Safety‐related fieldbus is now being employed in many varied applications. Developments in fieldbus technology and programmable systems, coupled with developments in…
Safety‐related fieldbus is now being employed in many varied applications. Developments in fieldbus technology and programmable systems, coupled with developments in International and European Standards have created the opportunity for widespread use. Performance, equipment availability, flexibility, diagnostics and reduced cost of ownership are the principal reasons for rapid growth in safety‐related networking. The use of programmable safety systems has fundamentally have changed the way in which safety is now being engineered in the manufacturing plant. New devices provide direct connectivity to safety‐related networks, increasing the scope and changing the architecture of safety systems far beyond conventional expectations. Technological developments, application and benefits of safety‐related networking in industrial automation systems are shown. Criteria for safety network selection are highlighted.
Health and safety is no longer a field in which management need only abide by the law to avoid prosecution. The new legislation dictates that companies must instigate preventive measures where there is possible risk. Here, in this comprehensive survey, we examine the implications of the new Act and the products and services aimed at keeping employers out of court.
The purpose of this paper is a description of DITCI, its drop loads and sensors, the impact tools, the robot dynamic impact safety artifacts, data analysis, and modeling…
The purpose of this paper is a description of DITCI, its drop loads and sensors, the impact tools, the robot dynamic impact safety artifacts, data analysis, and modeling of test results. The dynamic impact testing and calibration instrument (DITCI) is a simple instrument with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and calibration of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human.
In this paper, we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The instrument can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations.
A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts with embedded markers, used to display the severity of impact injury tissue deformation.
DITCI and the use of biosimulant human tissue artifacts will permit a better understanding of the severity of injury, which will be caused in the case of a robot impact with a human, without the use of expensive cadaver parts. The limitations are set by the ability to build artifacts with material properties similar to those of various parts of the human body.
This technology will be particularly useful for small manufacturing companies that cannot afford the use of expensive instrumentation and technical consultants.
Impact tests were performed at maximum impact force and average pressure levels that are below, at and above the levels recommended by a proposed International Organization for Standardization standard. These test results will be used to verify whether the adopted safety standards will protect interactive robots human operators for various robot tools and control modes.
Various research groups have used human subjects to collect data on pain induced by industrial robots. Unfortunately, human safety testing is not an option for human–robot collaboration in industrial applications every time there is a change of a tool or control program, so the use of biosimulant artifacts is expected to be a good alternative.
FROM January 1st next year, Britain's workplaces will be required by law to make sure all their safety signs and colours conform to a European standard. The requirement…
FROM January 1st next year, Britain's workplaces will be required by law to make sure all their safety signs and colours conform to a European standard. The requirement has come in the form of an EEC Directive (first issued in 1977) which will cover signs and colours throughout the Common Market.
The purpose of this paper is to present a hierarchy decision model for assessing the priority of safety management elements in manufacturing enterprises with reference to…
The purpose of this paper is to present a hierarchy decision model for assessing the priority of safety management elements in manufacturing enterprises with reference to three major industries (i.e. textile and clothing, electronics, and printing and publishing) in Hong Kong. The identification of core decision criteria and safety management elements were addressed with respect to the effective implementation of safety management systems (SMS) in manufacturing enterprises.
Empirical data were acquired via a conduct of personal interviews with evaluators (i.e. safety personnel, experts and professionals) in industry. Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology, a list of seven decision criteria and 13 safety management elements were identified and their relative importance were evaluated.
It was found that the top three criteria for SMS implementation were “client requirement” “insurance company requirement” and “employee requirement”. Both “safety organisation” and “safety policy” were the most important safe management elements. Besides, evaluators put greater concerns on “safe person” elements than “safe place” elements. Incorporating the AHP findings, a self‐regulatory approach to implementing safety management elements was proposed.
The hierarchy decision model would enable manufacturing enterprises to focus their resources on the critical elements at a time, to improve the effectiveness of SMS implementation. Future study could validate the applicability of the model and the self‐regulatory approach in large enterprises and small to medium‐sized enterprises, separately and collectively.
Using the AHP methodology, safety personnel could evaluate the relative importance of decision criteria and safety management elements with respect to the corporate goals, resources and constraints of their respective organisations.
The hierarchy decision model presented would enable manufacturing enterprises to determine the relative importance of decision criteria and safety management elements and to establish viable strategies for SMS implementation.
The problem of industrial accidents, with their associated economic and social costs, has long been a source of concern to unions, employers and public agencies in many…
The problem of industrial accidents, with their associated economic and social costs, has long been a source of concern to unions, employers and public agencies in many countries. Although the statistics on industrial accidents in different countries are not strictly comparable, because of differences in their methods of collation and presentation, some evidence on Britain's position relative to that of a number of other advanced industrial countries is presented below in Table I.
This case study has been written to illustrate the basic difference between goods and services, the difficulties of customer education in a developing county and the…
This case study has been written to illustrate the basic difference between goods and services, the difficulties of customer education in a developing county and the transition from goods to goods-cum-services for a company.
This is an ideal case to be taught in the second class of service marketing at the BBA level and will highlight the differences between goods and services in the same company.
Haseen Habib is a company selling a combination of products and services in Pakistan. It is involved in the supply of fire protection equipment together with the provision of training and other facilities to enable organizations to take a proactive approach to disasters caused by fire and the appropriate response in case of a fire related disaster. This dimension of business is still in the infancy stage in Pakistan, and few people actually realize the need for fire protection services. Safety, risk management and risk prevention are often matters which take a backseat in the corporate, industrial, residential and commercial spheres. The emphasis is on dealing with the aftermath of events rather than to prepare them in advance. The company has a very clear vision and mindset which aims at taking a proactive approach toward managing and preventing risk. They are the pioneers of the safety industry in Pakistan and hold a strong work ethic. The company imports its equipment from the USA, China and Europe. Their target market mainly includes high risk sectors including oil and gas, chemicals, textiles, paint, nuclear and defense. The product portfolio included firefighting equipment like fire extinguishers, safety items which included head-to-toe safety attire for industrial workers and fire alarm systems including smoke detectors. The company also provides different levels and kinds of training and has experienced staff trained abroad in state-of-the-art techniques. However, in Pakistan, investment in risk management is often considered unnecessary, and in such a situation, imparting knowledge is a considerable challenge. The case can be used to study a number of topics. It can be used in a services marketing class to highlight the ways in which services marketing differs from conventional marketing of goods. It can also be used in disaster management courses or to reflect the status and position of developing countries, such as Pakistan, in dealing with unexpected disasters and catastrophes.
Expected learning outcomes
Following are the expected learning outcomes: to appreciate the difference between goods and services; to understand the issues in moving from a goods-oriented to a service-oriented company; to understand the challenges facing Haseen Habib in the context of customer education, keeping in mind it is functioning in an emerging marketing with a particular socio-cultural context; and to propose a way forward for Haseen Habib.
CSS 8: Marketing.
Whilst there are potential benefits to be gained from the consultative approach to the management of health and safety at work required by recent legislation, the actual…
Whilst there are potential benefits to be gained from the consultative approach to the management of health and safety at work required by recent legislation, the actual implementation of such consultation is not without its problems. In particular the process of developing effective consultation may actually lead to conflict between participants. The process of implementation calls for careful management if the advantages of consultation are to be achieved.
This article explores the growing rise of behaviour‐based safety programmes in the workplace as a means of preventing on‐the‐job injuries. In it, the authors delve into…
This article explores the growing rise of behaviour‐based safety programmes in the workplace as a means of preventing on‐the‐job injuries. In it, the authors delve into the history of both incentive‐based and behaviour based safety programmes, exploring the administrative, political, and practical issues involved with each. The authors then present an analysis of a survey conducted of over a hundred practicing safety executives in the United States. While no significant differences were found between survey respondents based on the size or nature of their organisation, the authors did find that tenure on the job was positively correlated with increased receptiveness to the efficacy of behaviour‐based programmes. In the end, it was concluded that success with both behaviour‐based and incentive‐based safety efforts are dependent on top management’s support of such efforts, both through personal involvement and example setting and through provision of the necessary organisational resources to promote workplace safety.
The manufacturing industry in Nigeria often perceives government safety standards as an attempt to increase production cost. This is due to lack of acceptable template for…
The manufacturing industry in Nigeria often perceives government safety standards as an attempt to increase production cost. This is due to lack of acceptable template for setting an attainable standards and safety programme to the manufacturing industry. It is the goal of this work to develop such a template for an effective and sustainable manufacturing safety programme.
A total of 30 manufacturing firms were examined and five experienced manufacturing, and three safety engineers interviewed for information on types of SP activities. Review and synthesis of literature was carried out.
Four types of accidents are identified as fatal, serious, minor and trivial wounds. Accidents causing factors are classified into human factor, deficient maintenance of facilities and environmental factors. The prevention activities were categorized into training, guarding, awareness, incentive, accident investigation and personal protective equipment (PPE).
This study provides baseline information for academics, industry and safety practioners to setting an attainable and effective manufacturing safety programme.
The paper suggests a mathematical approach for developing a manufacturing safety programme.