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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

M.A. Kwoka and P.D. Mullenix

Visual inspection remains the dominant method of assessing component lead solderability and finished board solder joint quality. In recent years the wetting balance has received…

Abstract

Visual inspection remains the dominant method of assessing component lead solderability and finished board solder joint quality. In recent years the wetting balance has received much attention as an attractive alternative to the inherently subjective visual inspection method of assessing component termination solderability. Whether direct visual inspection or wetting balance methods are used, the method can be shown to be effective only if the results are in agreement with board‐level soldering performance. This paper addresses the issue of the agreement of visual board‐level solder joint quality with both visual ‘dip and look’ solderability assessment and wetting balance measurement of the components prior to board assembly. A description of visual ‘dip and look’ solderability test assessment and of wetting balance methodology for components is presented, and a compendium of wetting balance tests and indices are documented in the Appendix. The experimental strategy employed is outlined, and details of the experimental technique (including the equipment, materials and component sample preparations) are provided. The experimental results present a comparison of both ‘dip and look’ visual solderability assessment and wetting balance measures with regard to actual board‐level soldering performance. The ability of the various assessment methods to predict board level defects is also explored.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

J.A. DeVore

In the last decade through‐hole mounting to printed wiring boards has matured and people now have the tools to diagnose and correct any solderability problems which might arise…

Abstract

In the last decade through‐hole mounting to printed wiring boards has matured and people now have the tools to diagnose and correct any solderability problems which might arise. Such is not the case with surface mount soldering technology. In surface mount the connections are smaller and are often hidden from view. Therefore when a solderability problem does occur it may never be known until the assembly fails. The solution to the situation is to understand the nature of the problems and provide assurance that they will not occur during assembly soldering. This paper is structured in two parts. The first details the types of solderability problems unique to surface mounting. Examples of these problems will be shown and discussed with reference to solder joint life. The second part of the paper discusses the solderability testing of surface mount devices and printed wiring boards intended for surface mounting. This discussion will concentrate on the new quantitative solderability test methods being developed in this company's laboratory for leadless devices and printed wiring boards. As part of this development, new solderability criteria have been defined which reflect the unique problems associated with surface mounting.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

J.G. Davy

This paper discusses some basic ideas about process development and control in Part I and applies them to soldering in Part II. Because it is possible to understand how design…

Abstract

This paper discusses some basic ideas about process development and control in Part I and applies them to soldering in Part II. Because it is possible to understand how design, materials and process affect the product, it is unnecessary and inappropriate to resort to the statistical‐correlation methods that are applied to complex processes. A process qualifies for the label ‘closed loop’ only if the design and materials going into.it are controlled. The types, degree and sophistication of control needed for a process are to be judged by consistency of the product. For soldered assemblies, the product is evaluated by visual inspection, and the adequacy of process development and control depends on the adequacy of inspection. Inspection can be improved if it is regarded as a process. It can also be improved if inspectors understand which features are important and which can be ignored safely, i.e., by understanding their causes and associated risks. Much of the criticism of visual inspection, and perception of need for automated inspection, derive from a failure to distinguish clearly enough between material and process variables, between the two types of inspection (product‐oriented and materials/process‐oriented) and between appearance and risk. Properly controlled visual inspection is well suited for evaluating the soldering process. The most important visual attribute to look for in solder inspection is the contour of the fillet, because this is what reveals the quality of wetting, and wetting is the most important physical attribute of the connection in determining its strength and reliability. Wetting depends on just two basic requirements, heat transfer and solderability, and these are discussed in some detail. Causes of non‐ideal texture and lustre of the solder are given, but these attributes do not affect reliability, nor is measuring solder purity important. Additional factors which do affect reliability relate more to design and materials than to process. Failure to deal with these factors can result in solder defects that are undetectable by any inspection technique. The answer to this problem is therefore not automated inspection to find more kinds of defects than visual inspection can, but control of design and materials, as well as process, to prevent them entirely.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

R.H. Rautioaho, L.P. Karjalainen and M.K. Lahdenperä

The deterioration of surface mounted solder and adhesive joints on different substrate materials under thermal cycling was investigated metallographically. Ceramic chip resistors…

Abstract

The deterioration of surface mounted solder and adhesive joints on different substrate materials under thermal cycling was investigated metallographically. Ceramic chip resistors and leadless chip carriers were soft‐soldered or glued onto alumina, FR‐4, aluminium or steel boards and the various cracking modes were observed. Fatigue cracking in the solder under the component (mode A) took place in the case of resistors on an Al substrate and carriers on all boards except alumina. Cracking on the outward surface near the upper and lower corners (mode B) occurred on all boards, but most notably on alumina. Adhesive joints seemed to offer the highest fatigue strength, but their electrical properties suffered continuously in the course of cycling even though cracking was not observed at all in many cases.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

M. Wolverton and B. Abies

This paper describes the tests performed to evaluate the solder capillary action which occurs within a gap between two solderable surfaces during soldering. The goal was to…

Abstract

This paper describes the tests performed to evaluate the solder capillary action which occurs within a gap between two solderable surfaces during soldering. The goal was to determine the optimal gap distance for maximum capillary flow in the attainment of hermetic solder joints capable of withstanding extreme temperature cycles and various mechanical shocks. One of the test conditions was arranged so that the gap thicknesses would vary while the width of the gaps remained constant. In a second condition, the gap thicknesses remained constant while the gap widths varied. Three plating designs were evaluated. They were nickel plating; nickel overplated with gold; and nickel, copper intermediate, with tin overplate. The capillary action of all three plating combinations deposited onto aluminium specimens, with the gap configurations previously described, was evaluated. The capillary results were measured with X‐ray and microstructural data. End use solder joint designs were determined from the capillary results. These designs are shown and they include the best plating design for the application. In addition, an unexpected result was obtained that is useful for testing the solderability of all finishes—the Configured Capillary Solderability Test.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Made Indra Wijaya, Abd Rahim Mohamad and Muhammad Hafizurrachman

The purpose of this paper is to improve the Siloam Hospitals’ (SHs) patient satisfaction index (PSI) and overcome Indonesia’s geographical barriers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the Siloam Hospitals’ (SHs) patient satisfaction index (PSI) and overcome Indonesia’s geographical barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

The topic was selected for reasons guided by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement virtual breakthrough series collaborative (VBSC). Subject matter experts came from existing global quality development in collaboration with sales and marketing, and talent management agencies/departments. Patient satisfaction (PS) was measured using the SH Customer Feedback Form. Data were analysed using Friedman’s test.

Findings

The in-patient (IP) department PSI repeated measures comparison during VBSC, performed using Friedman’s test, showed a statistically significant increase in the PSI, χ2 = 44.00, p<0.001. Post hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted with a Bonferroni correction applied, which resulted in a significant increase between the baseline and action phases (Z=3.317, p=0.003) between the baseline and continuous improvement phases (Z=6.633, p<0.001), and between the action and continuous improvement phases (Z=3.317, p=0.003), suggesting that IP PSI was continuously increasing during all VBSC phases. Like IP PSI, the out-patient department PSI was also continuously increasing during all VBSC phases.

Research limitations/implications

The VBSC was not implemented using a control group. Factors other than the VBSC may have contributed to increased PS.

Practical implications

The VBSC was conducted using virtual telecommunication. Although conventional breakthrough series might result in better cohesiveness and commitment, Indonesian geographical barriers forced an alternative strategy, which is much more cost-effective.

Originality/value

The VBSC, designed to improve PS, has never been implemented in any Indonesian private hospital group. Other hospital groups might also appreciate knowing about the VBSC to improve their PSI.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2013

Danwill D. Schwender

Purpose – This chapter explores the use of music and celebrity endorsements in political campaigns of the United States. It focuses on two aspects: (1) the…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explores the use of music and celebrity endorsements in political campaigns of the United States. It focuses on two aspects: (1) the legality of a political campaign’s use of music at rallies and in advertisements without authorization from the owner of the musical work and (2) a review of the literature on the potential effect of the use of music in political campaigns on voter behavior.

Design/methodology/approachA brief history of the use of music in political campaigns precedes an examination of the expansion of copyright law protection for music and the legal claims musicians may raise against the unauthorized use of music by political campaigns. The chapter then reviews the potential effect of political campaigns’ use of music and celebrity endorsements on voter behavior.

FindingsA musician’s primary legal protection falls under copyright law, but the courts disagree on whether the unauthorized use of music at political rallies and in political campaign advertisements results in copyright infringement. Social research suggests music and celebrity endorsements affect voter behavior with a likely greater effect on first-time voters.

Originality/value of chapter – This chapter introduces the complicated application of copyright law to the unauthorized use of musical works by political campaigns. Additionally, it notes the limited research on the effect of music and celebrity endorsements on voter behavior even as political campaigns increasingly target niche demographics with specific music selections to motivate voters to vote.

Details

Music and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-036-9

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2014

Barbara Van Winkle, Stuart Allen, Douglas DeVore and Bruce Winston

The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship between followers’ perceptions of the servant leadership of their immediate supervisor and followers’ sense of…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship between followers’ perceptions of the servant leadership of their immediate supervisor and followers’ sense of empowerment in the context of small businesses. A quantitative survey was completed by 116 employees of small businesses, including measures of supervisors’ servant leadership behaviors and followers’ self- perceived empowerment. Followers’ perceptions of being empowered were found to correlate positively with their ratings of the servant leadership behaviors of immediate supervisors. The findings support the researchers’ assertions that followers’ perceptions of being empowered will increase as supervisors’ servant leadership behaviors increase.

The power of servant leadership lies in the leader’s ability to unleash the potential and thus the power in those around them. Greenleaf (1977) ascribed greatness to the leader’s attention to followers, “When it is genuine, the interest in and affection for one’s followers that a leader has is a mark of true greatness” (p. 34). In the foreword to the Anniversary edition of Greenleaf’s Servant Leadership, Covey (2002) related empowerment to servant leadership. He acclaimed the importance of empowerment to the sustainable success of organizations in the 21st century. Organizations structured to support and encourage the empowerment of their employees will thrive as market leaders (Covey, 2002). While other leadership styles have been found to empower followers, it is agreed across current literature, that the focus on developing and empowering the follower as their primary concern is specific to servant leaders (Greenleaf, 1977; Parolini, Patterson, & Winston, 2009; Parris & Peachey, 2012; Stone, Russell, & Patterson, 2004; van Dierendonck, 2011).

The context chosen for the study was small business because of the crucial role it plays regarding job growth in the United States (Howard, 2006) and in “enriching the lives of men and women of the whole world” (Kayemuddin, 2012, p. 27). Servant leadership enables small business leaders to fully discover, develop, and employ follower potential through empowering behaviors.

This study sought to contribute to the empirical research of servant leadership by measuring the relationship between supervisors’ servant leadership behaviors and followers’ perceptions of empowerment within the context of small business.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2013

Johan M.G. van der Dennen

Purpose – This chapter contributes to comparative biopolitics and reviews primatological literature, especially about our nearest relatives, the Great Apes…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter contributes to comparative biopolitics and reviews primatological literature, especially about our nearest relatives, the Great Apes.

Design/methodology/approach – Biopolitics in this chapter means evolutionarily informed political science, with emphasis on power relations. I review the literature on intrasexual and intersexual dominance interactions among individuals and competitive and/or agonistic interactions among groups in the Great Apes (Hominidae, formerly Pongidae): orangutan (Pongo with two species and three subspecies), gorilla (Gorilla with four subspecies), bonobo (Pan paniscus), and common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes with four subspecies). In the final section I present some (speculative) thoughts on Pan prior or the modern human ancestor.

Findings – Not only Man is a political animal.

Originality/value – Impartial, objective, and as complete as possible review of the literature for the students of (comparative) politics, ethology, and psychology.

Details

The world of biology and politics: Organization and research areas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-728-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Lori Anderson Snyder, Peter Y. Chen, Paula L. Grubb, Rashaun K. Roberts, Steven L. Sauter and Naomi G. Swanson

This chapter examines aggression at work perpetrated by individual insiders by bringing together streams of research that have often been examined separately. A comparison of the…

Abstract

This chapter examines aggression at work perpetrated by individual insiders by bringing together streams of research that have often been examined separately. A comparison of the similarities and differences of aggression toward individuals, such as verbal abuse or physical attack, and aggression toward organizations, such as embezzlement or work slowdowns, is shown to provide important insights about the causes and consequences of workplace aggression. We propose a comprehensive model based on the integration of prior theoretical treatments and empirical findings. The model attempts to offer a framework to systematically examine psychological and organizational mechanisms underlying workplace aggression, and to explain the reasons why workplace violence policies and procedures sometimes fail. A set of research propositions is also suggested to assist in achieving this end in future research.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

1 – 10 of 194