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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Alessandro Rebucci, Jonathan S. Hartley and Daniel Jiménez

This chapter conducts an event study of 30 quantitative easing (QE) announcements made by 21 central banks on daily government bond yields and bilateral US dollar exchange…

Abstract

This chapter conducts an event study of 30 quantitative easing (QE) announcements made by 21 central banks on daily government bond yields and bilateral US dollar exchange rates in March and April 2020, in the midst of the global financial turmoil triggered by the COVID-19 outbreak. The chapter also investigates the transmission of innovations to long-term interest rates in a standard GVAR model estimated with quarterly pre-COVID-19 data. The authors find that QE has not lost effectiveness in advanced economies and that its international transmission is consistent with the working of long-run uncovered interest rate parity and a large dollar shortage shock during the COVID-19 period. In emerging markets, the QE impact on bond yields is much stronger and its transmission to exchange rates is qualitatively different than in advanced economies. The GVAR evidence that the authors report illustrates the Fed’s pivotal role in the global transmission of long-term interest rate shocks, but also the ample scope for country-specific interventions to affect local financial market conditions, even after controlling for common factors and spillovers from other countries. The GVAR evidence also shows that QE interventions can have sizable real effects on output driven by a very persistent impact on long-term interest rates.

Details

Essays in Honor of M. Hashem Pesaran: Prediction and Macro Modeling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-062-7

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2017

Ulrich Gunter

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ex ante projected future trajectories of real tourism exports and relative tourism export prices of the EU-15, conditional on…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ex ante projected future trajectories of real tourism exports and relative tourism export prices of the EU-15, conditional on expert real gross domestic product growth forecasts for the global economy provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for the years 2013-2017.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the global vector autoregression (GVAR) framework is applied to a comprehensive panel data set ranging from 1994Q1 to 2013Q3 for a cross-section of 45 countries. This approach allows for interdependencies between countries that are assumed to be equally affected by common global developments.

Findings

In line with economic theory, growing global tourist income combined with decreasing relative destination price ensures, in general, increasing tourism demand for the politically and macroeconomically distressed EU-15. However, the conditional forecast increases in tourism demand are under-proportional for some EU-15 member countries.

Practical implications

Rather than simply relying on increases in tourist income, the low price competitiveness of the EU-15 member countries should also be addressed by tourism planners and developers in order to counter the rising competition for global market shares and ensure future tourism export earnings.

Originality/value

One major contribution of this research is that it applies the novel GVAR framework to a research question in tourism demand analysis and forecasting. Furthermore, the analysis of the ex ante conditionally projected future trajectories of real tourism exports and relative tourism export prices of the EU-15 is a novel aspect in the tourism literature since conditional forecasting has rarely been performed in this discipline to date, in particular, in combination with ex ante forecasting.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Alexander Chudik, M. Hashem Pesaran and Kamiar Mohaddes

This chapter contributes to the growing global VAR (GVAR) literature by showing how global and national shocks can be identified within a GVAR framework. The usefulness of…

Abstract

This chapter contributes to the growing global VAR (GVAR) literature by showing how global and national shocks can be identified within a GVAR framework. The usefulness of the proposed approach is illustrated in an application to the analysis of the interactions between public debt and real output growth in a multicountry setting, and the results are compared to those obtained from standard single country VAR analysis. We find that on average (across countries) global shocks explain about one-third of the long-horizon forecast error variance of output growth, and about one-fifth of the long-run variance of the rate of change of debt-to-GDP. Evidence on the degree of cross-sectional dependence in these variables and their innovations are exploited to identify the global shocks, and priors are used to identify the national shocks within a Bayesian framework. It is found that posterior median debt elasticity with respect to output is much larger when the rise in output is due to a fiscal policy shock, as compared to when the rise in output is due to a positive technology shock. The cross-country average of the median debt elasticity is 1.45 when the rise in output is due to a fiscal expansion as compared to 0.76 when the rise in output follows from a favorable output shock.

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Idris A. Adediran, Abdulfatai Salawudeen and Syed Nasir Ashraf Sabzwari

This paper aims to make the first attempt to study the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic-induced shocks to the global Islamic stock markets in the midst of the overall…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to make the first attempt to study the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic-induced shocks to the global Islamic stock markets in the midst of the overall macroeconomic environment and cross-country trade linkages. This is made possible by constructing a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model and with it the authors arrive at noteworthy conclusions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper estimates both fixed and time-varying weights GVAR models for 15 Islamic stock markets with 5,000 bootstrap replications and reports impulse response functions. It simulates four shocks associated with the pandemic: first, a standard error negative shock to oil price; second, a standard error negative shock to the global Islamic stock markets; third, a standard error positive shock to equity-based uncertainty index; and fourth, a standard error negative shock to economic activity (inflation).

Findings

The paper shows that the pandemic engenders immediate negative impacts on the Islamic stock markets with the biggest impacts borne by the USA and China and the least by markets in the Middle East. The study documents the magnitudes of the responses to the shocks and shows that the impacts of the pandemic will take about 20 months to wither completely.

Originality/value

The findings throw up diversification benefits for investors toward the UAE, Oman, Bahrain and other Middle East markets especially during crisis. It further reveals the need for counter-cyclical measures in all countries to curtail the negative impacts of the pandemic which could linger for up to 20 months.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Konstantinos N. Konstantakis, Panayotis G. Michaelides, Theofanis Papageorgiou and Theodoros Daglis

This research paper uses a novel methodological approach to investigate the spillover effects among the key sectors of the US economy.

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper uses a novel methodological approach to investigate the spillover effects among the key sectors of the US economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper links the US sectors via a node theoretic scheme based on a general equilibrium framework, whereas it estimates the general equilibrium equation as a Global Vector Autoregressive process, taking into consideration the potential existence of dominant units.

Findings

Based on our findings, the dominant sector in the US economy, for the period 1992–2015, is the sector of information technology, finance and communications, a fact that gives credence to the view that the US economy is a service-driven economy. In addition, the US economy seems to benefit by the increased labour mobility across knowledge-intensive sectors, thus avoiding the ‘employment trap’ which in turn enabled the US economy to overcome the financial crisis of 2007.

Originality/value

Firstly, the paper models by means of a network approach which is based on a general equilibrium framework, the linkages between the US sectors while treating the sector of information, technology, communications and finance as dominant, as dictated by its degree of centrality in the network structure. Secondly, the paper offers a robustness analysis regarding both the existence and the identification of dominant sectors (nodes) in the US economy. Thirdly, the paper studies a wide period, namely 1992–2015, fully capturing the recent global recession, while acknowledging the impact of the global crisis through the introduction of the relevant exogenous dummy variables; Lastly and most importantly, it is the first study to apply the GVAR approach in a network general equilibrium framework at the sectoral level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2013

Fabio Canova and Matteo Ciccarelli

This article provides an overview of the panel vector autoregressive models (VAR) used in macroeconomics and finance to study the dynamic relationships between…

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the panel vector autoregressive models (VAR) used in macroeconomics and finance to study the dynamic relationships between heterogeneous assets, households, firms, sectors, and countries. We discuss what their distinctive features are, what they are used for, and how they can be derived from economic theory. We also describe how they are estimated and how shock identification is performed. We compare panel VAR models to other approaches used in the literature to estimate dynamic models involving heterogeneous units. Finally, we show how structural time variation can be dealt with.

Details

VAR Models in Macroeconomics – New Developments and Applications: Essays in Honor of Christopher A. Sims
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-752-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Povilas Lastauskas and Julius Stakėnas

What would have been the hypothetical effect of monetary policy shocks had a country never joined the euro area, in cases where we know that the country in question…

Abstract

What would have been the hypothetical effect of monetary policy shocks had a country never joined the euro area, in cases where we know that the country in question actually did join the euro area? It is one thing to investigate the impact of joining a monetary union, but quite another to examine two things at once: joining the union and experiencing actual monetary policy shocks. The authors propose a methodology that combines synthetic control ideas with the impulse response functions to uncover dynamic response paths for treated and untreated units, controlling for common unobserved factors. Focusing on the largest euro area countries, Germany, France, and Italy, the authors find that an unexpected rise in interest rates depresses inflation and significantly appreciates exchange rate, whereas gross domestic product (GDP) fluctuations are less successfully controlled when a country belongs to the monetary union than would have been the case under the independent monetary policy. Importantly, Italy turns out to be the overall beneficiary, since all three channels – price, GDP, and exchange rate – deliver the desired results. The authors also find that stabilizing an economy within a union requires somewhat smaller policy changes than attempting to stabilize it individually, and therefore provides more policy space.

Details

Essays in Honor of M. Hashem Pesaran: Prediction and Macro Modeling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-062-7

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Duy-Tung Bui

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of fiscal sustainability for a panel of developing Asian economies.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of fiscal sustainability for a panel of developing Asian economies.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, cross-section dependence and heterogeneity are controlled while estimating the fiscal reaction function, which shows how governments react to the accumulation of public debt. The study employs the common correlated effects mean group estimator in Pesaran (2006) for a panel of 22 developing Asian economies for the period 1999‒2017.

Findings

It is found that the fiscal sustainability issue in the region is not so benign as in previous studies. Overall, fiscal policy is unsustainable, even for the nonlinear fiscal rule. Country-specific long-run coefficients are also examined in the study.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that many developing economies in the region could not satisfy the intertemporal budget constraint, which raises concerns about debt sustainability in the area, especially for the post-crisis period.

Originality/value

This study investigates whether governments can maintain the sustainability of public finances in the long-run, if the ratios of public debt over GDP and primary deficit over GDP continue their recent problematic trends. Another novelty is controlling for heterogeneous effects among the countries in the region to give a more precise picture of debt sustainability. The empirical evidence also supports that insolvency risk can occur at low levels of public debt.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Tools and Techniques for Financial Stability Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-846-4

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Asli Leblebicioglu and Victor J. Valcarcel

In seminal work, Den Haan et al. (2007, 2010, 2011) show business loans respond in the opposite direction of what may be intended by monetary policy action in the United…

Abstract

In seminal work, Den Haan et al. (2007, 2010, 2011) show business loans respond in the opposite direction of what may be intended by monetary policy action in the United States and Canada. Based on various approaches, identification schemes, and samples, we document evidence this loan puzzle is not exclusive to developed economies but is also pervasive in emerging markets. We find business loans generally decline following expansionary monetary policy shocks. A preponderance of statistical and structural evidence indicates important transmissions of this puzzle from the United States to emerging markets.

Details

Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

Keywords

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