and its all component scores (p > 0.09) of healthy subjects and females with BC. Moreover, multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that HEI-2015 score was not associated with the risk of BC in either crude (p-trend = 0.94) or adjusted (p-trend = 0.73) analyses. In the analyses of HEI-2015 components scores, it was observed that the scores of grains (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30–0.94) and total protein foods (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02–0.58) may have a relation with BC risk in crude model but after adjusting for BC risk factors, the mentioned associations changed to non-significant.

Originality/value

The findings of current study suggested that there was no significant association of total HEI-2015 and its components scores, independently, with BC incidence among Iranian women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Mahmut Bodur, Şahika Nur Bidar and Hülya Yardimci

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of chronotype on diet and sleep quality in healthy female students.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of chronotype on diet and sleep quality in healthy female students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted in 197 healthy female students and were grouped in morning, intermediate and evening types according to the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Assessment included sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF); dietary intake using the 24-h dietary recall; and diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015).

Findings

In this study, no significant difference was found between chronotypes in terms of general nutritional habits, age, smoking status, anthropometric measurements and physical activity levels. However, evening-type individuals had poor sleep quality (p = 0.040) and having issues about sleep latency (p = 0.049) and daytime dysfunction (p = 0.044), and they had had lower intake of whole fruit (p = 0.002), total fruit (p = 0.024) and higher consumption of refined grains (p < 0.001). Although, among chronotypes, there is no difference in the intake of protein, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber, evening-type individuals’ daily energy (p = 0.013), fat (p = 0.021) and carbohydrate intake (p = 0.033) were higher.

Originality/value

In conclusion, further research is required to understand the relationship between chronotype, diet and sleep quality. This study is one of the limited studies that examines sleep quality, daily energy and macronutrient intake and diet quality together for healthy women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Amir Bagheri, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Hadi Abdollahzad and Farzad Mohammadi

Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, an index that determines the quality of a diet, was created to predict the risk of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, an index that determines the quality of a diet, was created to predict the risk of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether this index can predict the risk of prostate cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers among men around the world. The study aims to investigate the association between adherence to the AHEI-2010 and the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

Design/methodology/approach

The case–control study was conducted in Kermanshah, Iran in the year 2016. The study included 50 cases of Iranian men with prostate cancer and 150 healthy controls. Anthropometric indices were measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). The AHEI-2010 included 11 food components that were assessed by using a 147-item food frequency questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the association of the AHEI-2010 (expressed as a dichotomous variable) with prostate cancer.

Findings

As per the analysis, there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) between case and control groups, statistically. After adjustment for potential confounders, the higher AHEI-2010 scores were associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR AHEI > 55 vs ≤ 55 = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.63). Moreover, the Mean of AHEI scores was higher in controls than in the cases (p <0.001).

Originality/value

The authors’ findings suggest that adherence to the dietary patterns with high scores of AHEI-2010 is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, so this index may be used as an effective measure to predict prostate cancer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Seyedeh Parisa Moosavian, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh and Leila Azadbakht

There is limited knowledge about the association of food insecurity and dietary quality among the Iranian households. The purpose of this study is to determine diet…

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited knowledge about the association of food insecurity and dietary quality among the Iranian households. The purpose of this study is to determine diet quality among the Iranian households and to investigate whether dietary quality is associated with food security status in this population.

Design/methodology/approach

The 18-item household food security questionnaire was administered to 200 households from different parts of Isfahan, Iran. Households were selected by two-stage cluster randomized sampling. Households were categorized into four groups based on their score on the questionnaire; food secure (total score 0), mild food insecure (total score 1–2), moderate food insecure (total score 3–7) and severe food insecure (total score 8–18). In the second stage of the study, 25 households were selected from each food security status group to evaluate the micronutrient adequacy and assess the adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010).

Findings

Food-secure households had higher adherence to the AHEI-2010 than food-insecure households (p < 0.001). Food-secure households consistently achieved higher value of the nutrient adequacy ratio for most of the micronutrients than food-insecure households, with the greatest differences seen for zinc (p < 0.001) in households (father, mother and first child), vitamin D (p < 0.001), vitamin A (father: p = 0.05, mother: p = 0.04), calcium (p < 0.001) and iron (father: p = 0.02, mother: p < 0.001) in mother and father.

Originality/value

Low dietary quality was associated with food insecurity. Food-secure households had higher micronutrient adequacy ratio for most of the nutrients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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