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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

VICTOR BULMER‐THOMAS

There has been very little written discussion of how transactions should be valued in an input‐output table. Conventional wisdom, however, prefers the use of ‘basic…

Abstract

There has been very little written discussion of how transactions should be valued in an input‐output table. Conventional wisdom, however, prefers the use of ‘basic’ prices (in which flows are valued net of distributive margins and net indirect taxes) and the first part of this paper explores the reasoning behind this approach.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Assefa Semegn and Eamonn Murphy

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel approach of designing, specifying, and describing the behavior of software systems in a way that helps to predict their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel approach of designing, specifying, and describing the behavior of software systems in a way that helps to predict their reliability from the reliability of the components and their interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Design imperatives and relevant mathematical documentation techniques for improved reliability predictability of software systems are identified.

Findings

The design approach, which is named design for reliability predictability (DRP), integrates design for change, precise behavioral documentation and structure based reliability prediction to achieve improved reliability predictability of software systems. The specification and documentation approach builds upon precise behavioral specification of interfaces using the trace function method (TFM) and introduces a number of structure functions or connection documents. These functions capture both the static and dynamic behavior of component‐based software systems and are used as a basis for a novel document driven structure based reliability predication model.

Originality/value

Decades of research effort have been spent in software design, mathematical/formal specification and description and reliability prediction of software systems. However, there has been little convergence among these three areas. This paper brings a new direction where the three research areas are unified to create a new design paradigm.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Seyed Hamed MoosaviRad, Sami Kara and Suphunnika Ibbotson

The value adding of each industry represents the value difference between the outputs and inputs of that industry. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect…

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1192

Abstract

Purpose

The value adding of each industry represents the value difference between the outputs and inputs of that industry. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of international outsourcing on the value adding of industries.

Design/methodology/approach

Input output analysis and linear programming are used as for the research methodology. Australian Motor Vehicle and Parts Manufacturing (AMVPM) industry as an outsourcer and its main suppliers were selected for ten alternative international outsourcing scenarios in a case study.

Findings

In all international outsourcing scenarios except the baseline scenario, the reduction in the value adding of Australia would be approximately three times more than the value adding reduction of the AMVPM industry. Moreover, the international outsourcing ratio has negative relationships with the value adding of the Australian industries and positive relationship with the international industries. Finally, it was found that the degree of supplier's dependency on the orders of the outsourcer effects the percentage reduction of supplier's value adding.

Research limitations/implications

The aggregated data and the uncertainties in the technical coefficients are the main limitations of this research. The social and environmental costs, other tangible and intangible costs, as well as benefits of international outsourcing need to be further analysed in future research.

Practical implications

This study would help decision makers at the macro level to analyse and control the effect of international outsourcing on the value adding of their economies.

Originality/value

This study expands the current research at the industry level of international outsourcing by quantifying the effect of international outsourcing upon the value adding of all respected industries.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Konstantinos N. Konstantakis, Panayotis G. Michaelides, Theofanis Papageorgiou and Theodoros Daglis

This research paper uses a novel methodological approach to investigate the spillover effects among the key sectors of the US economy.

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper uses a novel methodological approach to investigate the spillover effects among the key sectors of the US economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper links the US sectors via a node theoretic scheme based on a general equilibrium framework, whereas it estimates the general equilibrium equation as a Global Vector Autoregressive process, taking into consideration the potential existence of dominant units.

Findings

Based on our findings, the dominant sector in the US economy, for the period 1992–2015, is the sector of information technology, finance and communications, a fact that gives credence to the view that the US economy is a service-driven economy. In addition, the US economy seems to benefit by the increased labour mobility across knowledge-intensive sectors, thus avoiding the ‘employment trap’ which in turn enabled the US economy to overcome the financial crisis of 2007.

Originality/value

Firstly, the paper models by means of a network approach which is based on a general equilibrium framework, the linkages between the US sectors while treating the sector of information, technology, communications and finance as dominant, as dictated by its degree of centrality in the network structure. Secondly, the paper offers a robustness analysis regarding both the existence and the identification of dominant sectors (nodes) in the US economy. Thirdly, the paper studies a wide period, namely 1992–2015, fully capturing the recent global recession, while acknowledging the impact of the global crisis through the introduction of the relevant exogenous dummy variables; Lastly and most importantly, it is the first study to apply the GVAR approach in a network general equilibrium framework at the sectoral level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 3 March 2005

Tadayuki Hara

The negative impact of unexpected events, such as terrorism and natural disaster, on national and regional economies has been widely recognized, but seldom quantified…

Abstract

The negative impact of unexpected events, such as terrorism and natural disaster, on national and regional economies has been widely recognized, but seldom quantified immediately after the shock. The objective of this paper is to present an alternative quantitative method to forecast immediate short term impacts given an unprecedented negative shock to a regional economy, including tourism related sectors. The result of application to the September 11 attack over New York City shows promising validity of using a deterministic model of an input-output/social accounting matrix, which depicts the annual flow of and interdependency of industrial sectors in the economy. This implies applicability of the method to forecast immediate impacts of negative events, while further required refinements are suggested.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-310-5

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Theodore J. Gordon

Conventional Delphi studies use sequential questionnaires and produce rich information synthesized from the judgments of the experts who participate. However such studies

Abstract

Purpose

Conventional Delphi studies use sequential questionnaires and produce rich information synthesized from the judgments of the experts who participate. However such studies are usually time‐consuming. The purpose of this paper is to describe one of the first applications of a new method of applying the Delphi principles of feedback and anonymity that can greatly reduce the time required for such studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This approach involves continuously updated, on‐line questionnaires and is therefore “roundless.”

Findings

The application described here is a global Millennium Project study of developments for inclusion in a series of energy scenarios. The “roundless” approach was found to produce rich information comparable to the more time consuming conventional method.

Originality/value

While other on‐line questionnaire systems exist, the approach described here is novel and may have wide applications.

Details

Foresight, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-615-83253-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1980

R.V. Horn

The term “social indicator” has become familiar in recent years in reference to the quantitative measurement of social phenomena. International organisations within the…

Abstract

The term “social indicator” has become familiar in recent years in reference to the quantitative measurement of social phenomena. International organisations within the United Nations family and OECD have devoted special programmes to their development, and the term is frequently used by planners, politicians and the press. It has received the accolade of scientific respectability by having a special journal to its name, research programmes of the US National Science Foundation and the United Nations University, annual volumes under its title published by statistical offices of many countries and bibliographies devoted to the literature on the subject.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 7 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Sanja Samirana Pattnayak and Shandre M. Thangavelu

This paper aims to examine production linkage and technology spillovers due to the presence of foreign firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

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787

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine production linkage and technology spillovers due to the presence of foreign firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the semi‐parametric estimation method suggested by Olley and Pakes to control for unobserved firm heterogeneity that accounts for the endogeneity of input selection with respect to productivity.

Findings

The results suggest that R&D activities of foreign firms lead to positive technology spillover to local firms. However, we also found negative linkage from the activities of foreign firms. The negative linkage could be explained by the large reverse engineering activities that occur on existing drugs in the Indian pharmaceutical industry, where the enclave activities of foreign firms might be a preemptive strategy to reduce the flow of technologies to downstream local firms and to protect their firm‐specific (product) technology.

Originality/value

The results provide support for strong institutional arrangements such as giving protection for Intellectual Property Rights, which might be important for attracting and creating linkages with activities of foreign firms in the host country.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Graham J. Treloar, Peter E.D. Love and Olusegun O. Faniran

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a…

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1657

Abstract

Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to produce a product, and is significant because it occurs immediately and can be equal over the life cycle of a building to the transient requirements for operational energy. Methods for embodied energy analysis include process analysis, input‐output analysis and hybrid analysis. Proposes to improve the reliability of estimating embodied energy based on input‐output models by using an algorithm to extract systematically the most important energy paths for the “other construction” sector from an Australian input‐output model. Demonstrates the application of these energy paths to the embodied energy analysis of an individual commercial building, highlighting improvements in reliability due to the modification of energy paths with process analysis data. Compares materials and elements for the building, and estimates likely ranges of error.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 14 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

Keywords

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